Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas; Separation of Occupancies

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards [PDF]

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodent Proofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Outdoor Signs

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Modified Industry Standards for Elevators and Conveying Systems

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Supplementary Requirements for One- And Two-Family Dwellings

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix N Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix P R-2 Occupancy Toilet and Bathing Facilities Requirements

Appendix Q Modified National Standards for Automatic Sprinkler, Standpipe, and Fire Alarm Systems

Appendix R Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panel Ceiling Suspension Systems

Buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, construction and arrangement of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof.
It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required by this code.
Means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the New York City Fire Code.
Except as specifically provided for in this chapter, no employer or agent of such employer shall lock the doors of or otherwise prohibit exit from any workplace, when by so doing the health or safety of any employee, independent contractor or other individual working in such workplace may become endangered by fire or other hazardous condition. Refer to Article 307 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code.
Every existing structure which is not provided with means of egress as required by this chapter and, in which the means of egress are, in the opinion of the commissioner inadequate for the safety of the occupants, shall be provided with means of egress or fire protection as directed by the commissioner.
The following words and terms shall, for the purpose of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.
  ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way. Such way of egress travel may include an assisted rescue path.
  AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle.
  ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.
  AREA OF REFUGE. A floor area to which egress is made through a horizontal exit.
  AREA OF RESCUE ASSISTANCE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.
  ASSISTED RESCUE PATH. A portion of the accessible means of egress which begins at the area of rescue assistance and terminates at the public way.
  BLEACHERS. Tiered seating facilities.
  COLLECTING SAFE AREA. A safe area that receives occupants from the assembly space it serves, as well as from other safe areas.
  COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included within the permitted travel distance.
  CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. Corridors shall be either interior or public.
  CORRIDOR, INTERIOR. A corridor that serves only one tenant. In Group E occupancies, corridors serving only one institution shall be deemed as serving a single tenant.
  CORRIDOR, PUBLIC. A corridor that serves more than one tenant.
  CROSS AISLE. An aisle in a place of assembly usually parallel to rows of seats, connecting other aisles or connecting an aisle and an exit.
  DEAD END. A portion of a corridor in which the travel to an exit is in one direction only.
  DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing action when opening.
  EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a public way for one or more exits.
  EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.
  EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system, which is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protective as required to provide a protected path of egress travel between the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include vertical exits, exterior exit doors at ground level, exit enclosures, exit passageways, exterior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits, but do not include access stairs, aisles, exit access doors opening to corridors or corridors.
  EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit.
  EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.
  EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The horizontal plane located at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.
  EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protective, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way.
  EXIT, HORIZONTAL. An exit that provides a path of egress travel from one building to an area in another building on approximately the same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same building, or a bridge or tunnel between two buildings, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the area of incidence and areas communicating therewith.
  EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from all other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protective, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way.
  FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for use on fire door assemblies.
  FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include interior courts.
  FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including the thickness of walls, partitions, columns, furred-in spaces, fixed cabinets, equipment, and unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.
  FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating facilities having an overall shape and size that are capable of being reduced for purposes of moving or storing.
  GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating facilities.
  GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.
  HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.
  MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.
  NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights.
  OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed.
  OPEN EXTERIOR SPACE. A street or other public space; or a yard, court, or plaza open on one or more sides and unroofed or open on all sides, which provides egress to a street or public space.
  PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the direction of egress travel.
  PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).
  RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).
  SAFE AREA. An interior or exterior space that serves as a means of egress by providing a transitional area from, and that also serves as a normal means of entry to, an assembly space.
  SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure.
  SEATING SECTION. An area of seating bounded on all sides by aisles, cross aisles, walls, or partitions.
  SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure.
  STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of two or more risers.
  STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.
  STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least one side, except for required structural columns, beams, handrails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway need not be open.
  STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the definition of an exterior stairway.
  STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter-supporting column.
  WINDER. A stair tread with nonparallel edges.
The general requirements specified in Sections 1003 through 1012 shall apply to all three elements of the means of egress system, in addition to those specific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter.
The means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet, 6 inches (2286 mm).
  Exceptions:
  1. Ceilings that are permitted to be less than 7 feet, 6 inches (2286 mm) in accordance with Section 1208.2.
  2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within residential occupancies in accordance with Section 1208.2.
  3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 1003.3.
  4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2.
  5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1.3.
Protruding objects shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4.
Protruding objects are permitted to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 84 inches (2134 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall be reduced in height by protruding objects.
  Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm).
  A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maximum above the floor.
A free-standing object mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or pylon more than 12 inches (305 mm) where the lowest point of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (685 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground. Free-standing objects shall not reduce the required width of the means of egress.
  Exception: This requirement shall not apply to sloping portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps.
Structural elements, fixtures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface.
  Exception: Handrails serving stairs and ramps are permitted to protrude 4.5 inches (114 mm) from the wall.
Protruding objects shall not reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes as required by Section 1104.
Walking surfaces of the means of egress shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached.
Where changes in elevation of less than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps complying with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less and the ramp is not equipped with handrails, the floor finish materials shall contrast with adjacent floor finish materials.
  Exceptions. At locations that are not required to be accessible by Chapter 11:
  1. A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches (178 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies in:
  1.1. Groups F, H, R-2 and R-3, and
  1.2. Groups S and U at exterior doors.
  2. A step with a single riser or a stair with two risers and a tread is permitted provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1009.3, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail complying with Section 1009.11 is provided within 30 inches (762 mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress travel on the stair.
  3. An aisle serving seating that has a difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) is permitted provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1024.11 and the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with Section 1024.13.
  Any change in elevation in a corridor serving nonambulatory persons in a Group I-2 occupancy shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway.
The path of egress travel along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building element other than a means of egress component as specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel.
Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means of egress from any other part of the building.
  Exception: Elevators used as a component of an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1007.4.
In determining means of egress requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of egress facilities shall be provided shall be established by the largest number computed in accordance with Sections 1004.1.1 through 1004.1.3.
The actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, floor or building is designed.
The number of occupants computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1.2.

TABLE 1004.1.2
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT
USE OF SPACE FLOOR AREA IN SQ. FT.
PER OCCUPANT
Agricultural building 300 gross
Aircraft hangars 500 gross
Assembly 11 gross
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.)
Assembly with fixed seats See Section 1004.7
Assembly without fixed seats
Concentrated (chairs only—not fixed)
7 net
Dance floor
5 net
Dance floor (ballroom)
10 net
Standing space
5 net
Unconcentrated (tables and chairs)
15 net
Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each,lane including 15 feet of
runway, and for additional areas
7 net
Business areas 100 gross
Courtrooms –other than fixed seating areas 40 net
Day Care
Age under 6 months
50 net
Age 6 months –2 years
40 net
Age 2 years –6 years
30 net
Age above 6 years
50 net
Dormitories 50 gross
Educational
Classroom area
20 net
Shops and other vocational room areas
50 net
Exercise rooms 50 gross
Gymnasiums 15 net
H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas 200 gross
Industrial areas 100 gross
Institutional areas
Inpatient treatment areas
240 gross
Outpatient areas
100 gross
Sleeping areas
120 gross
Kitchens, commercial 200 gross
Library
Reading rooms
50 net
Stack area
100 gross
Locker rooms 50 gross
Mercantile
Areas on other floors
60 gross
Basement and grade floor areas
30 gross
Storage, stock, shipping areas
300 gross
Parking garages 200 gross
Passenger terminal
Baggage claim
20 gross
Baggage handling
300 gross
Concourse
100 gross
Passenger terminal or platform
1.5 X C*
Waiting area (Standing)
15 gross
Waiting areas (Seated)
5 net
Residential 200 gross within dwelling units
Skating rinks, swimming pools
Rink and pool
50 gross
15 gross
Stages and platforms 15 net for performing area and 50 net
for remaining area
Accessory storage areas, mechanical equipment room 300 gross
Warehouses 500 gross
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
Where occupants from accessory spaces egress through a primary area, the calculated occupant load for the primary space shall include the total occupant load of the primary space plus the number of occupants egressing through it from the accessory space.
Where the actual number of occupants of any space will be significantly lower than listed in Table 1004.1.2, the commissioner may establish a lower basis for the determination of the number of occupants.
Where data regarding the square feet area per person for an occupancy is not listed in Table 1004.1.2, the occupant load shall be established by a registered design professional, subject to the approval of the commissioner.
The occupant load permitted in any building or portion thereof is permitted to be increased from that number established for the occupancies in Table 1004.1.2 provided that all other requirements of the code are also met based on such modified number and the occupant load shall not exceed one occupant per 5 square feet (0.47 m2) of occupiable floor space. Where required by the commissioner, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by the commissioner, such diagram shall be posted.
Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be maintained by the owner or authorized agent. Such sign shall also comply with Section 1024.1.2.
Where exits serve more than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered individually shall be used in computing the required capacity of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not decrease in the direction of egress travel.
Where means of egress from floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence shall not be less than the sum of the two floors.
The occupant load of a mezzanine level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to that room or area's occupant load, and the capacity of the exits shall be designed for the total occupant load thus established.
For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length. The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth.
Yards, patios, courts and similar outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be determined by the design professional subject to the approval of the commissioner. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas.
  Exceptions:
  1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the building need only have one means of egress.
  2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and individual dwelling units of Group R-2.
Where a building contains two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of the same means of egress system, those egress components shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies that are served.
The means of egress width shall not be less than that required by this section. The total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupant load served by the means of egress multiplied by the factors in Table 1005.1 and not less than specified elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of egress.
  Exception: Means of egress complying with Section 1024.

TABLE 1005.1
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED
OCCUPANCY STAIRWAYS
(inches per occupant)
OTHER COMPONENTS
(inches per occupant)
Occupancies other than
those listed below
0.3 0.2
Hazardous: H-1, H-2,
H-3 and H-4
0.7 0.4
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm
Doors opening into the path of egress travel shall not reduce the required width to less than one-half during the course of the swing. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into the required width.
  Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3.
Exits, exit discharges, and public corridors shall be illuminated at all times by either daylight or electric lighting fixtures. Exit access components shall be illuminated by either daylight or electric lighting fixtures at all times that the space served by the exit access component is occupied.
  Exceptions:
  1. Occupancies in Group U.
  2. Aisle accessways in Group A.
  3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups I-1, R-1, R-2 and R-3.
  4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies.
The means of egress illumination level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface level.
  Exceptions:
  1. For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the floor level is permitted to be reduced during performances to not less than 0.5 foot-candle (5.38 lux) for aisles and cross aisles, and 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux) for other portions of the space, provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premise's fire alarm system where such system is provided. Step lights shall be provided in accordance with Section 1024.11.4.
  2. Safe areas in assembly occupancies shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 1024.17.3.2.
  3. Open exterior spaces used to receive occupants as Class 1 or Class 2 exits in assembly occupancies shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 1024.17.4.
  4. In exits in buildings that contain photoluminescent exit path markings tested in laboratory conditions with 2 foot-candles (22 lux) of activating illumination, the illumination level shall not be less than 2 foot-candles (22 lux).
Automatic, occupant sensor or photosensor lighting controls shall be permitted within means of egress, provided that the illumination level is not reduced to a level below the minimum requirements of section 1006.2 of this code, and the switch controllers are equipped for fail-safe operation ensuring that if the sensor or control fails, the lighting levels will be at the levels required by 1006.2 of this code.
The power supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the premise's electrical supply.
  In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate the following areas:
  1. Exit access corridors, passageways and aisles in rooms and spaces which require two or more means of egress.
  2. Exit access corridors, exit passageways and exit stairways located in buildings required to have two or more exits.
  3. Exterior egress components at other than the level of exit discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for buildings required to have two or more exits.
  4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 1023.1, in buildings required to have two or more exits.
  5. The portion of the exterior exit discharge immediately adjacent to exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have two or more exits.
The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section 2702.
Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least an average of 2 foot-candle (22 lux) and a minimum at any point of 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux) measured along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6.46 lux) average and a minimum at any point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.646 lux) at the end of the emergency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded.
Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress is required by Section 1014.1 or 1018.1 from any accessible space, at least two accessible means of egress shall be provided to each accessible portion of the space.
  Exceptions:
  1. Accessible means of egress are not required in alterations to existing buildings where the level of alterations does not trigger full compliance of accessibility pursuant to Section 28-101.4 of this code.
  2. One accessible means of egress is required from an accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Section 1007.3 or 1007.4.
  3. In assembly spaces with sloped floors, one accessible means of egress is required from a space where the common path of travel of the accessible route for access to the wheelchair spaces meets the requirements in Section 1024.8.
Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components:
  1. Interior accessible routes complying with Section 1104.
  3. Stairways within vertical exit enclosures complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1019.1.
  4. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1022.
  5. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4.
  6. Platform lifts complying with Section 1007.5.
  7. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1021.
  8. Ramps complying with Section 1010.
  9. Exit discharges complying with Section 1023.
  10. Exterior accessible routes complying with Section 1104.
  11. Exterior areas of assisted rescue complying with Section 1007.8.
In high-rise buildings subject to Section 403, at least one required accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section 1007.4.
  Exceptions:
  1. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a horizontal exit located at or above the level of exit discharge.
  2. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 1010.
  3. In buildings of occupancy Group R-2 not subject to the requirements of emergency power in Section 403 of this code.
Where an exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior area for assisted rescue shall be provided in accordance with Section 1007.8. An exterior area for assisted rescue shall not be required where an exit discharge is on an assisted rescue path from a stairway or an elevator.
Where an exit stairway is open to the exterior, the accessible means of egress shall include either an area of rescue assistance in accordance with Section 1007.6 or an exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1007.8.
To be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an exit stairway shall have a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails and shall either incorporate an area of rescue assistance within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an area of rescue assistance complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit.
  Unenclosed exit stairways as permitted by Section 1019.1 are permitted to be considered part of an accessible means of egress.
  Exceptions. The following exceptions apply to the requirements of clear width and area of rescue assistance, and do not supersede the other requirements of the accessible means of egress:
  1. The area of rescue assistance is not required at unenclosed stairways that are permitted by Section 1019.1 in buildings or facilities that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails and the area of rescue assistance is not required at exit stairways in buildings or facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required for enclosed exit stairways accessed from a horizontal exit.
To be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 2.27 of ASME A17.1 and Section 1109.6. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2702 and 3003. The elevator shall be accessed from either an area of rescue assistance complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit complying with Section 1021.
  Exceptions:
  1. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area of rescue assistance or horizontal exit in open parking garages.
  2. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area of rescue assistance or horizontal exit in buildings and facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall not serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1109.7. Platform lifts shall be installed in accordance with ASME A18.1. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 2702 for platform lifts permitted to serve as part of an accessible means of egress.
Every required area of rescue assistance shall be accessible from the space it serves by one or more accessible means of egress components as listed in Section 1007.2. The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area of rescue assistance shall not exceed the travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 1015.1. Every required area of rescue assistance shall have direct access to an enclosed stairway complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1019.1 or an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where an elevator lobby is used as an area of rescue assistance, the shaft and lobby shall comply with Section 1019.1.8 for smokeproof enclosures except where the elevators are in an area of rescue assistance, such lobby shall be part of a horizontal exit or protected by smoke barrier.
Each area of rescue assistance shall be sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, based on the occupant load of the area of rescue assistance and areas served by the area of rescue assistance. Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the required means of egress width. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of rescue assistance shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheelchair space.
Each area of rescue assistance shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section 709. Each area of rescue assistance shall be designed to minimize the intrusion of smoke.
  Exceptions. Areas of rescue assistance need not be protected with smoke barrier where:
  1. Areas of rescue assistance is located within a stairway enclosure.
  2. Sprinkler protection is provided in the areas of rescue assistance and all the areas it serves in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
Areas of rescue assistance shall be provided with a two-way communication system between the areas of rescue assistance and a central control point. If the central control point is not constantly attended, the area of rescue assistance shall also have controlled access to a public telephone system. Location of the central control point shall be approved by the Fire Department. The two-way communication system shall include both audible and visible signals.
In areas of rescue assistance that have a two-way emergency communications system, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted adjoining the communications system. The instructions shall include all of the following:
  1. Directions to find other means of egress.
  2. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as possible, unless they are assisting others.
  3. Information on planned availability of assistance in the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and how to summon such assistance.
  4. Directions for use of the emergency communications system.
Each door providing access to an area of rescue assistance from an adjacent floor area shall be identified by a sign complying with ICC A117.1, stating: AREA OF RESCUE ASSISTANCE, and including the International Symbol of Accessibility. The area of rescue assistance sign shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 1011.2. Additionally, tactile signage complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each door to an area of rescue assistance.
Signage shall be installed indicating the location of an accessible means of egress at those exits and elevators serving required accessible spaces that are not accessible means of egress.
The exterior area for assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the requirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls. All walls or openings within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of the perimeter of the exterior area for assisted rescue shall be constructed as required for a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 34-hour opening protectives. Such construction shall extend 10 feet (3048 mm) vertically above the floor level of the exterior area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower.
The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
Exterior exit stairways that are part of the accessible means of egress for the exterior area for assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails.
Exterior areas for assisted rescue shall have identification as required for area of rescue assistance that complies with Section 1007.6.5.
Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1017.2. Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section.
  Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.
The minimum width and height of each door opening shall be in accordance with this section.
The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in an occupancy in Group I-2 used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 411/2 inches (1054 mm).
  Exceptions:
  1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and R-3.
  2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in occupancies in Group I-3 shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).
  3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.
  4. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be limited.
  5. Interior egress doors within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit which is not required to be adaptable or accessible.
6. In Group R-3 occupancies, door openings required to be accessible within Type B dwelling units subject to Section 1107.6.3 shall have a minimum clear width of 313/4 inches (806 mm).
There shall not be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).
The height of doors shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm).
  Exceptions:
  1. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height.
  2. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and sleeping units, other than the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in height.
Egress doors shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Egress doors shall be side-hinged swinging.
  Exceptions:
  1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less.
  2. Group I-3 occupancies used as a place of detention.
  3. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in Groups R-2 and R-3.
  4. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.1.
  5. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.3 are permitted in a means of egress.
  6. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.3.2.
Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving:
  1. Group F or Group H occupancies.
  2. Rooms or spaces with an occupant load of 50 or more persons.
  3. Rooms or spaces requiring more than one exit door.
  4. Automatic teller machines in accordance with Administrative Code section 10-160.
  Exception: Doors need not swing in the direction of egress travel for exterior street floor exit doors from lobbies serving only Group R-2 or R-3 occupancies.
The opening force for interior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. Forces shall be applied to the latch side.
Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.3.1 through 1008.1.3.5.
Revolving doors shall comply with the following:
  1. Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing into a book fold position with parallel egress paths providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 mm).
  2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors.
  3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table 1008.1.3.1.
  4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door which complies with Section 1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the revolving door.

TABLE 1008.1.3.1
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS
INSIDE DIAMETER
(feet-inches)
POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE
SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
MANUAL-TYPE
SPEED CONTROL
(rpm)
6-6 11 12
7-0 10 11
7-6 9 11
8-0 9 10
8-6 8 9
9-0 8 9
9-6 7 8
10-0 7 8
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot =304.8 mm.
A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1008.1.3.1 and the following three conditions:
  1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.
  2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no more than a 50-person capacity.
  3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.
A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1008.1.3.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means of egress shall not be more than 180 pounds (801 N).
  Exception: A collapsing force in excess of 180 pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) when at least one of the following conditions is satisfied:
  1. There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the door wings in position.
  2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprinkler system where such system is provided.
  3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection system which is installed in accordance with Section 907 to provide coverage in areas within the building which are within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of the revolving doors.
  4. There is an actuation of a manual control switch, in an approved location and clearly defined, which reduces the holding force to below the 130-pound (578 N) force level.
Where means of egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.2, except that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA A156.10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall comply with BHMA A156.19.
  Exceptions:
  1. Power operated doors are not required to be manually operable in occupancies in Group I-3 when egress complies with Section 408.
  2. Section 1008.1.3.2 does not apply to horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.3.
  3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the minimum 32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of Section 1008.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch (813 mm) clear opening is provided when the two biparting leaves meeting in the center are broken out.
In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted to be a component of a means of egress in accordance with Exception 5 to Section 1008.1.2.1 shall comply with all of the following criteria:
  1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.
  2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort.
  3. The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to the minimum required width.
  4. The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device.
  5. The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and shall comply with Section 715.
  6. The door assembly shall have an integrated standby power supply.
  7. The door assembly power supply shall be electrically supervised.
  8. The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds after activation of the operating device.
The exterior building entrance doors serving occupancies in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, M, R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system which shall be installed in accordance with all of the following criteria:
  1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor.
  2. Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors.
  3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches (1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above the floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock—independent of the access control system electronics—and the doors shall remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds.
  4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the egress side during periods that the building is open to the general public.
In groups B, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main entrance where the opening of such grilles are essential to the operation of the establishments. Such grilles shall be installed in accordance with the following criteria:
  1. Security grilles shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied.
  2. The security grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
  3. Except as to buildings or structures classified in occupancy group S, buildings or structures that have been designated as a landmark by the landmarks preservation commission or located in a historic district designated by such commission, on or after July 1, 2011, no security grille may be installed or replaced, nor shall the owner of a structure classified as a Group B or M occupancy or the operator of the business occupying such structure allow to be installed or replaced, a security grille to secure such property where the grille abuts the sidewalk, unless the grille, when closed, permits visibility from the sidewalk of at least seventy percent of the area covered by such grille.
  4. No later than July 1, 2026, all security grilles installed on buildings or structures classified in occupancy groups B or M shall comply with the provisions of paragraph 3 of this section.
There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).
  Exceptions:
  1. Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply:
  1.1. A door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs within the dwelling unit, provided the door does not swing over the top step.
  1.2. Screen doors and storm doors are permitted to swing over stairs or landings.
  2. Landings serving exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, Exception 1, and Section 1017.2, which are not on an accessible route may be constructed a single 7-inch (178 mm) step below the elevation at the door threshold.
  3. In Group R-3 occupancies, the landing at an exterior doorway shall not be more than 73/4 inches (197 mm) below the top of the threshold, provided the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing.
  4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish materials, but not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm).
  5. Exterior spaces of Type B units where permitted pursuant to Section 1107.4, Exceptions 1 and 2.
Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is the greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). When a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than 75 percent of its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).
  Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in Group R-3 and Group U and within individual units of Group R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).
Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serving dwelling units or 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope).
Space between two doors in series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between doors.
  Exceptions:
  1. The minimum distance between horizontal sliding power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).
  2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door.
  3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Group R-3.
  4. Doors within individual dwelling units in Group R-2 that are not required to comply with Section 1107.
  5. Exterior doors in vestibules in R-2 occupancies shall not be required to swing either in the same direction or away from the space between doors provided that the 48-inch (1219 mm) minimum space between door swings is maintained.
Except as specifically permitted by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices on doors required to be accessible by Chapter 11 shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate.
Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height.
Locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following exists:
  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. Places where extra safeguards are required such as banks, museums, and jewelry stores subject to the approval of the commissioner and provided the locks are equipped with electrical release devices for remote control in case of emergencies. However, museums shall be subject to further special review by the commissioner and Fire Commissioner.
  3. Main entrances in occupancy Groups B, M, and S as permitted by Section 1008.1.3.5.
  4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units of Group R occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool.
  5. Stairways leading from the top floor to a roof may be provided with locked wire mesh gates openable by key in occupancy Group E. The use of a hook and eye closing device on the inside of all doors to roofs shall be permitted.
Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted.
  Exceptions:
  1. On doors not required for egress in individual dwelling units or sleeping units.
  2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equipment room, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf.
The unlatching of any leaf shall not require more than one operation.
  Exception: More than one operation is permitted for unlatching doors in the following locations:
  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permitted by Section 1008.1.8.4.
  3. Doors from individual dwelling units and guestrooms of Group R occupancies as permitted by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 4.
Subject to special review and approval by the commissioner, approved, listed, delayed egress locks may be permitted on doors serving spaces where extra safeguards are required in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit.
  1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system.
  2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.
  3. The door locks shall have the capability of being unlocked by a signal from the fire command center.
  4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is applied for 1 second to the release device. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the door lock has been released by the application of force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by manual means only.
  Exception: Where approved, a delay of not more than 30 seconds is permitted.
  5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release device reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 SECONDS.
  6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.
  Exceptions:
  1. Delayed egress locks shall not be permitted in buildings or spaces in Group A, E, F and H occupancies. However, in museums, delayed egress locks may be installed on exit doors subject to special review by the commissioner and Fire Commissioner.
  2. Places of detention or restraints in Group I-3 are permitted to install delayed egress locks without the special review by the commissioner, provided that the installation complies with all of the other requirements of this section.
Interior stairway means of egress doors shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.
  Exceptions:
  1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side.
  2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in accordance with Section 403.12.
  3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, doors are permitted to be locked from the stair side, provided they are openable from the egress side.
Each door in a means of egress from an occupancy of Group A or E having an occupant load of 75 or more and any occupancy of Group H-1, H-2, H-3 or H-5 shall be provided with panic hardware or fire exit hardware. Where panic and fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the following:
  1. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall extend at least one-half of the door leaf width.
  2. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N).
  3. If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not extend more than one-half the width of the door measured from the latch side.
Gates serving the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable requirements for doors.
  Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium.
Panic hardware is not required on gates surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant immediate supervision while the public is present, and further provided that safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m2 ) per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15240 mm) from the enclosed space. See Section 1023.6 for means of egress from safe dispersal areas.
Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any required means of egress. Where portable turnstiles are installed for ticketing purposes, such turnstiles shall be moved from the egress path for proper exiting. Turnstiles that turn freely in the direction of exit travel may be used in any occupancy where revolving doors are permitted. Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the following provisions are met:
  1. Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress travel when primary power is lost, and upon the manual release by an employee in the area.
  2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.
  3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) high.
  4. Each device has at least 16.5 inches (419 mm) clear width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights above 39 inches (991 mm).
  5. Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a height of 34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032mm) and shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device.
  Exception: Where serving an occupant load greater than 300, turnstiles shall not be credited for any of the required egress capacity.
Turnstiles more than 39 inches (991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving doors.
Where serving an occupant load greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm).
The provisions of Section 1008.4.1 through 1008.4.4 shall apply to Group R-2 occupancies.
Building entrance doors and other exterior exit doors shall be equipped with heavy duty lock sets with auxiliary latch bolts to prevent the latch from being manipulated by means other than a key. Latch sets shall have stop-work in the inside cylinder controlled by a master key only. Outside cylinders of main entrance door locks shall be operated by the tenants' key, which shall not be keyed to also open the tenants' apartment door. A light or lights shall be provided at or near the outside of the front entranceway of the building providing not less than 5 foot candles (53.82 lux) intensity measured at the floor level for the full width of the entranceway.
Doors to dwelling units shall be equipped with a heavy duty latch set and a heavy duty dead bolt operable by a key from the outside and a thumb-turn from the inside. Those doors shall also be equipped with a chain guard so as to permit partial opening of the door. Dwelling unit entrance doors shall also be equipped with a viewing device located so as to enable a person on the inside of the entrance door to view a person immediately outside.
All openable windows shall be equipped with sash locks designed to be openable from the inside only. Grilles lockable from the inside only may be placed on the inside or outside of windows that are accessible from grade but that do not serve to provide access to exits.
Buildings containing eight or more dwelling units shall be provided with an intercommunication system located at the door giving access to the main entrance lobby, consisting of a device or devices for voice communication between the occupant of each dwelling unit and a person outside the door to the main entrance lobby, and permitting such dwelling unit occupant to release the locking mechanism of said door from the dwelling unit. In buildings provided with a full-time lobby attendant, the intercommunication system may be between each dwelling unit and the attendant's station.
The width of stairways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for accessible means of egress stairways.

  Exceptions:
  1. A width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) shall be permitted in:
  1.1. A stairway that serves an occupant load of 50 or less cumulative for all stories; or
  1.2. A stairway that provides egress to the exit discharge solely for the use of Group R-2 occupancies, provided the building it serves is 125 feet (38 100 mm) or less in height, and provided such a stairway serves not more than 30 occupants per floor.
  2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.9.
  3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024.
  4. Where a stairway lift is installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2 a clear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 mm) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can be folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured from the folded position.
Stairways shall have a minimum headroom clearance of 84 inches (2134 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the full width of the stairway and landing. Projections into the required width shall not be limited above the minimum headroom height.
  Exceptions:
  1. In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies stairways shall have a minimum headroom clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm).
  2. Spiral stairways complying with Section 1009.9 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clearance.
Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. Stair tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at right angle to the tread's leading edge. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 11 inches (279 mm) measured at a right angle to the tread's leading edge at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the treads are narrower and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm). The greatest winder tread depth at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm).
  Exceptions:
  1. Circular stairways in accordance with Section 1009.7.
  2. Winders in accordance with Section 1009.8.
  3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9.
  4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Section 1024.11.2.
  5. In Group R-2 occupancies:
  5.1. Sum of treads and risers. The sum of two risers plus one tread exclusive of nosing shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) nor more than 25.5 inches (648 mm).
  5.2. Dimensions of treads and risers. The maximum riser height shall be 7.75 inches (197 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall be 9.5 inches (241 mm) plus nosing. Treads may be undercut a distance equal to the nosing. A nosing not less than 0.75 inch (19 mm) but not more than 1.25 inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 11 inches (279 mm).
  5.3. Tolerances. The greatest riser height, tread depth, and nosing projection, within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 (9.5 mm).
  6. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies not subject to accessibility provisions in Section 1107.2.5, Exception Item 2; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies:
  6.1. Sum of treads and risers. The sum of two risers plus one tread exclusive of nosing shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) nor more than 25.5 inches (648 mm).
  6.2. Dimensions of treads and risers. The maximum riser height shall be 8.25 inches (210 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall be 9 inches (229 mm) plus nosing. Treads may be undercut a distance equal to the nosing. A 1.25-inch (32 mm) nosing shall be provided on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 11 inches (279 mm).
  6.3. Tolerances. The greatest riser height, tread depth, and nosing projection, within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 (9.5 mm).
  7. In Group R-3 occupancies; and within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; winders shall have a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading edge, when measured at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the treads are narrower. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point. Within any flight of stairs, the greatest winder tread depth at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm).
Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser or between the largest and smallest tread shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs.
  Exceptions:
  1. Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs complying with Section 1024.11.2.
  2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with Section 1009.8, differing from rectangular treads in the same stairway flight.
  3. Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a distinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive marking stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches (51 mm).
The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be not greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped from the underside of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The leading edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1.25 inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight. Perforated risers with openings not exceeding 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) shall be considered solid risers.
  Exceptions:
  1. Solid risers are not required for stairways that are not serving as means of egress or that are not required to comply with Section 1007.3, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 inches (102 mm).
  2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in Group I-3.
  3. In Group R-3 occupancies, the following shall apply:
  3.1. The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be no greater than 0.5625 inch (14.3 mm).
  3.2. Solid risers are not required provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 inches (102 mm). However, the opening between treads is not limited on stairways with a total rise of 30 inches (762 mm) or less.
There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings shall not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) where the stairway has a straight run.
  Exceptions:
  1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024.
  2. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than 75 percent of the required width. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into a landing.
All stairways shall be built of materials consistent with the type permitted for the type of construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction.
The walking surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be securely attached.
  Exception: In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than areas of parking structures accessible to the public, openings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited provided a sphere with a diameter of 118 inches (29 mm) cannot pass through the opening.
Outdoor stairways and outdoor approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occupancies in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, treads, platforms and landings that are part of exterior stairways in climates subject to snow or ice shall be protected to prevent the accumulation of same.
A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings, except that the vertical rise shall not be greater than 8 feet (2438 mm) in Group A and I occupancies.
  Exception: Aisle stairs comply with Section 1024.
Circular stairways shall have a minimum tread depth and a maximum riser height in accordance with Section 1009.3 and the smaller radius shall not be less than twice the width of the stairway. The minimum tread depth measured 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrower end of the tread shall not be less than 11 inches (279 mm). The minimum tread depth at the narrow end shall not be less than 10 inches (254 mm).
  Exception: For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2.
Winders are not permitted in means of egress stairways except in R-3 occupancies or within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies.
Spiral stairways are permitted to be used as a component in the means of egress only within dwelling units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m2 ) in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from galleries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 1014.6. A spiral stairway shall have a 7.5-inch (191 mm) minimum clear tread depth at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrow edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more than 9.5 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway width shall be 26 inches (660 mm).
Alternating tread devices are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and which serves not more than five occupants; in buildings of Group I-3 from a guard tower, observation station or control room not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs.
Handrails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread devices and shall conform to Section 1009.11.
Alternating tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread of 5 inches (127 mm), a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches (216 mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (241 mm). The initial tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the platform, landing or floor surface.
  Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in an area which serves not more than five occupants shall have a minimum projected tread of 8.5 inches (216 mm) with a minimum tread depth of 10.5 inches (267 mm). The rise to the next alternating tread surface should not be more than 8 inches (203 mm).
Stairways shall have handrails on each side. Handrails shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7. Handrails for ramps, where required by Section 1010.8, shall comply with this section.
  Exceptions:
  1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024 provided with a center handrail need not have additional handrails.
  2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are permitted to have a handrail on one side only.
  3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change in elevation where the landing depth on each side of the change of elevation is greater than what is required for a landing do not require handrails.
  4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation consisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door does not require handrails.
  5. Changes in room elevations of only one riser within dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies do not require handrails.
  6. One handrail shall be allowed in enclosed exit stairs less than 44 inches (1118 mm) wide that do not serve as an accessible means of egress.
Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uniform, not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm).
Intermediate handrails are required so that all portions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 30 inches (762 mm) of a handrail. On monumental stairs, handrails shall be located along the most direct path of egress travel.
Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1.25 inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm) or shall provide equivalent graspability. If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6.25 inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross-section dimension of 2.25 inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25mm).
Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstructions.
  Exceptions:
  1. Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at a stair landing.
  2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout or starting easing is allowed on the lowest tread.
  3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom surface of the handrail that do not project horizontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 1.5 inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall not be considered to be obstructions and provided further that for each 0.5 inch (13 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension above 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 1.5 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced by 0.125 inch (3 mm).
Handrails shall return to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the handrail of an adjacent stair flight. Where handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend horizontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the bottom riser.
  Exceptions:
  1. Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not required to be an Accessible unit, or Type B unit in Group R-2 occupancies, may extend only from the top riser to the bottom riser.
  2. Aisle handrails in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 1024.13.
Clear space between a handrail and a wall or other surface shall be a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm). A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements.
Projections into the required width at each handrail shall not exceed 4.5 inches (114 mm).
In buildings four or more stories or more than 40 feet (12192 mm) in height above grade, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface through a stairway bulkhead complying with Section 1509.2, unless the roof has a slope steeper than 20 degrees. Access to setback roof areas may be through a door or window opening to the roof. Stairs terminating at the level of a setback shall provide access to the setback roof areas, except where the setback is less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in width and 10 feet (3048 mm) in length, measured from the inside of the parapet wall.
In buildings in occupancy Groups I-1, R-1 and R-2 two stories or more in height, with roofs having a slope of 15 degrees or less, all interior stairs, except those terminating at the level of a setback roof, shall extend to the roof surface.
  Exceptions:
  1. In buildings in occupancy Groups R-1 and R-2 two stories in height and in occupancy Group R-2 three stories in height with not more than one dwelling unit per story, access to the roof shall be permitted to be a non-combustible roof hatch or trap door not less than 21 inches (533 mm) in width and 28 inches (711 mm) in length. Such hatches shall be located within the stair enclosure and be provided with a stationary, noncombustible access ladder or alternating tread device.
  2. In buildings in occupancy group R-2 complying with Iem 4 of Section 1018.2, roof access shall be governed by Item 4.6 of such section.
The provisions of this section shall apply to ramps used as a component of a means of egress.
  Exceptions:
  1. Other than ramps that are part of the accessible routes providing access in accordance with Sections 1108.2.2 through 1108.2.4.1, ramped aisles within assembly rooms or spaces shall conform with the provisions in Section 1024.11.
  2. Curb ramps shall comply with ICC A117.1.
  3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit access shall not be required to comply with Sections 1010.3 through 1010.9 when they are not an accessible route serving accessible parking spaces, other required accessible elements or part of an accessible means of egress.
Ramps used as part of a means of egress or part of an accessible route shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other pedestrian ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope).
  Exceptions:
  1. Aisle ramp slope in occupancies of Group A shall comply with Section 1024.11.
  2. In garages three stories or less in height and serving not more than one level below grade, ramps with a maximum slope of one unit vertical in seven units horizontal (14-percent slope) may serve as part of a non accessible means of egress.
The slope measured perpendicular to the direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope).
The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 inches (762 mm) maximum.
The minimum dimensions of means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1010.5.1 through 1010.5.3.
The minimum width of a means of egress ramp shall not be less than that required for corridors by Section 1016.2. The clear width of a ramp and the clear width between handrails, if provided, shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum.
The minimum headroom in all parts of the means of egress ramp shall not be less than 84 inches (2134 mm).
Means of egress ramps shall not reduce the width in the direction of egress travel. Projections into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. Doors opening onto landing shall not reduce the clear width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm). No door shall swing over the sloping portion of a ramp.
Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits and at doors. Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.6.1 through 1010.6.5.
Landings shall have a slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Changes in level are not permitted.
The landing shall be at least as wide as the widest ramp run adjoining the landing.
The landing length shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.
  Exception: Landings in individual dwelling units, that are not Accessible units, or that are not Type B units in Group R-2 occupancies, are permitted to be 36 inches (914mm) minimum.
Where changes in direction of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 mm) minimum.
  Exception: Landings in individual dwelling units, that are not Accessible units, or that are not Type B units in Group R-2 occupancies, are permitted to be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) minimum.
Where doorways are located adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by ICC A117.1 are permitted to overlap the required landing area.
All ramps shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building; except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction. Ramps used as an exit shall conform to the applicable requirements of Sections 1019.1 and 1019.1.1 through 1019.1.3 for vertical exit enclosures.
The surface of ramps shall be of slip-resistant materials that are securely attached.
Outdoor ramps and outdoor approaches to ramps shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occupancies in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, surfaces and landings which are part of exterior ramps in climates subject to snow or ice shall be designed to minimize the accumulation of same.
Ramps with a rise greater than 6 inches (152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides complying with Section 009.11.
Edge protection complying with Section 1010.9.1 shall be provided on each side of ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings not adjoining another ramp run or stairway.
  Exceptions:
  1. Edge protection is not required on ramps not required to have handrails, provided they have flared sides that comply with the ICC A117.1 curb ramp provisions.
  2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp landings having a vertical dropoff of not more than 0.5 inch (13 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) horizontally of the required landing area.
  3. Edge protection is not required where the floor or ground surface of the ramp run or landing extends 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside face of handrail complying with Section 1012.
Edge protection shall be provided as follows:
  1. Solid barriers. Solid barriers shall extend at least 4 inches (102 mm) from the floor or ground surface.
  2. Other types of barriers. Other types of barriers shall prevent the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 4 inches (102 mm) of the floor or ground surface.
Guards shall be provided where required by Section 1012 and shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1012. Such guards may be used to satisfy the requirement of edge protection of Section 1010.9.
Exits and exit access doors shall be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel. Access to exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs in cases where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed viewing distance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign.
  Exceptions:
  1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas which require only one exit or exit access.
  2. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in Group I-1 or R. However, in a congregate living unit where the occupancy of such unit exceeds four people, exit signs shall be provided.
  3. Exit signs are not required in sleeping areas in occupancies in Group I-3.
  4. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are not required on the seating side of vomitories or openings into seating areas where exit signs provided in the concourse are readily apparent from the vomitories. Such vomitories shall be provided with emergency egress lighting to identify each vomitory or opening within the seating area.
In high-rise buildings subject to Section 403, exit signs shall be placed within exits at horizontal extensions to indicate the transition from vertical to horizontal direction and at turns along the horizontal path.
Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated.
  Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need not be provided with illumination.
A tactile sign stating EXIT and complying with ICC A117.1 shall be provided adjacent to each door to an egress stairway, an exit passageway and the exit discharge.
Internally illuminated exit signs shall be listed and labeled and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Section 2702. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times.
The letters of exit signs shall be red.
The height of letters shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm), except that in Group A and Group R-1 occupancies letters shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) high. Graphics shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height.
Externally illuminated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 1011.5.3.
Every exit sign and directional exit sign shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm ) wide. The word "EXIT" shall have letters having a width not less than 2 inches (51 mm) wide except the letter "I," and the minimum spacing between letters shall not be less than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). In Group A and Group R-1 occupancies letters shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) high. Signs larger than the minimum established in this section shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height.
  The word "EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the background and shall be clearly discernible when the exit sign illumination means is or is not energized. The letters of exit signs shall be red. If an arrow is provided as part of the exit sign, the construction shall be such that the arrow direction cannot be readily changed.
The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 25 foot-candles (269.1 lux).
Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency power system provided from storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Section 2702.
Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, mezzanines, industrial equipment platforms, stairways, ramps and landings which are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below. Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7. Guards shall also be located along glazed sides of stairways, ramps and landings that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below where the glazing provided does not meet the strength and attachment requirements in Section 1607.7.
  Exception: Guards are not required for the following locations:
  1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers.
  2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, including steps leading up to the stage and raised platforms.
  3. On raised stage and platform floor areas such as runways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or presentations.
  4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages and platforms.
  5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages and platforms for access to and utilization of special lighting or equipment.
  6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public.
  7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance with Section 1024.14 are permitted and provided.
Guards shall form a protective barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically above the leading edge of the tread, adjacent walking surface or adjacent seatboard.
  Exceptions:
  1. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards whose top rail also serves as a handrail shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from the leading edge of the stair tread nosing.
  2. The height in assembly seating areas shall be in accordance with Section 1024.14.
Open guards shall have balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 inches (864 mm). From a height of 34 inches (864 mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walking surfaces, a sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter shall not pass.
  Exceptions:
  1. The triangular openings formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail at the open side of a stairway shall be of a maximum size such that a sphere of 6 inches (152 mm) in diameter cannot pass through the opening.
  2. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any opening.
  3. In areas which are not open to the public within occupancies in Group I-3, F, H or S, balusters, horizontal intermediate rails or other construction shall not permit a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) to pass through any opening.
  4. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies and galleries shall have balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 26 inches (660 mm). From a height of 26 inches (660 mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walking surfaces, a sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter shall not pass.
Porches and decks which are enclosed with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the walking surface is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below.
Guards shall be provided where appliances, equipment, fans or other components that require service are located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a 21-inch-diameter (533 mm) sphere.
The exit access arrangement shall comply with Sections 1013 through 1016 and the applicable provisions of Sections 1003 through 1012.
Egress from a room or space shall not pass through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, except where such adjoining rooms or areas are accessory to the area served; are not a high-hazard occupancy and provide a discernible path of egress travel to an exit. Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes. An exit access shall not pass through a room that can be locked to prevent egress. Means of egress from dwelling units or sleeping areas shall not lead through other sleeping areas, toilet rooms or bathrooms.
  Exceptions:
  1. Means of egress are not prohibited through a kitchen area serving adjoining rooms constituting part of the same dwelling unit or sleeping unit.
  2. Means of egress are not prohibited through adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces in a Group H occupancy when the adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces are the same or a lesser hazard occupancy group.
Where more than one tenant occupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with access to the required exits without passing through adjacent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units.
Patient sleeping rooms or suites in Group I-2 occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly to an exit access corridor.
  Exceptions:
  1. Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the outside at ground level.
  2. Patient sleeping rooms are permitted to have one intervening room if the intervening room is not used as an exit access for more than eight patient beds.
  3. Special nursing suites are permitted to have one intervening room where the arrangement allows for direct and constant visual supervision by nursing personnel.
  4. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms, suites of rooms are permitted to have one intervening room if the travel distance within the suite to the exit access door is not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm) and are permitted to have two intervening rooms where the travel distance within the suite to the exit access door is not greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 5,000 square feet (465 m2). Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m2). Any patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have at least two exit access doors remotely located from each other. Any room or suite of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) shall have at least two access doors remotely located from each other. The travel distance between any point in a Group I-2 occupancy and an exit access door in the room shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The travel distance between any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access door of that suite shall not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm).
In occupancies other than Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3, the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). In occupancies in Groups H-1, H-2, and H-3, the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm).
  Exceptions:
  1. The length of a common path of egress travel in an occupancy in Groups B, F and S shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm), provided that the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Where a tenant space in an occupancy in Groups B, S and U has an occupant load of not more than 30, the length of a common path of egress travel shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
  3. The length of a common path of egress travel in occupancies in Group I-3 shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
Aisles serving as a portion of the exit access in the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Aisles shall be provided from all occupied portions of the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, displays and similar fixtures or equipment. Aisles serving assembly areas, other than seating at tables, shall comply with Section 1024. Aisles serving reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers shall also comply with Section 1024.
  The required width of aisles shall be unobstructed.
  Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features are permitted to project into the required width 1.5 inches (38 mm) from each side.
In Group B and M occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be determined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm).
  Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 people, and not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 need not exceed 28 inches (711 mm) in width.
Where seating is located at a table or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle accessway, the measurement of the minimum aisle width shall start at a line 19 inches (483 mm) away from the table side or edge for the purpose of providing space for the seat without obstructing the aisle or aisle accessway. In the case of other side boundaries for aisle or aisle accessways, the clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges, except that handrail projections are permitted.
  Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed seats, the width of the aisle accessway shall be measured from the back of the seat.
Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seating at tables or counters shall have sufficient clear width to conform to the capacity requirements of Section 1005.1.
Aisle accessways shall provide a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) of width plus 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of width for each additional 1 foot (305 mm), or fraction thereof, beyond 12 feet (3658 mm) of aisle accessway length measured from the center of the seat farthest from an aisle.
  Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by a total of not more than four persons.
The length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to the point where a person has a choice of two or more paths of egress travel to separate exits.
Balconies used for egress purposes shall conform to the same requirements as corridors for width, headroom, dead ends and projections. Exterior balconies shall be designed to minimize accumulation of snow or ice that impedes the means of egress.
  Exception: Exterior balconies and concourses in outdoor stadiums shall be exempt from the design requirement to protect against the accumulation of snow or ice.
Exterior egress balconies shall be separated from the interior of the building by walls and opening protectives as required for corridors.
  Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior egress balcony is served by at least two stairs and where any dead-end portion of the balcony is separated.
The long side of an egress balcony shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
In buildings in occupancy Group R-2 exceeding three stories or more in height or occupied by more than two dwelling units on any story, a door from a dwelling unit shall open into an intervening public hall. Such public hall shall be constructed as a public corridor in accordance with Section 1016. Where two or more exits are required, such public hall shall provide access to at least two exits.
  Exception: An intervening public hall shall not be required in buildings complying with Item 4 of Section 1018.2.
Two exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. The occupant load of the space exceeds the values in Table 1014.1.
  2. The common path of egress travel exceeds the limitations of Section 1013.3.
  3. Where required by Sections 1014.3, 1014.4 and 1014.5.
  Exception: Group I-2 occupancies shall comply with Section 1013.2.2.

TABLE 1014.1
SPACES WITH ONE MEANS OF EGRESS
OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD
A, B, E, M, U 74
F 50
H-1, H-2, H-3 3
H-4, H-5, I-1, I-3, I-4 10
I-2 See Section 1013.2.2
R 20
S 30
Access to three or more exits shall be provided from a floor area where required by Section 1018.1.
Required exits shall be located in a manner that makes their availability obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. Exit and exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with Sections 1014.2.1 and 1014.2.2.
Where two exits or exit access doorways are required from any portion of the exit access, the exit doors or exit access doorways shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exit doors or exit access doorways. Stairs sharing any common wall, floors, ceilings, scissor stair assemblies, or other enclosures shall be counted as one exit stairway.
  Exceptions:
  1. Corridor measurements. Where exit enclosures are provided as a portion of the required exit and are interconnected by a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conforming to the requirements of Section 1016, the required exit separation shall be measured along the shortest direct line of travel within the corridor.
  2. Remote location in sprinklered buildings. Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation distance of the exit doors or exit access doorways shall not be less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served.
  3. R-2 occupancies. In R-2 occupancies, where stairs are enclosed in walls having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating and constructed of masonry or masonry equivalent in accordance with department rules:
  3.1. The exit doors to such stairs shall be placed a distance apart equal to no less than 15 feet (4572 mm); and
  3.2. Such stairs shall be permitted to share common walls, floors, ceilings or scissor stairs assemblies or other enclosures provided that the construction separating the stairs is also of at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating and constructed of masonry or masonry equivalent in accordance with department rules.
  4. B occupancies. In Group B occupancies of construction Type I or II not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height, not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) on any story and not exceeding a travel distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) on any story, where stairs are enclosed in walls having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating and constructed of masonry or masonry equivalent in accordance with department rules:
  4.1. The exit doors to such stairs shall be placed a distance apart equal to no less than 15 feet (4572 mm); and
  4.2. Such stairs shall be permitted to share common walls, floors, ceilings or scissor stairs assemblies.
Where access to three or more exits is required, at least two exit doors or exit access doorways shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served measured in a straight line between such exit doors or exit access doorways. Additional exits or exit access doorways shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked, the others will be available.
  Exception: Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation distance of at least two of the exit doors or exit access doorways shall not be less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served.
Two exit access doorways are required in boiler, furnace and incinerator rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m2 ) and any fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) (422000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access doorways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of the room.
Machinery rooms larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2 ) shall have not less than two exits or exit access doors. Where two exit access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of room. All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 150 feet (45720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in travel distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1015.1. Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and self-closing.
Rooms or spaces having a floor area of 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or more, containing a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doors. Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 1015.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces.
  Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the New York City Mechanical Code.
Where two means of egress are required based on the stage size or occupant load, one means of egress shall be provided on each side of the stage.
The means of egress from lighting and access catwalks, galleries and gridirons shall meet the requirements for occupancies in Group F-2.
  Exceptions:
  1. A minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm) is permitted for lighting and access catwalks.
  2. Stairways required by this subsection need not be enclosed.
  3. Stairways with a minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm), ladders, alternating tread devices or spiral stairs are permitted in the means of egress.
  4. A second means of egress is not required from these areas where a means of escape to a floor or to a roof is provided.
Exits shall be so located on each story such that the maximum length of exit access travel, measured from the most remote point within a story to the entrance to an exit along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, shall not exceed the distances given in Table 1015.1.
  Where the path of exit access includes unenclosed stairways or ramps within the exit access or includes unenclosed exit ramps or stairways as permitted in Section 1019.1, the distance of travel on such means of egress components shall also be included in the travel distance measurement. The measurement along stairways shall be made on a plane parallel and tangent to the stair tread nosings in the center of the stairway.
  Exceptions:
  1. Travel distance in open parking garages is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of open stairs.
  2. In outdoor facilities with open exit access components and open exterior stairs or ramps, travel distance is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of a stair or the closest slope of the ramp.
  3. Where an exit stair is permitted to be unenclosed in accordance with Exception 8 or 9 of Section 1019.1, the travel distance shall be measured from the most remote point within a building to an exit discharge.

TABLE 1015.1
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCEa
OCCUPANCY WITHOUT SPRINKLER
SYSTEM
(feet)
WITH SPRINKLER
SYSTEM
(feet)
A See Section 1024.7
E, F-1, I-1,
M, R, S-1
150 200b
B 200 300c
F-2, S-2, U 200 200b
H-1 Not Permitted 75c
H-2 Not Permitted 100c
H-3 Not Permitted 150c
H-4 Not Permitted 175c
H-5 Not Permitted 200c
I-2, I-3, I-4 150 200c
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. See the following sections for modifications to exit access travel distance requirements:Section 402: For the distance limitation in malls.Section 404: For the distance limitation through an atrium space.Section 1018.2: For buildings with one exit.Chapter 31: For the limitation in temporary structures.
  2. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. See Section 903 for occupancies where sprinkler systems according to Section 903.3.1.2 are permitted.
  3. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Travel distances specified in Section 1015.1 shall be increased up to an additional 100 feet (30 480 mm) provided the last portion of the exit access leading to the exit occurs on an exterior egress balcony constructed in accordance with Section 1013.5. The length of such balcony shall not be less than the amount of the increase taken.
Corridors shall be constructed in accordance with this section. Interior corridor walls required to be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 708 for fire partitions. Public corridor walls shall comply with Section 706 for fire barriers.
Interior corridors shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table 1016.1.1.
  Exceptions:
  1. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in an occupancy in Group E where each room that is used for instruction has at least one door directly to the exterior and rooms for assembly purposes have at least one-half of the required means of egress doors opening directly to the exterior. Exterior doors specified in this exception are required to be at ground level.
  2. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors contained within a dwelling or sleeping unit in an occupancy in Group R.
  3. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in open parking garages.
  4. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in an occupancy in Group B which is a space requiring only a single means of egress complying with Section 1014.1.

TABLE 1016.1.1
INTERIOR CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
OCCUPANCY OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY INTERIOR
CORRIDOR
REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
(hours)
Without sprinkler system With sprinkler systemc
H-1, H-2, H-3 All Not Permitted 1
H-4, H-5 Greater than 30 Not Permitted 1
A, B, E, F, M, S, U Greater than 30 1 0
R Greater than 10 1d 0
I-2a, I-4 All Not Permitted 0
I-1, I-3 All Not Permitted 1b
  1. For requirements for occupancies in Group I-2, see Section 407.3.
  2. For a reduction in the fire-resistance rating for occupancies in Group I-3, see Section 408.7.
  3. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 where allowed.
  4. Interior corridors within dwelling or sleeping units in Group R occupancies pursuant to Section 1016.1.1, Exception 2 shall not require fire-resistance rating.
Public corridors shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table 1016.1.2.

TABLE 1016.1.2
PUBLIC CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
OCCUPANCY REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
(hours)
H-1, H-2, H-3 2
H-4, H-5 1
A, E, F, M, S, U 1
B 1a
R (Noncombustible) 1
R (Combustible) 2b
I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4 1
  1. Public corridors need not be fire rated in high-rise buildings in Occupancy Group B equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where such building is provided with smokeproof enclosures in stairwaysin accordance with Section 403.13.
  2. Public corridors in buildings not exceeding two stories in height, or that are three stories in height and occupied by not more than one family on each story, may be constructed with 1-hour fire-resistance rating.
The minimum corridor width shall be as determined in Section 1005.1, but not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).
  Exceptions:
  1. Twenty-four inches (610 mm)—For access to and utilization of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment.
  2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm)—With a required occupant capacity of 50 or less, except as otherwise required by Chapter 11.
  3. Thirty-six inches (914 mm)—Within a dwelling unit in occupancy Groups I-1 and R-1, except as otherwise required by Section 1107.
  4. Thirty inches (762 mm) —Within a dwelling unit in occupancy Groups R-2 and R-3, except as otherwise required by Section 1107.
  5. Sixty-six inches (1676 mm)—In Group E serving classrooms.
  6. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm)—In corridors serving surgical Group I, health care centers for ambulatory patients receiving outpatient medical care, which causes the patient to be not capable of self-preservation.
  7. Ninety-six inches (2438 mm)—In Group I-2 in areas where required for bed movement.
Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length.
  Exceptions:
  1. In occupancies in Group I-3 of Occupancy Condition 2, 3 or 4 (see Section 308.4), the dead end in a corridor shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  2. In occupancies in Groups B and F where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the length of dead-end corridors shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  3. Dead-end length not exceeding 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor.
  4. In occupancies in Group R-2, the dead end in a corridor shall not exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm). However, where the corridors are completely enclosed in construction having a 2-hour fire-resistance rating with all doors opening into the corridor being self-closing and having a fire-resistance rating of 11/2 hours, the length of dead-end corridor shall not exceed 80 feet (24 384 mm).
Use of corridors as part of direct supply, return, or exhaust air system shall be subject to the limitations of the New York City Mechanical Code.
Use of the space between the corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above as a return air plenum shall be in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.
Fire-resistance-rated corridors shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, and shall not be interrupted by intervening rooms.
  Exception: Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.
Exits shall comply with Sections 1017 through 1022 and the applicable requirements of Sections 1003 through 1012. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that interferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a given level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge.
Buildings or structures used for human occupancy shall have at least one exterior door that meets the requirements of Section 1008.1.1.
Exterior exit doors shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1008.1.
Exterior exit doors shall lead directly to the exit discharge or the public way.
All rooms and spaces within each story shall be provided with and have access to the minimum number of approved independent exits as required by Table 1018.1 based on the occupant load of such story, except as modified in Section 1018.2. For the purposes of this chapter, occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories. The required number of exits from any story, basement or individual space shall be maintained until arrival at grade or the public way.
  Exception: Unless otherwise required by other provisions of this chapter, the number of exits from ground floors discharging at grade directly to the exterior shall be determined in accordance with Table 1014.1.

TABLE 1018.1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD
OCCUPANT LOAD MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS
1-500 2
H-4, H-5 1
More than 1,000 4
Parking garages shall not have less than two exits from each parking tier. An unenclosed vehicle ramp constructed in accordance with Section 1010.2 may serve as one of the required exits when provided with pedestrian facilities along the ramp.
  Exception: Where vehicles are mechanically parked, only one exit is required but such exit shall not be a vehicle ramp.
In open or enclosed parking garages three stories or less in height and serving not more than one level below grade, ramps with a maximum slope of one unit vertical in seven units horizontal may serve as secondary exits.
Only one exit shall be required in buildings as described below:
  1. Buildings described in Table 1018.2, provided that the building has not more than one level below the first story above grade plane.
  2. Buildings of Group R-3 occupancy.
  3. Single-level buildings with the occupied space at the level of exit discharge provided that the story or space complies with Section 1014.1 as a space with one means of egress.
  4. Buildings of Group R-2 occupancy where all of the following conditions are met:
  4.1. The building does not exceed four stories;
  4.2. The building contains not more than three dwelling units per story;
  4.3. The building is of construction Type I or II;
  4.4. The building does not exceed 2,500 square feet (232 m2) per story;   4.5. Each dwelling unit has at least one window facing the street, or facing a lawful yard with open, unobstructed, and direct access to the street;
  4.6. The stairway extends to the roof surface through a stairway bulkhead complying with Section 1509.2 provided the roof has a slope not steeper than 20 degrees. In lieu of the stairway bulkhead, the stair may be constructed against the street wall with one window facing the street at every landing and access to the roof is provided via a scuttle with a stationary, noncombustible access ladder;
  4.7. The stairway is enclosed in two-hour fire-rated walls with all exit doors leading into the stairway having at least 11/2 hour fire-rating; and
  4.8 The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.
  5. Buildings of Group R-2 occupancy of construction Type I or II not exceeding six stories and not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) per story.

TABLE 1018.2
BUILDINGS WITH ONE EXIT
OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF
BUILDING ABOVE
GRADE PLANE
MAXIMUM OCCUPANTS
(OR DWELLING UNITS) PER
FLOOR AND
TRAVEL DISTANCE
A, Bc, E, F, M, U 1 Story 50 occupants and 75 feet
travel distance
H-2, H-3 1 Story 3 occupants and 75 feet
travel distance
H-4, H-5, I, R 1 Story 10 occupants and 75 feet
travel distance
Sa 1 Story 30 occupants and 100 feet
travel distance
B, F, M, Sa 2 Stories 30 occupants and 75 feet
travel distance
R-2d, e 2 Stories 4 dwelling units and 50
feet travel distance
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. For the required number of exits for open parking structures, see Section 1018.1.1.
  2. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and provided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1025 shall have a maximum height of three stories above grade.
  3. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 with an occupancy in Group B shall have a maximum travel distance of 100 feet.
  4. Buildings classified as Group R-2 subject to Section 1018.2, Item 4.
  5. Buildings classified as Group R-2 subject to Section 1018.2, Item 5.
Exits shall be continuous from the point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge.
Exit door arrangement shall meet the requirements of Sections 1014.2 through 1014.2.2.
Interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers. Exit enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezzanines. An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose other than means of egress. Enclosures shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 706.
  Exceptions:
  1. In other than Group H and I occupancies, a stairway serving an occupant load of less than 10 and not more than one story above the level of exit discharge is not required to be enclosed.
  2. Exits in buildings of Group A-5 where all portions of the means of egress are essentially open to the outside need not be enclosed.
  3. Stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in occupancies in Group R-1, R-2 or R-3 are not required to be enclosed.
  4. Stairways that are not a required means of egress element are not required to be enclosed where such stairways comply with Section 707.2.
  5. Stairways in open parking structures which serve only the parking structure are not required to be enclosed.
  6. Stairways in occupancies in Group I-3 shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls as provided for in Section 408.3.6.
  7. Means of egress stairways as required by Section 410.5.4 are not required to be enclosed.
  8. In other than occupancy Groups H and I, a maximum of 50 percent of egress stairways serving one adjacent floor are not required to be enclosed, provided at least two means of egress are provided from both floors served by the unenclosed stairways. Any two such interconnected floors shall not be open to other floors.
  9. In other than occupancy Groups H and I, interior egress stairways serving only the first and second stories of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 are not required to be enclosed, provided at least two means of egress are provided from both floors served by the unenclosed stairways. Such interconnected stories shall not be open to other stories.
  10. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, where exit enclosures are required to have a fire-resistance rating of 2 hours, such enclosures shall be constructed of masonry or masonry equivalent. Wall assemblies constituting masonry equivalent shall be constructed in accordance with department rules.
Exit enclosure opening protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 715.
  Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6, openings in exit enclosures other than unexposed exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the enclosure.
  Where interior exit enclosures are extended to the exterior of a building by an exit passageway, the door assembly from the exit enclosure to the exit passageway shall be protected by a fire door conforming to the requirements in Section 715.3. Fire door assemblies in exit enclosures shall comply with Section 715.3.4.
Penetrations into and openings through an exit enclosure are prohibited except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for Fire Department communication and electrical raceway serving the exit enclosure and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010m2). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 712. There shall be no penetrations or communication openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit enclosures.
Equipment and ductwork for exit enclosure ventilation necessary for independent pressurization shall comply with one of the following items:
  1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and shall be directly connected to the exit enclosure by ductwork enclosed in construction as required for shafts.
  2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located within the exit enclosure, the intake air shall be taken directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be discharged directly to the outdoors, or such air shall be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction as required for shafts.
  3. Where located within the building, such equipment and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, with construction as required for shafts. In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated construction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance and operation and shall be protected by self-closing fire-resistance-rated devices in accordance with Chapter 7 for enclosure wall opening protectives. Exit enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems.
Exterior walls of a vertical exit enclosure shall comply with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls. Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings enclose the exterior of the stairway and the walls or openings are exposed to other parts of the building at an angle of less than 180 degrees (3.14 rad), the building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall be constructed as required for a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 34 -hour opening protectives. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the topmost landing of the stairway or to the roof line, whichever is lower.
The walls and soffits within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unenclosed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, or the fire-resistance rating of the stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the enclosed usable space shall not be directly from within the stair enclosure.
  Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group R-2 or R-3.
  There shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose.
A stairway in an exit enclosure shall not continue below the level of exit discharge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level of exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally continuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be provided as specified in Section 1011. An approved barrier shall consist of one-hour rated construction separating the portion of the vertical exit above grade from the portion below grade, with a three-quarter hour rated self-closing door, opening in the direction of exit travel from the floors below grade.
  Exception: Such barrier separating the above grade portion of the vertical exit from the portion below grade shall not be required in Group E and R-3 occupancies.
A sign shall be provided at each floor landing in interior vertical exit enclosures connecting more than three stories designating the floor level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the stair enclosure and the identification of the stair. The signage shall also state the story of, and the direction to the exit discharge and the availability of roof access from the stairway for the Fire Department. Each stair shall be identified by an alphabetic letter. Stairway identification signs shall be provided on both sides of each stair door. The signs shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor landing in a position which is readily visible when the doors are in the open and closed positions.
In buildings required to comply with Section 403.13 or 405.8.2, each of the exits of a building that serves stories where the floor surface is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of Fire Department vehicle access or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the level of exit discharge serving such floor levels shall be a smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway in accordance with Section 909.20.
A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall exit into a public way or into an exit passageway, yard or open space having direct access to a public way. The exit passageway shall be without other openings and shall be separated from the remainder of the building by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.
  Exceptions:
  1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a smokeproof enclosure are permitted where the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, and openings are protected as required for access from other floors.
  2. Openings in the exit passageway serving a pressurized stairway are permitted where the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the pressurized stairway.
  3. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall be permitted to egress through areas on the level of discharge or vestibules as permitted by Section 1023.
Access to the stairway within a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony.
  Exceptions: Access is not required by way of a vestibule or exterior balcony for stairways using the pressurization alternative complying with Section 909.20.5.
Exit passageways serving as an exit component in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. An exit passageway shall not be used for any purpose other than as a means of egress.
The width of exit passageways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1 but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except that exit passageways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width.
  The required width of exit passageways shall be unobstructed.
  Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails, shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features are permitted to project into the required width 1.5 inches (38 mm) on each side.
Exit passageway enclosures shall have walls, floors and ceilings of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance rating, and not less than that required for any connecting exit enclosure. Exit passageways shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 706.
Exit passageway opening protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 715.
  Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6, openings in exit passageways other than unexposed exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the exit passageway from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the exit passageway.
  Where interior exit enclosures are extended to the exterior of a building by an exit passageway, the door assembly from the exit enclosure to the exit passageway shall be protected by a fire door conforming to the requirements in Section 715.3. Fire door assemblies in exit passageways shall comply with Section 715.3.4.
  Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway.
Penetrations into and openings through an exit passageway are prohibited except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for fire department communication and electrical raceway serving the exit passageway and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m2). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 712. There shall be no penetrations or communicating openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit passageways.
Horizontal exits serving as an exit in a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the total number of exits or total exit width shall be horizontal exits.
  Exceptions:
  1. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two-thirds of the required exits from any building or floor area for occupancies in Group I-2.
  2. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 percent of the exits required for occupancies in Group I-3. At least 6 square feet (0.6 m2) of accessible space per occupant shall be provided on each side of the horizontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining compartments. Every fire compartment for which credit is allowed in connection with a horizontal exit shall not be required to have a stairway or door leading directly outside, provided the adjoining fire compartments have stairways or doors leading directly outside and are so arranged that egress shall not require the occupants to return through the compartment from which egress originates. The area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits adequate to meet the occupant requirements of this chapter, but not including the added occupant capacity imposed by persons entering it through horizontal exits from another area. At least one of its exits shall lead directly to the exterior or to an exit enclosure.
The separation between buildings or areas of refuge connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided by a fire wall complying with Section 705 or a fire barrier complying with Section 706 and having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Opening protectives in horizontal exit walls shall also comply with Section 715. The horizontal exit separation shall extend vertically through all levels of the building unless floor assemblies are of 2-hour fire resistance with no unprotected openings.
  Exception: A fire-resistance rating is not required at horizontal exits between a building area and an above-grade pedestrian walkway constructed in accordance with Section 3104, provided that the distance between connected buildings is more than 20 feet (6096 mm). Horizontal exit walls constructed as fire barriers shall be continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide completely the floor served by the horizontal exit.
Fire doors in horizontal exits shall be self-closing or automatic-closing when activated by a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 907.10. Opening protectives in horizontal exits shall be consistent with the fire-resistance rating of the wall. Such doors where located in a cross-corridor condition shall be automatic-closing by activation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 907.10.
The area of refuge of a horizontal exit shall be spaces occupied by the same tenant or public areas and each such area of refuge shall be adequate to house the original occupant load of the refuge space plus the occupant load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The anticipated occupant load from the adjoining compartment shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal exit doors entering the area of refuge. The capacity of areas of refuge shall be computed on a net floor area allowance of 3 square feet (0.28 m2) for each occupant to be accommodated therein, not including areas of stairways, elevators and other shafts or courts.
  Exception: The net floor area allowable per occupant shall be as follows for the indicated occupancies:
  1. Six square feet (0.6 m2) per occupant for occupancies in Group I-3.
  2. Fifteen square feet (1.4 m2) per occupant for ambulatory occupancies in Group I-2.
  3. Thirty square feet (2.8 m2) per occupant for nonambulatory occupancies in Group I-2.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means of egress shall comply with this section.
  Exception: Exterior exit ramps and stairways for outdoor stadiums complying with Section 1019.1, Exception 2.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall not be used as an element of a required means of egress for occupancies in Group I-2. For occupancies in other than Group I-2, exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be permitted as an element of a required means of egress for buildings not exceeding six stories or 75 feet (22860 mm) in height.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means of egress shall be open on at least one side. An open side shall have a minimum of 35 square feet (3.3 m2) of aggregate open area adjacent to each floor level and the level of each intermediate landing. The required open area shall be located not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent floor or landing level.
The open areas adjoining exterior exit ramps or stairways shall be either yards, courts or public ways; the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the exterior walls of the building.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be located in accordance with Section 1023.3.
Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be separated from the interior of the building as required in Section 1019.1. Openings shall be limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied spaces.
  Exceptions:
  1. In other than Group R-1 or R-2 occupancies, separation from the interior of the building is not required in buildings that are no more than two stories above grade where the level of exit discharge is the first story above grade.
  2. Separation from the interior of the building is not required where the exterior ramp or stairway is served by an exterior ramp and/or balcony that connects two remote exterior stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the openings no less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top of the balcony.
  3. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for an exterior ramp or stairway located in a building or structure that is permitted to have unenclosed interior stairways in accordance with Section 1019.1.
  4. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for exterior ramps or stairways connected to open-ended corridors, provided that Items 4.1 through 4.4 are met:
  4.1. The building, including corridors and ramps and/or stairs, shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Section 1016.
  4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on each end to an exterior exit ramp or stairway complying with Section 1022.
  4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor where a change of direction exceeding 45 degrees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not less than 35 square feet (3.3 m2) or an exterior ramp or stairway shall be provided. Where clear openings are provided, they shall be located so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.
Fire towers may be used as exits in lieu of interior stairs provided they comply with all of the requirements for stairways as per Section 1009, except as modified below.
The enclosing walls of fire towers shall be of noncombustible materials or assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of at least 4 hours. Such walls shall be without openings, except for doors serving as means of egress.
At each story served by a fire