Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade. Except as specifically required by this section, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.
- Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.
- Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section where they fully comply with other applicable provisions of this code.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a group other than H having direct access to a covered mall building but having required means of egress independent of the mall.
COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building.
FOOD COURT. A Public seating area located in the mall that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces.
GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross leasable area.
Each covered mall building owner shall provide the department and the Fire Department with a lease plan showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan without prior approval of the commissioner.
In determining required means of egress of the mall, the total occupant load in the mall shall include the occupant load attributed to the mall as determined by Equation 4-1, plus the occupant load of the food court if any, plus the occupant load discharged into the mall from individual tenant spaces.
To determine the occupant load attributed to the mall, the number of square feet of floor area of the mall, excluding any food court, shall be divided by the occupant load factor (OLF) value determined by Equation 4-1.
OLF = (0.00007) (GLA) + 25 (Equation 4-1)
|OLF||=||The occupant load factor (square feet per person).|
|GLA||=||The gross leasable area (square feet)|
The occupant load factor (OLF) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.
The required number of means of egress shall be determined in accordance with this section.
Means of egress shall be arranged in accordance with this section.
Required means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means of egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other means of egress has been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.
Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be so located in the covered mall building such that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building.
Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. However, in dead ends not exceeding a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead end portion of the mall, one direction of travel shall be permitted. The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm).
Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways provided that the exit passageway is separated from such rooms by fire barriers providing the same fire-resistance rating as required for the exit passageway. Door swings from these rooms shall not project into the minimum width of such exit passageways.
The minimum width of the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear width to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means of egress travel.
Covered mall buildings, including anchor buildings, shall be only of Type I, II, and IV construction. Their areas shall not be limited provided that the covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not exceed three stories in height. The height of covered mall buildings, including anchor buildings, of Type IIB construction shall be limited to one story. The allowable height and area of anchor buildings greater than three stores in height shall comply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The construction type of open parking garages and enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively.
An attached parking garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered mall building by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours. Openings in such barrier shall be 11/2 hour fire-rated self-closing or shall be automatic closing upon the activation of a smoke detector or fire alarm.
Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed parking garage is separated from the covered mall building or anchor building by a distance greater than 10 feet (3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that attach the open parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.
An anchor building shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire walls complying with Section 705.
Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade that have an occupancy classification of the same uses permitted as tenants of the covered mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire resistive fire barriers complying with Section 706. Openings between such buildings and the mall need not be protected.
The covered mall building and buildings connected shall be provided throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, that shall comply with the following:
- The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternate protection.
- Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.
Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) shall meet the following requirements:
1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within the mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:
1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975.
1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84.
2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved fire suppression and detection devices.
3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm).
4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m2).
Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:
1. They shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are more than 10 persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.
3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) shall be provided with standby power systems that are capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the Fire Department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
Plastic signs shall be located a minimum distance of 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.
Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.
Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.14 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 2603.3.
The minimum density of foam plastics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).
The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than 1/2-inch (12.7 mm).
The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings having occupied floors located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
Exceptions: The provisions of this section shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:
- Buildings occupied entirely by Group R-3 classification.
- Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.
- Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.
- Low-hazard special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.2.
- Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415.
Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. A secondary water supply shall be provided where required by Section 903.3.5.2 and in any building having occupied floors more than 300 feet (91 440 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
Elevator lobbies shall be provided at the following locations:
- Elevators opening onto a fire-resistance-rated corridor. In all occupancy groups, elevator lobbies shall be provided at any location where an elevator opens onto a fire-resistance rated corridor.
- Elevators serving B occupancies. Notwithstanding item 1, Elevators that serve four or more stories that contain space classified in occupancy Group B, inclusive of any lobby or entrance level, shall provide elevator lobbies at every level served by such elevator.
Exceptions: Elevator lobbies are not required under the following conditions:
- Street-floor lobbies. Street-floor lobbies provided that the entire street floor is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- Elevators without shafts. Elevators that are not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section 707.2.
- Zero-clearance doors. Elevator openings provided with zero-clearance doors in addition to hoistway doors and elevator car doors. Such zero-clearance doors shall be tested in accordance with UL 1784 without an artificial bottom seal. When serving as an accessible route, such additional doors shall operate automatically and in compliance with Chapter 11.
- Small floor areas. On floors with less than 2,500 square feet (232 m2), the commissioner may accept an alternative design or construction method that accomplishes the purposes of this section, or if the commissioner determines that compliance with this section is impracticable in whole or in part, the commissioner may authorize an exemption from the requirements of this section.
- Pressurized elevator shafts. When the elevator is pressurized in accordance with the requirements of the commissioner.
- Group R-2 occupancy.
Elevators lobbies shall be constructed in accordance with the following:
2. The lobbies shall separate the elevator from all other spaces on the story.
3. The lobbies shall have at least one means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and other provisions of this code.
In buildings of any occupancy group other than Group R-2, the following are classified as standby power loads:
Group R-2 occupancies in buildings greater than 125 feet (38 100 mm) in height shall be required to provide a standby power system to support the following loads:
- Power and lighting for fire command center required by Section 403.8;
- Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures;
- At least one elevator serving all floors, or one elevator per bank where different banks serve different portions of the building; and
- Stair pressurization systems when provided.
In buildings of any occupancy group other than Group R-2, the following are classified as emergency power loads:
2. Elevator car lighting;
3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems;
4. Automatic fire detection systems;
5. Fire alarm systems; and
6. Electrically powered fire pumps.
Group R-2 occupancies in buildings greater than 125 feet (38 100 mm) in height shall be required to provide an emergency power system to support the following loads:
Doors opening into interior stair enclosures shall not be locked from either side. However, a door locked from the stair side may be permitted provided that such door is equipped with an automatic fail safe system for opening in the event of the activation of any automatic fire detection system, or when any elevator recall is activated, or when any signal is received from the fire command center. Such door shall be deemed as openable from the stair side. Stair reentry signs shall be posted throughout the stairway indicating that reentry is provided only during fire emergencies. Such signs shall be in accordance with Section 1026.4.2.
Every required stairway serving occupied floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1019.1.8.
The following word and term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.
ATRIUM. An opening connecting three or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or any other vertical openings that are not required to be enclosed by other provisions of this code, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505.
The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses, and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the New York City Fire Code shall be used in the atrium space.
An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.
1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by a 2-hour fire barrier wall or horizontal assembly or both.
Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 2-hour fire barrier wall.
- A glass or glass-block wall forming a smoke partition where automatic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and so designed that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system. The glass shall be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
- The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not be required to be separated from the atrium where such spaces are included in computing the atrium volume for the design of the smoke control system.
Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be connected to a standby system in accordance with Section 909.11.
The provisions of this section apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the lowest level of exit discharge.
- One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.
- Parking garages with automatic fire suppression systems in compliance with Section 405.3.
- Fixed guideway transit systems.
- Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.
- Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.
A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18288 mm) below the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.
The separation between the two compartments shall be of minimum 2-hour fire barrier wall construction that shall extend from floor slab to floor deck above. Openings between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit penetrations firestopped in accordance with Section 712. Doorways shall be protected by door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.3 and shall be provided with gasketing and a drop sill to minimize smoke leakage. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.
Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a 2-hour fire barrier wall. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill, and be automatic-closing by smoke detection installed in accordance with Section 907.10.
Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Section 907.2.18.
A public address system shall be provided where required by Section 907.2.19.1.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
CARPORT. A structure or portion of a structure, accessory to a Group R-2 or R-3 occupancy, open on at least two sides and unenclosed for at least 50 percent of perimeter, used for the parking or storage of passenger motor vehicles. Such facility shall not exceed 650 square feet (60.45 m2) in area and one story in height
Private garage and carport floors shall be of concrete or equivalent noncombustible material that will not absorb flammable liquids. The area of floor used for parking of vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain. The sills of all door openings connecting a dwelling unit to a private garage shall be raised at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the floor level of the garage.
Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.
Separations shall comply with the following:
1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 1-hour fire-rated construction. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than 1-hour fire-rated construction. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
2. No air used for heating, cooling, or ventilation shall be circulated through private garages to dwelling areas.
All parking garages, open or enclosed, shall comply with the general provisions of this section.
The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking required by Section 1106.5 shall conform to ICC A117.1.
Parking areas shall be provided with exterior or interior walls or vehicle barriers, except at pedestrian or vehicular accesses, designed in accordance with Section 1607.7. Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet (610 mm) high shall be placed at the ends of drive lanes and at the end of parking spaces where the difference in adjacent floor elevation is greater than 1 foot (305 mm).
Ramps shall have a gradient not exceeding one in seven, with non-slip surfaces. A level landing having a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) shall be provided at the discharge point of all ramps at the street level, within the property line. Ramps used for the movement of motor vehicles need not be enclosed when serving tiers above grade. Vehicle ramps may serve as part of a means of egress provided that such ramp complies with the requirements of Sections 1018.1.1 and 1018.1.2.
Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
Openings from a parking garage to any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation. Such vestibule and doorway shall be minimum 1-hour rated construction.
Exception: A single door, in compliance with Table 715.3, shall be permitted, provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
Except where specific provisions are made in the following subsections, other requirements of this code shall apply.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.
OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.3.3.1 that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.3.4.
For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have openings equal to 50 percent of the perimeter walls. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be at least 20 percent open.
When the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.3.5.
Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage. In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier. The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the commissioner.
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION||AREA PER TIER
|HEIGHT (in tiers)|
|Ramp access||Mechanical access|
|Automatic sprinkler system|
|IB||Unlimited||12 tiers||12 tiers||18 tiers|
|IIA||50,000||10 tiers||10 tiers||15 tiers|
|IIB||50,000||8 tiers||8 tiers||12 tiers|
|IV||50,000||4 tiers||4 tiers||4 tiers|
Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings.
Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 14 feet (4267 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials. However, panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same property and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
Motor fuel storage tanks shall be installed below ground, except as authorized by the rules of the Fire Department. The installation and venting of storage tanks shall be in accordance with the rules of the Fire Department and the requirements of the New York City Fire Code. Storage tanks installed below ground shall comply with the following:
1. The top of the storage tanks shall be at least 24 inches (below finished grade and at least 24 inches (610 mm) below the level of any cellar or basement floor within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the tanks.
2. Storage tanks shall be located so that the forces from any building foundation and support loads are not transmitted to the tanks. The distance from any part of a storage tank to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or cellar, or from any property line that may be built upon, shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm).
3. Storage tanks shall be covered with a structurally supported reinforced concrete slab at least 8 inches (203 mm) thick, extending at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the horizontal outlines of the storage tanks, and placed over a cover of suitable clean backfill material. Such slab shall be designed and reinforced in accordance with ACI 318. All concrete shall have a minimum compressive strength of 4,000 pounds per square inch (27 580 kPa) at 28 days.
Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.
The flammable gas-detection system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.
Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:
2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.
3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation and exhaust system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.
Any premise intended to be occupied for the storage or sale of motor vehicles on an open parking lot shall require an application to be filed with the department in order to obtain a Certificate of Occupancy. Such Certificate of Occupancy shall indicate the maximum number of vehicles to be accommodated and the type of vehicle, whether private passenger or commercial, to be stored. An application for or including an open parking lot shall be accompanied by a plan exhibiting the following:
2. Any structure(s) existing or to be erected on the plot; and
5. Retaining walls to be built; and
6. Location and dimensions of curb cuts, driveways, and enclosures; and
7. Drainage diagram; and
8. Specification of surfacing material; and
9. Parking stall layout with dimensions; and
10. Analysis exhibiting compliance with the New York City Zoning Resolution; and
11. Other information as may be requested by the commissioner.
A copy of the plan or diagram approved by the department shall be kept on the premises. Certified, reduced size, legible copies may be used for this purpose. When an attendant's shelter is provided on the parking lot, the Certificate of Occupancy issued shall be posted and maintained under glass in the shelter.
All vehicular activities associated with the operation of open parking lots shall be entirely within the property lines of the premises. Vehicles shall not be permitted to encroach upon the sidewalks. No motor vehicle may be stored or parked in any location where it would obstruct a required window or required exit of any adjacent building.
All driveways, parking stalls, and open spaces used for the parking or storage of motor vehicles shall be surfaced with concrete asphalt, or equivalent durable, dustless material.
Open parking lots shall be graded and maintained such that no drainage will flow onto abutting sidewalks and adjoining properties.
For the purpose of this section, a curb cut shall include all splays when determining the total length of cut curb. Unless otherwise required by the New York City Zoning Resolution, all curb cuts shall comply with the following requirements:
1. The aggregate length of curb cuts shall not exceed 60 percent of any street frontage 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less in length. No single curb cut shall exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in length, and there shall not be more than two curb cuts on any street frontage 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less in length. The minimum distance between two curb cuts shall be 5 feet (1524 mm).
2. For each 50 feet (15 240 mm) of street frontage length over 100 feet (30 480 mm), an additional curb cut no greater than 30 feet (9144 mm) in length may be permitted.
3. No curb cut shall commence within 8 feet (2438 mm) of a side lot line, except that on corner lots and lots with street frontage length of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less, the curb cut may commence 30 inches (762 mm) from the side lot line.
4. No curb cut, including splays, shall be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length.
Driveways serving passenger vehicles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) in width and shall not exceed the length of the curb cut, not including the lengths of the splays. For all other motor vehicles, the minimum width of driveways shall be 10 feet (3048 mm). Portions of the driveway located between the curb line and the lot line shall be paved in accordance with the requirements of the Department of Transportation for the construction of sidewalks.
Open parking lots shall be completely separated from adjoining premises and public sidewalks by curbs or bumpers of concrete, masonry, steel, heavy timber, or other similar and equally substantial materials, and shall be securely anchored so as to stop motor vehicles. Curbs and bumpers shall be at least 8 inches (203 mm) high and 8 inches (203 mm) wide.
Openings in required perimeter curbs and bumpers shall be permitted only for drainage, for motor vehicle entrances and exits, and for pedestrian entrances and exits. The width of an opening for motor vehicle access shall not exceed the length of the curb cut, not including the lengths of the splays. When an opening for pedestrian access is adjacent to a motor vehicle access opening, the two openings shall be separated by a permanent and substantial post. In no case shall any pedestrian entrance or exit exceed 5 feet (1524 mm) in width.
Parking lot offices, attendant shelters, storage facilities, and similar structures used in conjunction with open parking lots may be provided as an accessory use and shall comply with the applicable code provisions. Such accessory structures may be constructed of combustible materials subject to the limitations of Section D105.1 of Appendix D.
Open parking lots storing ten or more motor vehicles shall also be subject to the special provisions of this section.
Bumpers shall be situated not less than 1 foot (305 mm) from the perimeter edge of the open parking lot where vehicles are parked parallel to such perimeter edge, and not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the perimeter edge where vehicles are parked perpendicular to such perimeter edge. Openings shall be limited as provided for in Section 406.7.8.1.
Exception: A steel guardrail or other substantial barrier designed in accordance with the provisions of Section 1607.7.3, that will prevent any part of a vehicle from extending across a property line, may be accepted in lieu of bumpers.
Open parking lots shall provide a perimeter screen enclosure as per this section unless otherwise required by the New York City Zoning Resolution. Such screen enclosure may be constructed as a masonry wall, woven wire fence, iron picket fence, or uniformly painted fence of fire-resistant material at least 4 feet (1219 mm) high, but not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) above finished grade, subject to the limitations of Section 3111. Such enclosures shall completely separate the lot from adjoining premises and public sidewalks. Openings shall be limited as provided for in Section 406.7.8.1.
Open parking lots operating between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. shall be adequately illuminated to a minimum of 1 foot-candle measured at grade level, distributed over the entire area. Illumination provided with reflectors or floodlights shall be arranged such that the illumination is directed downward and away from adjacent premises.
Occupancies in Group I-2 shall comply with the provisions of this section and other applicable provisions of this code.
Waiting areas and similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the following criteria are met:
- The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental use areas as defined in Section 508.2.
- The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
- The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.
- The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.
Areas wherein mental health patients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental use areas as defined in Section 508.2, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:
- Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).
- The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.
- The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.
- The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.
- Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.
- The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.
Corridor doors, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 508.2 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 715.3.
Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2090 m2) and the travel distance from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 709.
At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) per patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke barrier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or litter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments.
Corridors in nursing homes (both intermediate-care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to corridors by Section 407.2 shall be protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
- Corridor smoke detection is not required where patient sleeping units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm at the nursing station attending each unit.
- Corridor smoke detection is not required where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Grounds are permitted to be fenced and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) for ambulatory patients and other occupants are located between the building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping unit(s) and/or group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled door release, leading by means of egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments and egress to the outside is impeded by locked exit and remote door release.
Portions of buildings with an occupancy in Group I-3 that are classified as a different occupancy shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for such occupancies. Where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress, provisions shall be made for the release of occupants at all times. Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.
Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a high-hazard use.
Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.
Doors to resident sleeping units shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).
Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).
A sallyport shall be permitted in a means of egress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an emergency egress condition.
One of the required vertical exit enclosures in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the enclosure, provided that the following conditions are met:
1. The vertical exit enclosure shall not serve more than four floor levels.
2. Vertical exit enclosure doors shall not be less than 3/4-hour fire doors complying with Section 715.3
3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3.23 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).
4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic fire sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.
5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from an area of refuge to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door.
Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.
Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.
Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.
Remote release, mechanically operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided with a redundant remote release control.
Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location to enable doors to relock.
Vertical openings shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 707.
Exceptions: A floor opening between floor levels of residential housing areas is permitted without enclosure protection between the levels, provided that both of the following conditions are met:
- The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel.
- Means of egress capacity is sufficient to provide simultaneous egress for all occupants from all interconnected levels and areas.
The height difference between the highest and lowest finished floor levels shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm). Each story, considered separately, has at least one-half of its individual required means of egress capacity provided by exits leading directly out of that story without traversing to another story within the interconnected area.
Occupancies in Group I-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Section 709 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments.
Exceptions: Spaces having direct exit to one of the following, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors involved complies with the requirements for doors at the compartment barrier for the use condition involved:
- A public way.
- A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.
- A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.
The maximum number of residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The aggregate area of openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Conditions 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches (77 419 mm2). The aggregate area shall include all openings including door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from the room side.
For the purposes of this section, a windowless building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an engineered smoke control system to provide ventilation (mechanical or natural) in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless smoke compartment.
The provisions of this section shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. The projection, use or storage of film having a nitrocellulose base (commonly known as nitrate film) shall not be permitted except under conditions specified in special permits when issued by the Fire Department. Safety film meeting the specification and test standards of NFPA 40 may be projected, used or stored.
Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.
Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected. The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.
Each projection room shall be provided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces within the building, provided the volume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air when other systems are not in operation.
Projection rooms are permitted to be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind rooms.
Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be interconnected with any other exhaust or return system, or both, within the building.
Provisions shall be made for control of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at least one other convenient point in the building.
Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects are controlled.
GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage effects.
PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened.
PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for worship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for not more than 30 days.
STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. Stage area shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.
Stage floors shall be constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the building in which such stages are located. Where areas below the stage are used for other occupancies, such stage floor shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements for separated occupancies as per Chapter 5.
- Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.
- In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks. The room or space below the stage into which the traps or lifts open shall be completely enclosed by construction having at least the fire-resistance rating required for the stage floor, and such room or space shall not be used as a workshop or storage area. Storage shall not be deemed to include the location in this area of scenery or scenic elements used during a performance. However, no combustible material that has a flame spread rating greater than 25 or that has not been rendered flameproof in accordance with the rules of the Fire Commissioner may be stored in this location at any time.
Stage areas shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.
Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of noncombustible material. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.
Where protection of openings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with fire doors that comply with Section 715. Exterior openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium.
The proscenium opening of every stage with a height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall be provided with a curtain of approved material or an approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1. The curtain shall be designed and installed to intercept hot gases, flames and smoke, and to prevent a glow from a severe fire on the stage from showing on the auditorium side for a period of 20 minutes. The closing of the curtain from the full open position shall be affected in less than 30 seconds, but the last 8 feet (2438 mm) of travel shall require not less than 5 seconds.
The curtain shall be activated by rate-of-rise heat detection installed in accordance with Section 907.10 operating at a rate of temperature rise of 15 to 20°F per minute (8 to 11°C per minute), and by an auxiliary manual control.
A sample curtain with a minimum of two vertical seams shall be subjected to the standard fire test specified in ASTM E 119 for a period of 30 minutes. The curtain shall overlap the furnace edges by an amount that is appropriate to seal the top and sides. The curtain shall have a bottom pocket containing a minimum of 4 pounds per linear foot (58 N/m) of batten. The exposed surface of the curtain shall not glow, and flame or smoke shall not penetrate the curtain during the test period. Unexposed surface temperature and hose stream test requirements are not applicable to the proscenium fire safety curtain test.
Curtain fabrics shall have a smoke-developed rating of 25 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.
The completed proscenium curtain shall be subjected to operating tests prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy.
All scenery or scenic elements shall be of noncombustible materials, or of materials having a flame-spread rating not exceeding 25, or of materials that have been rendered flameproof in compliance with the rules of the Fire Commissioner. Scenery and scenic elements not complying with the above requirements may be used only when expressly permitted by the Fire Department.
Two or more vents constructed to open automatically by approved heat-activated devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled.
Permanent platforms shall be constructed of materials as required for the type of construction of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the following:
2. Platforms constructed of untreated wood shall not exceed an area of 400 square feet (37 m2). Platforms constructed of fire retardant treated wood shall not exceed an area of 1,200 square feet (111 m2). Platforms constructed of noncombustible materials shall not be limited in area.
3. Where wood is used, the floor of the platform shall be a least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness. Such floor shall be laid on a solid, noncombustible backing, or shall have all spaces between supporting members fire blocked with noncombustible material.
Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any other purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor construction shall not be less than 1-hour fire-resistant construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected.
Where the stage height is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), the stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by a fire barrier wall and horizontal assemblies, or both, with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating with approved opening protectives. For stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less, the required stage separation shall be a fire barrier wall and horizontal assemblies, or both, with not less a 1-hour fire-resistance rating with approved opening protectives.
At least one approved means of egress shall be provided from each side of the stage; and from each side of the space under the stage. At least one means of escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread stairway or spiral stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a scuttle in the stage roof.
Stages shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. The system shall be installed under the roof and gridiron, in the tie and fly galleries and in places behind the proscenium wall of the stage and in dressing rooms, lounges, workshops and storerooms accessory to such stages:
- Automatic sprinklers shall be placed above all rigging lofts; and above all stage areas, other than those portions of stage areas specifically designated on approved plans as performing areas that do not have rigging lofts above and that are not at any time used for storage purposes. Sprinklers above rigging lofts shall be located so that no gridiron or other obstruction intervenes between the sprinkler heads and the scenery or scenic elements.
- When any part of a stage is sprinklered in accordance with the provisions of Item 1 of this section, or when rigging lofts are provided, such stage areas and rigging lofts shall be completely separated from audience areas by a deluge sprinkler system designed to form a vertical water curtain, with heads spaced to provide a water density of at least 3 gallons per minute per linear foot. A deluge valve actuated by a "rate of rise system "and" fixed temperature system shall control the water curtain system. The heat actuating devices shall be located on not more than 10 foot (3048 mm) centers around the perimeter of the sprinklered area or as otherwise required for the type of device used to assure operation of the system. In addition to the automatic controls, manual-operating devices shall be located at the voice/alarm communication system required by Section 410.8, and adjacent to at least one exit from the stage. Such exit shall be remote from the voice/alarm communication system.
- When openings are provided in the stage floor for stage lifts, trap doors or stairs, sprinklers spaced 5 feet (1524 mm) on centers shall be provided around the opening at the ceiling below the stage, and baffles at least 12 inches (305 mm) in depth shall be installed around the perimeter of the opening.
- All valves controlling sprinkler supplies shall be provided with tamper switches wired to an annunciator panel located at the voice/alarm communication system required by Section 410.8.
- The operation of any section of the sprinkler system and the deluge system shall activate the emergency ventilating equipment required in Section 410.3.7 and shall be provided with central station supervision in addition to the required local alarm.
- The water flow alarm, tamper switches and deluge system equipment shall be provided with central station supervision in addition to the required local alarm.
1. Are noncombustible, or of materials that have been rendered flameproof in accordance with the rules of the Fire Commissioner, or have a flame spread rating of 25 or less.
2. Are adequately braced or secured.
Platforms or runways for performances, to accommodate the operation of cameras, electronic equipment, or motion picture projection machines not using carbon-arc or other light source that emits a gaseous discharge may be constructed in seating sections, provided such platforms or runways comply with the requirements of Section 410.4, except Item 1 and Section 410.8.
Stage lights shall be placed such that they will not develop temperatures on the surface of any material that will cause that material to ignite, or smoke, or cause its flame proofing to deteriorate.
Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 75 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and this section. Amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 75 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and this section.
Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke. All decorative material shall be non-combustible or composed of flame retardant fabric.
A special amusement building is any temporary or permanent building or portion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or educational purposes and that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available because of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance through the building or structure.
Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.
Actuation of a single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.11.2.
Exit signs shall be installed at the required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings. Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved low-level exit signs and directional path markings shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 907.2.11.2.
HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is designed or used for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are designed or used for heliport facilities and operations.
The touchdown or landing area for helicopters of less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The touchdown area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
Helicopter landing areas and the supports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design requirements, see Section 1605.5.
The means of egress from heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more means of egress. For landing platforms or roof areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length, or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means of egress may be a fire escape or ladder leading to the floor below.
Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistant construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inch (45 mm) in thickness.
1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.
2. Group R-3 and U occupancies.
3. Groups S-1 and S-2 occupancies.
Separate floor plans shall be submitted for buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure. A report identifying hazardous materials including, but not limited to, materials representing hazards that are classified in Group H to be stored or used, shall be submitted and the methods of protection from such hazards shall be indicated on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the commissioner and shall be provided without charge to the department.
The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.
|FLOOR LEVEL||PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa
|NUMBER OF CONTROL
AREAS PER FLOORb
FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSc
|Above grade||Higher than 9
Lower than 2
- Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.
- There shall be a maximum of two control areas per floor in Group M occupancies and in buildings or portions of buildings having Group S occupancies with storage conditions and quantities in accordance with Section 414.2.4.
- Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
The required fire-resistance rating for fire barrier assemblies shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor construction of the control area, and the construction supporting the floor of the control area, shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating and shall comply with the additional requirements of the New York City Fire Code.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M or S occupancy or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the New York City Fire Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.4.
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L
|CONDITION||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA|
|Health-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Corrosives b, c||Not Applicable||9,750||975|
|2. Highly toxics||Not Applicable||20b, c
|3.Toxicsb, c||Not Applicable||1,000||100|
|Physical-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Oxidizersb, c||4||Not Limited||Not Limited|
||1,800i, j||1,800i, j|
|2. Unstable (reactives)b, c||4||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|3. Water (reactives)||3b, c
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
- Hazard categories are as specified in the New York City Fire Code
- Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinkleredin accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Notec also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
- Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the New York City Fire Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively
- See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas
- Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.
- Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas
- Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
- Maximum amounts are permitted to be incre ased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each
- The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.
422.214.171.124 Below-Grade Storage of Flammable or Combustible Mixtures Accessory to Group M Establishments
Class I liquids shall not be stored in below-grade locations. Storage of Class II and Class III liquids, accessory to retail stores, and partly or completely below grade shall be permitted, provided that such below-grade area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and enclosed by fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours, constructed in accordance with the construction type of the building. Openings shall be protected by self-closing assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of at least 11/2 hours.
Exception: Class IIIB liquids may be stored in below-grade locations that are not provided throughout with an automatic sprinkler system when such liquids are stored in a room that is separated, vertically and horizontally, from surrounding spaces by fire barriers of not less than 2-hour fire-resistance rating and such room is provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the New York City Fire Code and the New York City Mechanical Code. Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building without entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or through ducts and plenums.
Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the New York City Fire Code and the New York City Mechanical Code.
The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code. Exhaust air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accordance with the New York City Fire Code.
Systems involving hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended application. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where provided, shall be designed to be fail safe.
Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with the New York City Fire Code as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 307.7(1) or where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the New York City Fire Code.
|MATERIAL||CLASS||EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS|
|Barricade construction||Explosion (deflagration)
or explosion (deflagration)
|Combustible dustsc||-||Not Required||Required|
|Cryogenic flammables||-||Not Required||Required|
|Organic peroxidesg||Unclassified detonable||Required
|Oxidizer liquids and solids||4||Required||Not Permitted|
|Pyrophoric materialg||Detonable||Required||Not Permitted|
|Pyrophoric gasg||Nondetonable||Not Required||Required|
|Water-reactive liquids and solidsg||3 Detonable
|Grain processing||-||Not Required||Required|
|Where explosion hazards existf||Detonation
- See Section 414.1.3.
- See the New York City Fire Code.
- As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 3.
- Storage or use.
- In open use or dispensing.
- Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
- Considered as explosives for the purposes of storage.
Monitor control equipment shall be provided where required by the New York City Fire Code.
Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power system in accordance with the New York City Electrical Code.
Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage and fire protection water discharged in the storage area where required in the New York City Fire Code. The methods of spill control shall be in accordance with the New York City Fire Code.
Where weather protection is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage or use areas, such storage or use shall be considered outdoor storage or use, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
1. Structure supports and walls shall not obstruct more than one side nor more than 25 percent of the perimeter of the storage or use area.
2. The distance from the structure and the structure supports to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means of egress to a public way shall not be less than the distance required for an outside hazardous material storage or use area without weather protection.
3. The overhead structure shall be of approved noncombustible construction with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 m2).
Exception: The increases permitted by Section 506 apply.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein.
An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.
Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central station, or remote supervising station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
The provisions of this section shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Section 307.9. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 414 and the New York City Fire Code, including, but not limited to, location and installation provisions.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the code, have the meanings shown herein.
CONTINUOUS GAS-DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes.
EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises of a semiconductor fabrication facility staffed by trained personnel that monitor the operation of equipment and systems including alert and alarm signals.
EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. A device, typically consisting of a hood equipped with a fan, that serves to capture and exhaust fumes, mist, vapors and gases generated at a workstation or other local environment. An exhausted enclosure does not include a room provided with general ventilation.
FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility in which processes using hazardous production materials are conducted.
FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).
GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas containers in storage or use, including any doors and access ports for exchanging containers and accessing pressure-regulating controls.
GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.
HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and that is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes that have as their end product materials that are not hazardous.
HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquid.
HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and that is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.
IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants that poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment as established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). If adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the Fire Commissioner shall make such determination.
LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liquid" includes both flammable and combustible liquids.
LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in an unopened condition.
LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. Rooms in which Class I, II and IIIA flammable or combustible liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers.
LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit."
NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].
SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for transporting HPM and other purposes, but not as a required means of egress.
SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or sublimates at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C).
WORKSTATION. A defined space within a fabrication area in which a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity relating to semiconductor manufacture is conducted. A workstation may include equipment using HPM, hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets, ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, and electrical devices.
Group H shall be located on property in accordance with the other provisions of this chapter. In Group H-2 or H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall.
- Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet (47 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter of the building where they are in accordance with the New York City Fire Code and NFPA 30.
- Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with the New York City Fire Code and NFPA 30.
- Spray paint booths that comply with the New York City Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter.
Regardless of any other provisions, buildings containing Group H occupancies shall be set back a minimum distance from lot lines as set forth in Items 1 through 4 below. Distances shall be measured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, including those on a public way. Distances to assumed property lines drawn for the purposes of determination of exterior wall and opening protection are not to be used to establish the minimum distance for separation of buildings on sites where explosives are manufactured or used when separation is provided in accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for explosive materials in the New York City Fire Code.
- Group H-1. Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not less than required by the New York City Fire Code.
- Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.
- Buildings containing the following materials when separated in accordance with Table 415.3.1:
- Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where the area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet (93 m2), and it is not required to be located in a detached building.
- Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 415.3.2).
- Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materials with explosive characteristics shall be separated as required by the New York City Fire Code. Where separations are not specified, the distances required shall not be less than the distances required by Table 415.3.1.
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
|QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALa, d||MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet)|
|Lot linesb and inhabited buildingsc||Separation of magazinese|
|Pounds over||Pounds not over||Barricaded||Unbarricaded|
- The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive.
- The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways.
- For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same property that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings containing explosives or magazines are located on the same property, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings and, in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for "Separation of magazines," except that the quantity of explosive materials contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator buildings or magazines from buildings or magazines containing other explosive materials. If any two or more buildings or magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified "Separation of Magazines distances, then such two or more buildings or magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if the explosive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall comply with the minimum distance specified from other magazines or inhabited buildings.
- Storage of explosives in a quantity exceeding 1,000 pounds in one magazine is prohibited.
- Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 square feet (11 m2) in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, however, all magazines shall comply with the New York City Fire Code.
- This table shall not apply to the temporary storage incidental to transportation.
Where a detached building is required by Table 415.3.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening protection based on location on property.
For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 M3
|DETACHED STORAGE IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN|
|Material||Class||Solids and Liquids (tons)a, b||Gases (cubic feet)a, b|
|Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
|Oxidizers||Class 4||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Unstable (reactives) detonable||Class 3 or 4||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Oxidizer, liquids and solids||Class 3
|Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
|Unstable (reactives) nondetonable||Class 3
|Water reactives||Class 3
|Pyrphoric gases||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||2,000|
- For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in Table 415.3.1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see the New York City Fire Code. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides, detonable pyrophoric materials, detonable unstable (reactive) materials and detonable water - reactive materials shall be considered as explosives for the purposes of storage.
- "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control are a set forth in Table 307.7(1).
- Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.
Group H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without basement, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insulation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decomposition temperature. Group H-1 occupancies containing materials that are in themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.7(2) shall comply with requirements for both Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies.
Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 415.3.2 shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and shall be without basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for conveying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight construction.
Exception: Fire protection piping.
Rooms or areas used for the storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be constructed in a manner that resists the penetration of water through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler systems shall not be within such rooms or areas.
Smoke and heat vents complying with Section 910 shall be installed in the following locations:
- In occupancies classified as Group H-2 or H-3, any of which are over 15,000 square feet (1394 m2) in a single floor area.
Exception: Buildings of noncombustible construction containing only noncombustible materials.
- In areas of buildings in Group H used for storing Class 2, 3 and 4 liquid and solid oxidizers, Class 1 and unclassified detonable organic peroxides, unstable (reactive) materials, or Class 2 or 3 water-reactive materials as required for a high hazard commodity classification as defined in the New York City Fire Code.
The provisions of Sections 4126.96.36.199 through 4188.8.131.52 shall apply to buildings in which materials that produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 69, NFPA 120, NFPA 484, NFPA 651, NFPA 654, NFPA 655, NFPA 664 and NFPA 85, and the New York City Fire Code.
Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with the height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group H-2; except that where erected of Type I or II construction, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV construction, the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet (25 908 mm).
Every room or space occupied for grinding or other operations that produce combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers and horizontal assemblies or both that have not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating where the area is not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2), and not less than a 4-hour fire-resistance rating where the area is greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).
Conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equipment passing through the enclosures of rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials complying with Chapter 30.
Coal pockets located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construction of such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height shall be Type IV.
Storage tanks shall be approved tanks conforming to the requirements of the New York City Fire Code.
A liquid-tight containment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be provided. The method of spill control, drainage control and secondary containment shall be in accordance with the New York City Fire Code.
An approved automatic alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry door to the tank storage room indicating the potential hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be supervised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble signal.
Tank openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concentrations are not released inside the building.
Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code and the New York City Fire Code.
In addition to the requirements set forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with the provisions of Section 415.9 and the New York City Fire Code, including, but not limited to, automatic sprinkler protection for workstations, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures, pass-throughs in exit access corridors, and exhaust ducts.
The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 4184.108.40.206.1.
Exception: The quantity limitations for any hazard category in Table 4220.127.116.11.1 shall not apply where the fabrication area contains quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2).
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 gallon per square foot = 0.025 L/m2.
(pounds per square feet)
(gallons per square feet)
|Combustible dust||Note b||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Combustible fiber Loose
|Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Combustible liquid II
Combination Class I, II and IIIA
|Cryogenic gas Flammable
|Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Note c
|Explosives||Note b||Note b||Note b|
|Flammable gas Gaseous
|Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Note c
|Flammable liquid IA
Combination Class IA, IB,and,IC
Combination Class I, II and IIIA
|Flammable solid||0.00 1||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Oxidizing gas Gaseous
Combination of gaseous
|Not Applicable||Not Applicable||1.25
|Oxidizer Class 4
Combination Class 1, 2, 3
|Pyrophoric material||Note b||0.00125||Notes c and d|
|Unstable reactive Class 4
|Water reactive Class 3
|Corrosives||Not Limited||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|Highly toxic||Not Limited||Not Limited||Note c|
|Toxics||Not Limited||Not Limited||Note c|
- Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.
- Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2).
- The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyr ophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 SCF.
- The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.3.2
Fabrication areas, whose sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials allowed by Table 418.104.22.168.1, shall be separated from each other, from exit access corridors, and from other parts of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers.
- Doors within such fire barrier walls, including doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing fire assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
- Windows between fabrication areas and exit access corridors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed and labeled for a fire protection rating of at least 3/4 hour in accordance with Section 715.
Except for surfacing, floors within fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construction. Openings through floors of fabrication areas are permitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels are used solely for mechanical equipment directly related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 422.214.171.124). Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall be liquid tight.
Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other openings through floors shall be enclosed when required by Section 707. Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabrication area shall not extend through more than two floors. The annular space around penetrations for cables, cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. The fabrication area, including the areas through which the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a single conditioned environment.
Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided throughout the fabrication area at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/S/m2) of floor area. The exhaust air duct system of one fabrication area shall not connect to another duct system outside that fabrication area within the building.
Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be connected to the same exhaust system where either one or the combination of the substances removed could constitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction within the exhaust duct system.
Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate firewalls.
Hazardous production materials shall be transported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or tubing systems that comply with Section 4126.96.36.199, through service corridors complying with Section 415.9.4, or in exit access corridors as permitted in the exception to Section 415.9.3. The handling or transporting of hazardous production materials within service corridors shall comply with the New York City Fire Code.
Electrical equipment and devices within the fabrication area shall comply with the New York City Electrical Code. The requirements for hazardous locations need not be applied where the average air change is at least four times that set forth in Section 4188.8.131.52 and where the number of air changes at any location is not less than three times that required by Section 4184.108.40.206. The use of recirculated air shall be permitted.
Exit access corridors shall comply with Chapter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as specified in Section 4220.127.116.11. Exit access corridors shall not contain HPM and shall not be used for transporting such materials, except through closed piping systems as provided in Section 418.104.22.168.
Exceptions: Where existing fabrication areas are altered or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing exit access corridors, subject to the following conditions:
- Corridors. Exit access corridors adjacent to the fabrication area where the alteration work is to be done shall comply with Section 1016 for a length determined as follows:
- Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or other approved alarm-initiating device within exit access corridors at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or the emergency control station and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
- Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire-protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall separate pass-throughs from existing exit access corridors. Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for the exit access corridors, and protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system.
The maximum distance of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, exit access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less than two exits, and not more than one-half of the required means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing.
Storage of HPM in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets or gas cabinets, or within a workstation. The storage of hazardous production materials in quantities greater than those listed in Tables 307.7(1) or 307.7(2) shall be in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous materials shall be in accordance with other applicable provisions of this code and the New York City Fire Code.
Liquid storage rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the following requirements:
1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m2) shall have at least one exterior door approved for Fire Department access.
2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1-hour for rooms up to 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area and not less than 2 hours where the room is more than 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area.
3. Shelving, racks and wainscoting in such areas shall be of noncombustible construction or wood of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness.
Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/S/m2) of floor area or six air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for categories of material.
An approved emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms.
Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit door of such rooms.
Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.
Hazardous production materials piping and tubing shall comply with this section and ANSI B31.3.
Systems supplying HPM liquids or gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections, to the systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for the connections if the material is a liquid.
Where HPM gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa), excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow control shall be located within the liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.
The installation of hazardous production material piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of exit access corridors and the floor or roof above or in concealed spaces above other occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 422.214.171.124 and the following conditions:
- Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 mm) in the least dimension.
- Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour shall be provided. The space shall not be used to convey air from any other area.
- Where the piping or tubing is used to transport HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be designed to collect any discharge or leakage and drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclosure shall not be used as part of the receptor.
- HPM supply piping and tubing and HPM nonmetallic waste lines shall be separated from the exit access corridor and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by construction as required for walls or partitions that have a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is used, joints on the piping side of the enclosure are not required to be taped, provided the joints occur over framing members. Access openings into the enclosure shall be protected by approved fire-resistance- rated assemblies.
- Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on piping and tubing other than waste lines at the following locations:
Piping, tubing and HPM waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI A13.1 to indicate the material being transported.
A continuous gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when the physiological warning properties of the gas are at a higher level than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases in accordance with this section.