Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas; Separation of Occupancies

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction or Demolition

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards [PDF]

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodent Proofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Outdoor Signs

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix K Modified Industry Standards for Elevators and Conveying Systems

Appendix M Supplementary Requirements for One- And Two-Family Dwellings

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix N Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix P R-2 Occupancy Toilet and Bathing Facilities Requirements

Appendix Q Modified National Standards for Automatic Sprinkler, Standpipe, and Fire Alarm Systems

Appendix R Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panel Ceiling Suspension Systems

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The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of wood members and their fasteners.
The design of structural elements or systems, constructed partially or wholly of wood or wood-based products, shall be based on one of the following methods.
Design using allowable stress design methods shall resist the applicable load combinations of Chapter 16 in accordance with the provisions of Sections 2304, 2305 and 2306.
Design using load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods shall resist the applicable load combinations of Chapter 16 in accordance with the provisions of Sections 2304, 2305 and 2307.
The design and construction of conventional light-frame wood construction shall be in accordance with the provisions of Sections 2304 and 2308.
  Exception: Buildings designed in accordance with the provisions of the AF&PA; Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings shall be deemed to meet the requirements of the provisions of Section 2308.
For the purposes of this chapter, where dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual dimensions (see Section 2304.2).
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein.
  ADJUSTED SHEAR RESISTANCE. The unadjusted shear resistance multiplied by the shear resistance adjustment factors of Table 2305.3.7.2.
  BRACED WALL LINE. A series of braced wall panels in a single story that meets the requirements of Section 2308.3 or 2308.12.4.
  BRACED WALL PANEL. A section of wall braced in accordance with Section 2308.9.3 or 2308.12.4.
  COLLECTOR. A horizontal diaphragm element parallel and in line with the applied force that collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system and/or distributes forces within the diaphragm.
  CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME WOOD CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose primary structural elements are formed by a system of repetitive wood-framing members. See Section 2308 for conventional light-frame wood construction provisions.
  CRIPPLE WALL. A framed stud wall extending from the top of the foundation to the underside of floor framing for the lowest occupied floor level.
  DIAPHRAGM, UNBLOCKED. A diaphragm that has edge nailing at supporting members only. Blocking between supporting structural members at panel edges is not included. Diaphragm panels are field nailed to supporting members.
  DRAG STRUT. See "Collector."
  FIBERBOARD. A fibrous, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers (usually wood or cane) and having a density of less than 31 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (497 kg/m3) but more than 10 pcf (160 kg/m3).
  FIRECUTTING. The ends of wood beams, joists, and rafters resting on masonry or concrete walls shall be fire cut to a bevel of three inches in their depth.
  GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. A structural element, the section of which is composed of built-up lumber, wood structural panels or wood structural panels in combination with lumber, all parts bonded together with structural adhesives.
  GRADE (LUMBER). The classification of lumber in regard to strength and utility in accordance with American Softwood Lumber Standard DOC PS 20 and the grading rules of an approved lumber rules-writing agency.
  HARDBOARD. A fibrous-felted, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers consolidated under heat and pressure in a hot press to a density not less than 31 pcf (497 kg/m3).
  NAILING, BOUNDARY. A special nailing pattern required by design at the boundaries of diaphragms.
  NAILING, EDGE. A special nailing pattern required by design at the edges of each panel within the assembly of a diaphragm or shear wall.
  NAILING, FIELD. Nailing required between the sheathing panels and framing members at locations other than boundary nailing and edge nailing.
  NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species with the exception that an occasional piece with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood.
  Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.
  Termite resistant. Redwood and Eastern red cedar.
  NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). The commercial size designation of width and depth, in standard sawn lumber and glued-laminated lumber grades; somewhat larger than the standard net size of dressed lumber, in accordance with DOC PS 20 for sawn lumber and with the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS) for glued-laminated lumber.
  PARTICLEBOARD. A generic term for a panel primarily composed of cellulosic materials (usually wood), generally in the form of discrete pieces or particles, as distinguished from fibers. The cellulosic material is combined with synthetic resin or other suitable bonding system by a process in which the interparticle bond is created by the bonding system under heat and pressure.
  PERFORATED SHEAR WALL. A wood structural panel sheathed wall with openings, that has not been specifically designed and detailed for force transfer around openings.
  PERFORATED SHEAR WALL SEGMENT. A section of shear wall with full-height sheathing that meets the aspect ratio limits of Section 2305.3.3.
  PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD. Wood (including plywood) pressure treated with preservatives in accordance with Section 2303.1.8.
  REFERENCE RESISTANCE (D). The resistance (force or moment as appropriate) of a member or connection computed at the reference end use conditions.
  SHEAR WALL. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall.
  STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. Any member comprising an assembly of laminations of lumber in which the grain of all laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally, in which the laminations are bonded with adhesives.
  SUBDIAPHRAGM. A portion of a larger wood diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main diaphragm.
  TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). A device used to resist uplift of the chords of shear walls.
  TREATED WOOD. Wood impregnated under pressure with compounds that reduce its susceptibility to flame spread or to deterioration caused by fungi, insects or marine borers.
  UNADJUSTED SHEAR RESISTANCE. The allowable shear set forth in Table 2306.4.1 where the aspect ratio of any perforated shear wall segment used in calculation of perforated shear wall resistance does not exceed 2:1. Where the aspect ratio of any perforated shear wall segment used in calculation of perforated shear wall resistance is greater than 2:1, but not exceeding 3.5:1, the unadjusted shear resistance shall be the allowable shear set forth in Table 2306.4.1, multiplied by 2w/h.
  WOOD SHEAR PANEL. A wood floor, roof or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.
  WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers, or wood strands or wafers, or a combination of veneer and wood strands or wafers, bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples of wood structural panels are:
  Composite panels. A structural panel that is made of layers of veneer and wood-based material;
  Oriented strand board (OSB). A wood structural panel that is a mat-formed product composed of thin rectangular wood strands or wafers arranged in oriented layers; or
  Plywood. A wood structural panel comprised of plies of wood veneer arranged in cross-aligned layers.
Structural lumber, end-jointed lumber, prefabricated I-joists, structural glued-laminated timber, wood structural panels, fiberboard sheathing (when used structurally), hardboard siding (when used structurally), particleboard, preservative-treated wood, fire-retardant-treated wood, hardwood, plywood, trusses and joist hangers shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Lumber used for load-supporting purposes, including end-jointed or edge-glued lumber, machine stress-rated or machine evaluated lumber, shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by the commissioner that complies with DOC PS 20 or equivalent. Grading practices and identification shall comply with rules published by an agency approved in accordance with the procedures of DOC PS 20 or equivalent procedures. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section is permitted to be accepted for precut, remanufactured or rough-sawn lumber, and for sizes larger than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal thickness. Approved end-jointed lumber is permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.
Structural capacities and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5055. The use of prefabricated wood I-joists structurally shall be subject to the special inspection requirements of Chapter 17.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
Wood structural panels, when used structurally (including those used for siding, roof and wall sheathing, sub-flooring, diaphragms and built-up members), shall conform to the requirements for their type in DOC PS 1 or PS 2. Each panel or member shall be identified for grade and glue type by the trademarks of an approved testing and grading agency. Wood structural panel components shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the applicable standards listed in Section 2306.1 and identified by the trademarks of an approved testing and inspection agency indicating conformance with the applicable standard. In addition, wood structural panels when permanently exposed in outdoor applications shall be of exterior type, except that wood structural panel roof sheathing exposed to the outdoors on the underside is permitted to be interior type bonded with exterior glue, Exposure 1.
Fiberboard for its various uses shall conform to ANSI/AHA A 194.1 or ASTM C 208. Fiberboard sheathing, when used structurally, shall be so identified by an approved agency as conforming to ANSI/AHA A 194.1 or ASTM C 208.
To ensure tight-fitting assemblies, edges shall be manufactured with square, ship-lapped, beveled, tongue-and-groove or U-shaped joints.
Where used as roof insulation in all types of construction, fiberboard shall be protected with an approved roof covering.
Where installed and fire-blocked to comply with Chapter 7, fiberboards are permitted as wall insulation in all types of construction. In fire walls and fire barriers, unless treated to comply with Section 803.1 for Class A materials, the boards shall be cemented directly to the concrete, masonry or other noncombustible base and shall be protected with an approved noncombustible veneer anchored to the base without intervening airspaces.
Fiberboard wall insulation applied on the exterior of foundation walls shall be protected below ground level with a bituminous coating.
Where used as roof decking in open beam construction, fiberboard insulation roof deck shall have a nominal thickness of not less than 1 inch (25 mm).
Hardboard siding used structurally shall be identified by an approved agency conforming to AHA A135.6. Hardboard under-layment shall meet the strength requirements of 7 / 3 2 -inch (5.6 mm) or 1 / 4 -inch (6.4 mm) service class hardboard planed or sanded on one side to a uniform thickness of not less than 0.200 inch (5.1 mm). Prefinished hardboard paneling shall meet the requirements of AHA A135.5. Other basic hardboard products shall meet the requirements of AHA A135.4. Hardboard products shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. Particleboard shall not be utilized for applications other than indicated in this section unless the particleboard complies with the provisions of Section 2306.4.3.
Particleboard floor underlayment shall conform to Type PBU of ANSI A208.1. Type PBU underlayment shall not be less than 1 / 4 -inch (6.4 mm) thick and shall be installed in accordance with the instructions of the Composite Panel Association.
Lumber, timber, plywood, piles and poles supporting permanent structures required by Section 2304.11 to be preservative- treated shall conform to the requirements of the applicable AWPA Standard C1, C2, C3, C4, C9, C14, C15, C16, C22, C23, C24, C28, C31, C33 and M4, for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall conform to AWPA P1/P13, P2, P5, P8 and P9. Lumber and plywood used in wood foundation systems shall conform to Chapter 18.
Wood required by Section 2304.11 to be preservative- treated shall bear the quality mark of an inspection agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the preservative-treated wood. Inspection agencies for preservative-treated wood shall be listed by an accreditation body that complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standards Treated Wood Program, or its equivalent. The quality mark shall be on a stamp or label affixed to the preservative-treated wood, and shall include the following information:
  1. Identification of treating manufacturer.
  2. Type of preservative used.
  3. Minimum preservative retention (pcf).
  4. End use for which the product is treated.
  5. AWPA standard to which the product was treated.
  6. Identity of the accredited inspection agency.
Where preservative-treated wood is used in enclosed locations where drying in service cannot readily occur, such wood shall be at a moisture content of 19 percent or less before being covered with insulation, interior wall finish, floor covering or other materials.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456.
Fire-retardant-treated wood is any wood product which, when impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or other means during manufacture, shall have, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84, a listed flame spread index of 25 or less and show no evidence of significant progressive combustion when the test is continued for an additional 20-minute period. In addition, the flame front shall not progress more than 10.5 feet (3200 mm) beyond the centerline of the burners at any time during the test.
Fire-retardant-treated lumber and wood structural panels shall be labeled. The label shall contain the following items:
  1. The identification of an approved agency in accordance with chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code.
  2. Identification of the treating manufacturer.
  3. The name of the fire-retardant treatment.
  4. The species of wood treated.
  5. Flame spread and smoke-developed index.
  6. Method of drying after treatment.
  7. Conformance with appropriate standards in accordance with Sections 2303.2.2 through 2303.2.5.
  8. For fire-retardant-treated wood exposed to weather, damp or wet locations, include the words "No increase in the listed classification when subjected to the Standard Rain Test" (ASTM D 2898).
Design values for untreated lumber and wood structural panels, as specified in Section 2303.1, shall be adjusted for fire-retardant-treated wood. Adjustments to design values shall be based on an approved method of investigation that takes into consideration the effects of the anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and redrying procedures.
The effect of treatment and the method of redrying after treatment, and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the flexure properties of fire-retardant-treated softwood plywood shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 5516. The test data developed by ASTM D 5516 shall be used to develop adjustment factors, maximum loads and spans, or both, for untreated plywood design values in accordance with ASTM D 6305. Each manufacturer shall publish the allowable maximum loads and spans for service as floor and roof sheathing for its treatment.
For each species of wood treated, the effect of the treatment and the method of redrying after treatment and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the allowable design properties of fire-retardant-treated lumber shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 5664. The test data developed by ASTM D 5664 shall be used to develop modification factors for use at or near room temperature and at elevated temperatures and humidity in accordance with an approved method of investigation. Each manufacturer shall publish the modification factors for service at temperatures of not less than 80F (26.7C) and for roof framing. The roof framing modification factors shall take into consideration the climatological location.
Where fire-retardant-treated wood is exposed to weather, or damp or wet locations, it shall be identified as "Exterior" to indicate there is no increase in the listed flame spread index as defined in Section 2303.2 when subjected to ASTM D 2898.
Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall have moisture content of not over 28 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 3201 procedures at 92-percent relative humidity. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall be tested in accordance with Section 2303.2.2.1 or 2303.2.2.2. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood designated as Type A shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be dried to a moisture content of 19 percent or less for lumber and 15 percent or less for wood structural panels before use. For wood kiln dried after treatment (KDAT), the kiln temperatures shall not exceed those used in kiln drying the lumber and plywood submitted for the tests described in Section 2303.2.2.1 for plywood and 2303.2.2.2 for lumber.
See Section 603.1 for limitations on the use of fire-retardant-treated wood in buildings of Type I or II construction.
Hardwood and decorative plywood shall be manufactured and identified as required in HPVA HP-1.
Metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall be manufactured as required by TPI 1. Each manufacturer of trusses using metal plate connectors shall retain an approved agency to make unscheduled inspections of truss manufacturing and delivery operations. The inspection shall cover all phases of truss operations, including lumber storage, handling, cutting fixtures, presses or rollers, manufacturing, bundling and banding. Metal-plate connected wood trusses shall also be subject to the special inspection requirements of Chapter 17.
Truss construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional and shall be provided to the commissioner and approved prior to installation. These construction documents shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below. Truss shop drawings shall be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site.
  1. Slope or depth, span and spacing;
  2. Location of joints;
  3. Required bearing widths;
  4. Design loads as applicable;
  5. Top chord live load (including snow loads);
  6. Top chord dead load;
  7. Bottom chord live load;
  8. Bottom chord dead load;
  9. Concentrated loads and their points of application;
  10. Controlling wind and earthquake loads;
  11. Adjustments to lumber and metal connector plate design value for conditions of use;
  12. Each reaction force and direction;
  13. Metal connector plate type, size, thickness or gage, and the dimensioned location of each metal connector plate except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface;
  14. Lumber size, species and grade for each member;
  15. Connection requirements for:
  15.1. Truss to truss girder;
  15.2. Truss ply to ply; and
  15.3. Field splices;
  16. Calculated deflection ratio or maximum deflection for live and total load;   17. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss members to design the size, connections and anchorage of the permanent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be shown on the truss construction documents or on supplemental documents; and
  18. Required permanent truss member bracing location.
For the required test standards for joist hangers and connectors, see Section 1715.1.
Nails and staples shall conform to requirements of ASTM F 1667. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as follows: 80 kips per square inch (ksi) (551 MPa) for shank diameters larger than 0.177 inch (4.50 mm) but not larger than 0.254 inch (6.45 mm), 90 ksi (620 MPa) for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch (3.61 mm) but not larger than 0.177 inch (4.50 mm) and 100 ksi (689 MPa) for shank diameters of 0.142 inch (3.61 mm) or less.
Consideration shall be given in design to the possible effect of cross-grain dimensional changes considered vertically which may occur in lumber fabricated in a green condition.
The provisions of this section apply to design methods specified in Section 2301.2.
Computations to determine the required sizes of members shall be based on the net dimensions (actual sizes) and not nominal sizes.
The framing of exterior and interior walls shall be in accordance with the provisions specified in Section 2308 unless a specific design is furnished.
Studs shall have full bearing on a 2-inch-thick (actual 1 1 / 2 -inch, 38 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
Headers, double joists, trusses or other approved assemblies that are of adequate size to transfer loads to the vertical members shall be provided over window and door openings in load-bearing walls and partitions.
Wood walls and bearing partitions shall not support more than two floors and a roof unless an analysis satisfactory to the commissioner shows that shrinkage of the wood framing will not have adverse effects on the structure or any plumbing, electrical or mechanical systems, or other equipment installed therein due to excessive shrinkage or differential movements caused by shrinkage. The analysis shall also show that the roof drainage system and the foregoing systems or equipment will not be adversely affected or, as an alternate, such systems shall be designed to accommodate the differential shrinkage or movements.
The framing of wood-joisted floors and wood framed roofs shall be in accordance with the provisions specified in Section 2308 unless a specific design is furnished.
Combustible framing shall be a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm), but shall not be less than the distance specified in Sections 2111 and 2113 and the New York City Mechanical Code, from flues, chimneys and fireplaces, and 6 inches (152 mm) away from flue openings.
Except as provided for in Section 1405 for weather boarding or where stucco construction that complies with Section 2510 is installed, enclosed buildings shall be sheathed with one of the materials of the nominal thickness specified in Table 2304.6 or any other approved material of equivalent strength or durability.
Where wood structural panel sheathing is used as the exposed finish on the exterior of outside walls, it shall have an exterior exposure durability classification. Where wood structural panel sheathing is used on the exterior of outside walls but not as the exposed finish, it shall be of a type manufactured with exterior glue (Exposure 1 or Exterior). Where wood structural panel sheathing is used elsewhere, it shall be of a type manufactured with intermediate or exterior glue.
Softwood wood structural panels used for interior paneling shall conform with the provisions of Chapter 8 and shall be installed in accordance with Table 2304.9.1. Panels shall comply with DOC PS 1 or PS 2. Prefinished hardboard paneling shall meet the requirements of AHA A135.5, Prefinished Hardboard Paneling. Hardwood plywood shall conform to HPVA HP-1, The American National Standard for Hardwood and Decorative Plywood.
Minimum Thickness of Wall Sheathing


Sheathing Type

Minimum Thickness

Maximum Wall Stud
Spacing










Wood boards

5/8 inch

24 inches on center










Fiberboard

1/2 inch

16 inches on center










Wood structural panel

In accordance with Tables 2308.9.3(2) and 2308.9.3(3)











M-S "Exterior Glue" and M-2 "Exterior Glue" Particleboard

In accordance with Tables 2306.4.3 and 2308.9.3(5)











Gypsum sheathing

1/2 inch

16 inches on center










Gypsum wallboard

1/2 inch

24 inches on center










Reinforced cement mortar

1 inch

24 inches on center









For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Structural floor sheathing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the special provisions in this section. Floor sheathing conforming to the provisions of Table 2304.7(1), 2304.7(2), 2304.7(3) or 2304.7(4) shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section.
Structural roof sheathing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the special provisions in this section. Roof sheathing conforming to the provisions of Table 2304.7(1), 2304.7(2), 2304.7(3) or 2304.7(5) shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section. Wood structural panel roof sheathing shall be bonded by exterior glue.
A laminated lumber floor or deck built up of wood members set on edge, when meeting the following requirements, is permitted to be designed as a solid floor or roof deck of the same thickness, and continuous spans are permitted to be designed on the basis of the full cross section using the simple span moment coefficient.
  Nail lengths shall not be less than two and one-half times the net thickness of each lamination. Where deck supports are 4 feet (1219 mm) on center (o.c.) or less, side nails shall be spaced not more than 30 inches (762 mm) o.c. alternately near top and bottom edges, and staggered one-third of the spacing in adjacent laminations. Where supports are spaced more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c., side nails shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) o.c. alternately near top and bottom edges, and staggered one-third of the spacing in adjacent laminations. Two side nails shall be used at each end of butt-jointed pieces.
  Laminations shall be toenailed to supports with 20d or larger common nails. Where the supports are 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. or less, alternate laminations shall be toenailed to alternate supports; where supports are spaced more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c., alternate laminations shall be toenailed to every support. A single-span deck shall have all laminations full length. A continuous deck of two spans shall not have more than every fourth lamination spliced within quarter points adjoining supports. Joints shall be closely butted over supports or staggered across the deck but within the adjoining quarter spans. No lamination shall be spliced more than twice in any span.
Connections for wood members shall be designed in accordance with the appropriate methodology in Section 2301.2. The number and size of nails connecting wood members shall not be less than that set forth in Table 2304.9.1.
Sheathing nails or other approved sheathing connectors shall be driven so that their head or crown is flush with the surface of the sheathing.
Connections depending on joist hangers or framing anchors, ties and other mechanical fastenings not otherwise covered are permitted where approved. The vertical load-bearing capacity, torsional moment capacity and deflection characteristics of joist hangers shall be determined in accordance with Section 1715.1.
Clips, staples, glues and other approved methods of fastening are permitted where approved.
Fasteners for preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fastenings for wood foundations shall be as required in AF & PA Technical Report No. 7.
Where wall framing members are not continuous from foundation sill to roof, the members shall be secured to ensure a continuous load path. Where required, sheet metal clamps, ties or clips shall be formed of galvanized steel or other approved corrosion-resistant material not less than 0.040 inch (1.01 mm) nominal thickness.
Wood columns and posts shall be framed to provide full end bearing. Alternatively, column-and-post end connections shall be designed to resist the full compressive loads, neglecting end-bearing capacity. Column-and-post end connections shall be fastened to resist lateral and net induced uplift forces.
Columns shall be at least 8 inches (203 mm) in all dimensions when supporting floor loads and at least 6 inches (152 mm) wide and 8 inches (203 mm) deep when supporting roof and ceiling loads only.
Beams and girders shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) wide and 10 inches (254 mm) deep.
Frames and arches that spring from grade or the floor line and support floor loads shall be at least 8 inches (203 mm) in all dimensions. Frames or arches for roof construction that spring from grade or the floor line and do not support floor loads shall have members at least 6 inches (152 mm) wide and 8 inches (203 mm) deep for the lower half of the height, and at least 6 inches (152 mm) deep for the upper half.
  Frames or arches for roof construction that spring from the top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber trusses, and other roof framing, which do not support floor loads, shall have members at least 4 inches (102 mm) wide and 6 inches (152 mm) deep. Spaced members may be composed of two or more pieces at least 3 inches (76 mm) thick when blocked solidly through their intervening spaces or when such spaces are tightly closed by a continuous wood cover plate at least 2 inches (51 mm) thick secured to the underside of the members. Splice plates shall be at least 3 inches (76 mm) thick. When protected by approved automatic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members shall be at least 3 inches (76 mm) wide.
Timber trusses supporting floor loads shall have members at least 8 inches (203 mm) in all dimensions.
Columns shall be continuous or superimposed throughout all stories by means of reinforced concrete or metal caps with brackets, or shall be connected by properly designed steel or iron caps, with pintles and base plates, or by timber splice plates affixed to the columns by metal connectors housed within the contact faces, or by other approved methods.
Girders and beams shall be closely fitted around columns and adjoining ends shall be cross tied to each other, or inter-tied by caps or ties, to transfer horizontal loads across joints. Wood bolsters shall not be placed on tops of columns unless the columns support roof loads only.
Approved wall plate boxes or hangers shall be provided where wood beams, girders or trusses rest on masonry or concrete walls. Where intermediate beams are used to support a floor, they shall rest on top of girders, or shall be supported by ledgers or blocks securely fastened to the sides of the girders, or they shall be supported by an approved metal hanger into which the ends of the beams shall be closely fitted.
Every roof girder and at least every alternate roof beam shall be anchored to its supporting member; and every monitor and every saw tooth construction shall be anchored to the main roof construction. Such anchors shall consist of steel bolts of sufficient strength to resist vertical uplift of the roof.
Floor decks and covering shall not extend closer than 1 / 2 inch (12.7 mm) to walls. Such 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm) spaces shall be covered by a molding fastened to the wall either above or below the floor and arranged such that the molding will not obstruct the expansion or contraction movements of the floor. Corbeling of masonry walls under floors is permitted in place of such molding.
Where supported by a wall, roof decks shall be anchored to walls to resist uplift forces determined in accordance with Chapter 16. Such anchors shall consist of steel bolts of sufficient strength to resist vertical uplift of the roof.
All timber shall be accurately cut and framed to a close fit in such a manner that the joints will have even bearing over the contact surfaces. Mortises shall be true to size for their full depth and tenons shall fit snugly. No shimming in joints, or open joints, shall be permitted.
Joints shall have a tight fit. Fasteners shall be installed in a manner that will not damage the wood. End compression joints shall be brought to full bearing. All framework shall be carried up true and plumb. As erection progresses, the work shall be bolted, or nailed as necessary, to resist all dead load, wind, and erection stresses. The structure shall be properly aligned before final tightening of the connections.
Where required by this section, protection from decay and termites shall be provided by the use of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood installed above ground in the locations specified in Sections 2304.11.2.1 through 2304.11.2.6 shall be naturally durable wood or preservative-treated wood that uses water-borne preservatives, and shall be treated in accordance with AWPA C2 or C9 or applicable AWPA standards for above ground use.
Where wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor without joists are closer than 18 inches (457 mm), or wood girders are closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the perimeter of the building foundation, the floor assembly (including posts, girders, joists and subfloor) shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood framing members, including wood sheathing, which rest on exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood. Wood framing members and furring strips attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry or concrete walls below grade shall be of approved naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Sleepers and sills on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls shall be provided with a 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm) air space on top, sides and end, unless naturally durable or preservative-treated wood is used.
Clearance between wood siding and earth on the exterior of a building shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) except where siding, sheathing and wall framing are of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Posts or columns supporting permanent structures and supported by a concrete or masonry slab or footing that is in direct contact with the earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
  Exceptions:
  1. Posts or columns that are either exposed to the weather or located in basements or cellars, supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projected at least 1 inch (25 mm) above the slab or deck and 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth, and are separated therefrom by an impervious moisture barrier.
  2. Posts or columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the periphery of the building, supported by a concrete pier or metal pedestal at a height greater than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed ground, and are separated therefrom by an impervious moisture barrier.
The portions of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather and not properly protected by a roof, eave or similar covering shall be pressure-treated with preservative, or be manufactured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood in contact with the ground (exposed earth) that supports permanent structures shall be of naturally durable (species for both decay and termite resistance) or preservative-treated wood using water-borne preservatives and shall be treated in accordance with AWPA C2, C9 or other applicable AWPA standard for soil or fresh water contact, where used in the locations specified in Sections 2304.11.4.1 and 2304.11.4.2.
  Exception: Untreated wood is permitted where such wood is continuously and entirely below the ground-water level or submerged in fresh water.
Posts and columns supporting permanent structures that are embedded in concrete in direct contact with the earth or embedded in concrete exposed to the weather, or in direct contact with the earth, shall be of preservative-treated wood.
Wood structural members that support moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.
Naturally durable or preservative-treated wood shall be utilized for those portions of wood members that form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurtenances where such members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering to prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members.
In geographical areas where the hazard of termite damage is known to be very heavy, the floor framing shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood, or provided with approved methods of termite protection.
Wood installed in retaining or crib walls shall be of preservative-treated wood treated in accordance with AWPA C2 or C9 for soil and fresh water contact.
For attic ventilation, see Section 1203.2.
For under-floor ventilation (crawl space), see Section 1203.3.
The ends of wood beams, joists and rafters resting on masonry or concrete walls shall be firecut to a bevel of three inches in their depth.
All loose wood and debris and all wood forms shall be removed from spaces under the building. All stump and roots shall be grubbed to a minimum depth of twelve inches.
Wood members shall not be used to permanently support the dead load of any masonry or concrete.
  Exceptions:
  1. Masonry or concrete nonstructural floor or roof surfacing not more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick is permitted to be supported by wood members.
  2. Any structure is permitted to rest upon wood piles constructed in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 18.
  3. Veneer of brick, concrete or stone applied as specified in Section 1405.5 having an installed weight of 40 pounds per square foot (psf) (1.9 kN/m2) or less is permitted to be supported by an approved treated wood foundation when the maximum height of veneer does not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) above the foundation. Such veneer used as an interior wall finish is permitted to be supported on wood floor construction. The wood floor construction shall be designed to support the additional weight of the veneer plus any other loads and to limit the deflection and shrinkage to 1/600 of the span of the supporting members.
  4. Glass unit masonry having an installed weight of 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) or less is permitted to be installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 2110. The wood construction supporting the glass unit masonry shall be designed for dead and live loads to limit deflection and shrinkage to 1/600 of the span of the supporting members.
Structures using wood shear walls and diaphragms to resist wind, seismic and other lateral loads shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Shear resistance of diaphragms and shear walls are permitted to be calculated by principles of mechanics using values of fastener strength and sheathing shear resistance.
Boundary elements shall be provided to transmit tension and compression forces. Perimeter members at openings shall be provided and shall be detailed to distribute the shearing stresses. Diaphragm and shear wall sheathing shall not be used to splice boundary elements. Diaphragm chords and collectors shall be placed in, or tangent to, the plane of the diaphragm framing unless it can be demonstrated that the moments, shears and deformations, considering eccentricities resulting from other configurations can be tolerated without exceeding the adjusted resistance and drift limits.
Framing members shall be at least 2 inch (51 mm) nominal width. In general, adjoining panel edges shall bear and be attached to the framing members and butt along their centerlines. Nails shall be placed not less than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) from the panel edge, not more than 12 inches (305 mm) apart along intermediate supports, and 6 inches (152 mm) along panel edge bearings, and shall be firmly driven into the framing members.
Openings in shear panels that materially affect their strength shall be fully detailed on the plans, and shall have their edges adequately reinforced to transfer all shearing stresses.
Positive connections and anchorages, capable of resisting the design forces, shall be provided between the shear panel and the attached components. In Seismic Design Category D, toenails shall not be used to transfer lateral forces in excess of 150 pounds per foot (2189 N/m) from diaphragms to shear walls, drag struts (collectors) or other elements, or from shear walls to other elements.
Wood shear walls, diaphragms, horizontal trusses and other members shall not be used to resist horizontal seismic forces contributed by masonry or concrete construction in structures over one story in height.
  Exceptions:
  1. Wood floor and roof members are permitted to be used in horizontal trusses and diaphragms to resist horizontal seismic forces contributed by masonry or concrete construction (including those due to masonry veneer, fireplaces and chimneys) provided such forces do not result in torsional force distribution through the truss or diaphragm.
  2. Wood structural panel sheathed shear walls are permitted to be used to provide resistance to seismic forces contributed by masonry or concrete construction in two-story structures of masonry or concrete construction, provided the following requirements are met:
  2.1. Story-to-story wall heights shall not exceed 12 feet (3658 mm).
  2.2. Diaphragms shall not be designed to transmit lateral forces by rotation. Diaphragms shall not cantilever past the outermost supporting shear wall.
  2.3. Combined deflections of diaphragms and shear walls shall not permit story drift of supported masonry or concrete walls to exceed the limit of Section 1617.3.
  2.4. Wood structural panel sheathing in diaphragms shall have unsupported edges blocked. Wood structural panel sheathing for both stories of shear walls shall have unsupported edges blocked and, for the lower story, shall have a minimum thickness of 15/32 inch (11.9 mm).
  2.5. There shall be no out-of-plane horizontal offsets between the first and second stories of wood structural panel shear walls.
Wood diaphragms are permitted to be used to resist horizontal forces provided the deflection in the plane of the diaphragm, as determined by calculations, tests or analogies drawn therefrom, does not exceed the permissible deflection of attached distributing or resisting elements. Connections shall extend into the diaphragm a sufficient distance to develop the force transferred into the diaphragm.
Permissible deflection shall be that deflection up to which the diaphragm and any attached distributing or resisting element will maintain its structural integrity under design load conditions, such that the resisting element will continue to support design loads without danger to occupants of the structure. Calculations for diaphragm deflection shall account for the usual bending and shear components as well as any other factors, such as nail deformation, which will contribute to deflection. The deflection (D) of a blocked wood structural panel diaphragm uniformly nailed throughout is permitted to be calculated by using the following formula. If not uniformly nailed, the constant 0.188 (For SI: 1/1627) in the third term must be modified accordingly.
Size and shape of diaphragms shall be limited as set forth in Table 2305.2.3.
Table 2305.2.3
Maximum Diaphragm Dimension Ratios Horizontal and Sloped Diaphragm


Type

Maximum Length-Width Ratio








Wood structural panel, nailed all edges

4:1








Wood structural panel, blocking omitted at intermediate joints

3:1








Diagonal sheathing, single

3:1








Diagonal sheathing, double

4:1







Shear panels shall be constructed of wood structural panels, manufactured with exterior glue, not less than 4 feet by 8 feet (1219 mm by 2438 mm), except at boundaries and changes in framing. Boundary elements shall be connected at corners. Wood structural panel thickness for horizontal diaphragms shall not be less than set forth in Tables 2304.7(3) and 2304.7(5) for corresponding joist spacing and loads, except that 1 / 4 inch (6.4 mm) is permitted to be used where perpendicular loads permit. Sheet-type sheathing shall be arranged so that the width of a sheet in a shear wall shall not be less than 2 feet (610 mm).
Design of structures with rigid diaphragms shall conform to the structure configuration requirements of Section 9.5.2.3 of ASCE 7 and the horizontal shear distribution requirements of Section 9.5.5.5 of ASCE 7.
  Open front structures with rigid wood diaphragms resulting in torsional force distribution are permitted provided the length, l, of the diaphragm normal to the open side does not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm), the diaphragm sheathing conforms to Section 2305.2.4, and the l/w ratio [as shown in Figure 2305.2.5(1)] is less than 1.0 for one-story structures or 0.67 for structures over one story in height.
  Exception: Where calculations show that diaphragm deflections can be tolerated, the length, l, normal to the open end is permitted to be increased to a l/w ratio not greater than 1.5 where sheathed in compliance with Section 2305.2.4 or to 1.0 where sheathed in compliance with Section 2306.3.4 or 2306.3.5.
  Rigid wood diaphragms are permitted to cantilever past the outermost supporting shear wall (or other vertical resisting element) a length, l, of not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) or two-thirds of the diaphragm width, w, whichever is the smaller. Figure 2305.2.5(2) illustrates the dimensions of l and w for a cantilevered diaphragm.
  Structures with rigid wood diaphragms having a torsional irregularity in accordance with Table 1616.5.1.1, Item 1, shall meet the following requirements: The l/w ratio shall not exceed 1.0 for one-story structures or 0.67 for structures over one story in height, where l is the dimension parallel to the load direction for which the irregularity exists.
  Exception: Where calculations demonstrate that the diaphragm deflections can be tolerated, the width is permitted to be increased and the l/w ratio is permitted to be increased to 1.5 where sheathed in compliance with Section 2306.3.4 or 2306.3.5.
Wood shear walls are permitted to resist horizontal forces in vertical distributing or resisting elements, provided the deflection in the plane of the shear wall, as determined by calculations, tests or analogies drawn therefrom, does not exceed the more restrictive of the permissible deflection of attached distributing or resisting elements or the drift limits of Section 1617.3.
Permissible deflection shall be that deflection up to which the shear wall and any attached distributing or resisting element will maintain its structural integrity under design load conditions, i.e., continue to support design loads without danger to occupants of the structure.
  The deflection (Δ) of a blocked wood structural panel shear wall uniformly fastened throughout is permitted to be calculated by the use of the following formula:
Size and shape of shear walls and shear wall segments within shear walls containing openings shall be limited as set forth in Table 2305.3.3.
Table 2305.3.3
Maximum Shear Wall Aspect Ratios


Type

Maximum Height-Width Ratio








Wood structural panels or particleboard, nailed edges

For other than seismic: 31/2:1
For seismic; 2:1a








Diagonal sheathing, single

2:1








Fiberboard

11/2:1








Gypsum board, gypsum lath, cement plaster

11/2:1b







a.
For design to resist seismic forces, shear wall height-width ratios greater than 2:1, but not exceeding 31/2:1, are permitted provided the allowable shear values in Table 2306.4.1 are multiplied by 2w/h.
b.
Ratio shown is for unblocked construction. Aspect ratio is permitted to be 2:1 where the wall is installed as blocked construction in accordance with Section 2306.4.5.1.2.
The height of a shear wall shall be defined as:
  1. The maximum clear height from top of foundation to bottom of diaphragm framing above; or
  2. The maximum clear height from top of diaphragm to bottom of diaphragm framing above [see Figure 2305.3.4(a)].
The width of a shear wall shall be defined as the sheathed dimension of the shear wall in the direction of application of force [see Figure 2305.3.4(a)].
The width of full-height sheathing adjacent to unrestrained openings in a shear wall.
Where the dead load stabilizing moment in accordance with Chapter 16 allowable stress design load combinations is not sufficient to prevent uplift due to overturning moments on the wall, an anchoring device shall be provided. Anchoring devices shall maintain a continuous load path to the foundation.
The provisions of this section shall apply to the design of shear walls with openings. Where framing and connections around the openings are designed for force transfer around the openings, the provisions of Section 2305.3.7.1 shall apply. Where framing and connections around the openings are not designed for force transfer around the openings, the provisions of Section 2305.3.7.2 shall apply.
Where shear walls with openings are designed for force transfer around the openings, the limitations of Table 2305.3.3 shall apply to the overall shear wall including openings and to each wall pier at the side of an opening. The height of a wall pier shall be defined as the clear height of the pier at the side of an opening. The width of a wall pier shall be defined as the sheathed width of the pier at the side of an opening. Design for force transfer shall be based on a rational analysis. Detailing of boundary elements around the opening shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of this section [see Figure 2305.3.4(b)].
The provisions of Section 2305.3.7.2 shall be permitted to be used for the design of perforated shear walls.
The following limitations shall apply to the use of Section 2305.3.7.2:
  1. A perforated shear wall segment shall be located at each end of a perforated shear wall. Openings shall be permitted to occur beyond the ends of the perforated shear wall; however, the width of such openings shall not be included in the width of the perforated shear wall.
  2. The allowable shear set forth in Table 2306.4.1 shall not exceed 490 plf (7150 N/m).
  3. Where out-of-plane offsets occur, portions of the wall on each side of the offset shall be considered as separate perforated shear walls.
  4. Collectors for shear transfer shall be provided through the full length of the perforated shear wall.
  5. A perforated shear wall shall have uniform top of wall and bottom of wall elevations. Perforated shear walls not having uniform elevations shall be designed by other methods.
  6. Perforated shear wall height, h, shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm).
The resistance of a perforated shear wall shall be calculated in accordance with the following:
  1. The percent of full-height sheathing shall be calculated as the sum of the widths of perforated shear wall segments divided by the total width of the perforated shear wall including openings.
  2. The maximum opening height shall be taken as the maximum opening clear height. Where areas above and below an opening remain unsheathed, the height of opening shall be defined as the height of the wall.
  3. The adjusted shear resistance shall be calculated by multiplying the unadjusted shear resistance by the shear resistance adjustment factors of Table 2305.3.7.2. For intermediate percentages of full-height sheathing, the values in Table 2305.3.7.2 are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. The perforated shear wall resistance shall be equal to the adjusted shear resistance times the sum of the widths of the perforated shear wall segments.
Design of perforated shear wall anchorage and load path shall conform to the requirements of Sections 2305.3.7.2.4 through 2305.3.7.2.8, or shall be calculated using principles of mechanics. Except as modified by these sections, wall framing, sheathing, sheathing attachment and fastener schedules shall conform to the requirements of Section 2305.2.4 and Table 2306.4.1.
Anchorage for uplift forces due to overturning shall be provided at each end of the perforated shear wall. The uplift anchorage shall conform to the requirements of Section 2305.3.6 except that for each story the minimum tension chord uplift force, T, shall be calculated in accordance with the following:
The unit shear force, v, transmitted into the top of a perforated shear wall, out of the base of the perforated shear wall at full-height sheathing and into collectors (drag struts) connecting shear wall segments, shall be calculated in accordance with the following:
In addition to the requirements of Section 2305.3.7.2.4, perforated shear wall bottom plates at full-height sheathing shall be anchored for a uniform uplift force, t, equal to the unit shear force, v, determined in Section 2305.3.7.2.5.
Each end of each perforated shear wall segment shall be designed for a compression chord force, C , equal to the tension chord uplift force, T , calculated in Section 2305.3.7.2.4.
A load path to the foundation shall be provided for each uplift force, T and t , for each shear force, V and v , and for each compression chord force, C . Elements resisting shear wall forces contributed by multiple stories shall be designed for the sum of forces contributed by each story.
The controlling deflection of a blocked shear wall with openings uniformly nailed throughout shall be taken as the maximum individual deflection of the shear wall segments calculated in accordance with Section 2305.3.2, divided by the appropriate shear resistance adjustment factors of Table 2305.3.7.2.
The shear values for shear panels of different capacities applied to the same side of the wall are not cumulative except as allowed in Table 2306.4.1.
  The shear values for material of the same type and capacity applied to both faces of the same wall are cumulative. Where the material capacities are not equal, the allowable shear shall be either two times the smaller shear capacity or the capacity of the stronger side, whichever is greater.
  Summing shear capacities of dissimilar materials applied to opposite faces or to the same wall line is not allowed.
  Exception: For wind design, the allowable shear capacity of shear wall segments sheathed with a combination of wood structural panels and gypsum wallboard on opposite faces, fiberboard structural sheathing and gypsum wall board on opposite faces or hardboard panel siding and gypsum wallboard on opposite faces shall equal the sum of the sheathing capacities of each face separately.
Adhesive attachment of shear wall sheathing is not permitted as a substitute for mechanical fasteners, and shall not be used in shear wall strength calculations alone, or in combination with mechanical fasteners in Seismic Design Category D.
Two-inch (51 mm) nominal wood sill plates for shear walls shall include steel plate washers, a minimum of 3/16 inch by 2 inches by 2 inches (4.76 mm by 51 mm by 51 mm) in size, between the sill plate and nut. Sill plates resisting a design load greater than 490 plf (LRFD) (7154 N/m) or 350 plf (ASD) (5110 N/m) shall not be less than a 3-inch (76 mm) nominal member. Where a single 3-inch (76 mm) nominal sill plate is used, 2-20d box end nails shall be substituted for 2-16d common end nails found in Line 8 of Table 2304.9.1.
  Exception: In shear walls where the design load is less than 840 plf (LRFD) (12 264 N/m) or 600 plf (ASD) (8760 N/m), the sill plate is permitted to be a 2-inch (51mm) nominal member if the sill plate is anchored by two times the number of bolts required by design and 3/16 inch by 2 inch by 2 inch (4.76 mm by 51 mm by 51 mm) plate washers are used.
The structural analysis and construction of wood elements in structures using allowable design methods shall be in accordance with the following applicable standards:
  American Forest & Paper Association.
  NDS National Design Specification for Wood Construction
  American Institute of Timber Construction.

AITC 104

Typical Construction Details

AITC 110

Standard Appearance Grades for Structural Glued Laminated Timber

AITC 112

Standard for Tongue-and-Groove Heavy Timber Roof Decking

AITC 113

Standard for Dimensions of Structural Glued Laminated Timber

AITC 117

Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber of Softwood Species

AITC 119

Structural Standard Specifications for Glued Laminated Timber of Hardwood Species

AITC A190.1

Structural Glued Laminated Timber

AITC 200

Inspection Manual

AITC 500

Determination of Design Values for Structural Glued Laminated Timber
  Truss Plate Institute, Inc.

TPI 1

National Design Standard for Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Construction
  American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

ASAE EP 484.2

Diaphragm Design of Metal-Clad, Post-Frame Rectangular Buildings

ASAE EP 486.1

Shallow Post Foundation Design

ASAE 559

Design Requirements and Bending Properties for Mechanically Laminated Columns
  APA—The Engineered Wood Association.
  Plywood Design Specification
  Plywood Design Specification Supplement 1—Design & Fabrication of Plywood Curved Panels.
  Plywood Design Specification Supplement 2—Design & Fabrication of Glued Plywood-Lumber Beams.
  Plywood Design Specification Supplement 3—Design & Fabrication of Plywood Stressed-Skin Panels.
  Plywood Design Specification Supplement 4—Design & Fabrication of Plywood Sandwich Panels.
  Plywood Design Specification Supplement 5—Design & Fabrication of All-Plywood Beams.

EWS T300

Glulam Connection Details

EWS S560

Field Notching and Drilling of Glued Laminated Timber Beams

EWS S475

Glued Laminated Beam Design Tables

EWS X450

Glulam in Residential Construction

EWS X440

Product and Application Guide: Glulam

EWS R540

Builders Tips: Proper Storage and Handling of Glulam Beams
The design of rafter spans is permitted to be in accordance with the AF&PA; Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.
The design of plank and beam flooring is permitted to be in accordance with the AF&PA; Wood Construction Data No. 4.
The allowable unit stresses for preservative-treated wood need no adjustment for treatment, but are subject to other adjustments. The allowable unit stresses for fire-retardant-treated wood, including fastener values, shall be developed from an approved method of investigation that considers the effects of anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and the redrying process. Other adjustments are applicable except that the impact load duration shall not apply.
The NDS fiber stress in bending (Fb) design values for wood studs resisting wind shall be increased by the factors in Table 2306.2.1, in lieu of the 1.15 repetitive member factor, to take into consideration the load sharing and composite actions provided by the wood structural panels as defined in Section 2302.1, where the studs are designed for bending in accordance with Section 1609.6 spaced no more than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c, covered on the inside with a minimum of 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board fastened in accordance with Table 2306.4.5, and sheathed on the exterior with a minimum of 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel sheathing that is attached to the studs using a minimum of 8d common nails spaced a maximum of 6 inches o.c. (152 mm) at panel edges and 12 inches o.c. (305 mm) in the field of the panels.
Table 2306.2.1
Wall Stud Bending Stress Increase Factors


Stud Size

System Factor








2 × 4

1.5








2 × 6

1.4








2 × 8

1.3








2 × 10

1.2








2 × 12

1.15







The allowable shear capacities in Table 2306.3.1 for horizontal wood structural panel diaphragms shall be increased 40 percent for wind design.
Structural panel diaphragms with wood structural panels are permitted to be used to resist horizontal forces not exceeding those set forth in Table 2306.3.1 or 2306.3.2 or calculated by principles of mechanics without limitations by using values for fastener strength in the NDS structural design properties for wood structural panels based on DOC PS-1 and DOC PS-2 or plywood design properties given in the APA Plywood Design Specification.
Diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be nailed in accordance with Table 2306.3.3.
Single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be constructed of minimum 1-inch (25 mm) thick nominal sheathing boards laid at an angle of approximately 45 degrees (0.78 rad) to the supports. The shear capacity for single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms of southern pine or Douglas fir-larch shall not exceed 300 plf (4378 N/m) of width. The shear capacities shall be adjusted by reduction factors of 0.82 for framing members of species with a specific gravity equal to or greater than 0.42 but less than 0.49 and 0.65 for species with a specific gravity of less than 0.42, as contained in the NDS.
End joints in adjacent boards shall be separated by at least one stud or joist space and there shall be at least two boards between joints on the same support.
Single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms made up of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal diagonal lumber sheathing fastened with 16d nails shall be designed with the same shear capacities as shear panels using 1-inch (25 mm) boards fastened with 8d nails, provided there are not splices in adjacent boards on the same support and the supports are not less than 4 inch (102 mm) nominal depth or 3 inch (76 mm) nominal thickness.
Double diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be constructed of two layers of diagonal sheathing boards at 90 degrees (1.57 rad) to each other on the same face of the supporting members. Each chord shall be considered as a beam with uniform load per foot equal to 50 percent of the unit shear due to diaphragm action. The load shall be assumed as acting normal to the chord in the plan of the diaphragm in either direction. The span of the chord or portion thereof shall be the distance between framing members of the diaphragm, such as the joists, studs and blocking that serve to transfer the assumed load to the sheathing. The shear capacity of double diagonally sheathed diaphragms of Southern pine or Douglas fir-larch shall not exceed 600 plf (8756 kN/m) of width. The shear capacity shall be adjusted by reduction factors of 0.82 for framing members of species with a specific gravity equal to or greater than 0.42 but less than 0.49 and 0.65 for species with a specific gravity of less than 0.42, as contained in the NDS. Nailing of diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be in accordance with Table 2306.3.3.
Gypsum board diaphragm ceilings shall be in accordance with Section 2508.5.
Panel sheathing joints in shear walls shall occur over studs or blocking. Adjacent panel sheathing joints shall occur over and be nailed to common framing members (see Section 2305.3.1 for limitations on shear wall bracing materials).
The allowable shear capacities for wood structural panel shear walls shall be in accordance with Table 2306.4.1. These capacities are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design. Shear walls are permitted to be calculated by principles of mechanics without limitations by using values for nail strength given in the NDS and wood structural panel design properties given in the APA/PDS.[See Table 1]
[See Table 2]


Single and double diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms are permitted using the construction and allowable load provisions of Sections 2306.3.4 and 2306.3.5.
The design shear capacity of particleboard shear walls shall be in accordance with Table 2306.4.3. Shear panels shall be constructed with particleboard sheets not less than 4 feet by 8 feet (1219 mm by 2438 mm), except at boundaries and changes in framing. Particleboard panels shall be designed to resist shear only, and chords, collector members and boundary elements shall be connected at all corners. Panel edges shall be backed with 2-inch (51 mm) nominal or wider framing. Sheets are permitted to be installed either horizontally or vertically. For 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard sheets installed with the long dimension parallel to the studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) o.c, nails shall be spaced at 6 inches (152 mm) o.c. along intermediate framing members. For all other conditions, nails of the same size shall be spaced at 12 inches (305 mm) o.c. along intermediate framing members. Particleboard panels less than 12 inches (305 mm) wide shall be blocked. Particleboard shall not be used to resist seismic forces in structures in Seismic Design Category D.
The design shear capacity of fiberboard shear walls shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(4). The fiberboard sheathing shall be applied vertically or horizontally to wood studs not less than 2 inch (51 mm) nominal thickness spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. Blocking not less than 2 inch (51 mm) nominal in thickness shall be provided at horizontal joints. Fiberboard shall not be used to resist seismic forces in structures in Seismic Design Category D.
Shear capacities for walls sheathed with lath and plaster, and gypsum board shall be in accordance with Table 2306.4.5. Shear walls sheathed with lath, plaster and gypsum board shall be constructed in accordance with Chapter 25 and Section 2306.4.5.1. Walls resisting seismic loads shall be subject to the limitations in Section 1617.6.
End joints of adjacent courses of gypsum board shall not occur over the same stud.
Where required in Table 2306.4.5, wood blocking having the same cross-sectional dimensions as the studs shall be provided at joints that are perpendicular to the studs.
Studs, top and bottom plates and blocking shall be nailed in accordance with Table 2304.9.1.
The size and spacing of nails shall be set forth in Table 2306.4.5. Nails shall be spaced not less than 3 inch (9.5 mm) from edges and ends of gypsum boards or sides of studs, blocking and top and bottom plates.
Gypsum lath shall be applied perpendicular to the studs. Maximum allowable shear values shall be as set forth in Table 2306.4.5.
Four-foot-wide (1219 mm) pieces of gypsum sheathing shall be applied parallel or perpendicular to studs. Two-foot-wide (610 mm) pieces of gypsum sheathing shall be applied perpendicular to the studs. Maximum allowable shear values shall be as set forth in Table 2306.4.5.
Gypsum board shall be applied parallel or perpendicular to studs. Maximum allowable shear values shall be as set forth in Table 2306.4.5.[See Table 1]
[See Table 2]


The structural analysis and construction of wood elements and structures using load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods shall be in accordance with ASCE 16.
The requirements of this section are intended for conventional light-frame construction. Other methods are permitted to be used provided a satisfactory design is submitted showing compliance with other provisions of this code. Interior non-load-bearing partitions, ceilings and curtain walls of conventional light-frame construction are not subject to the limitations of this section. Alternatively, compliance with the following standard shall be permitted subject to the limitations therein and the limitations of this code: American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA;) Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (WCFM).
Buildings are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions of conventional light-frame construction, subject to the following limitations, and to further limitations of Sections 2308.11 and 2308.12.
  1. Buildings shall be limited to a maximum of three stories above grade. For the purposes of this section, for buildings in Seismic Design Category D as determined in Section 1616, cripple stud walls shall be considered to be a story.
  Exception: Solid blocked cripple walls not exceeding 14 inches (356 mm) in height need not be considered a story.
  2. Bearing wall floor-to-floor heights shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm).
  3. Loads as determined in Chapter 16 shall not exceed the following:
  3.1. Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 psf (718 N/m2) for roofs and exterior walls, floors and partitions.
  3.2. Live loads shall not exceed 40 psf (1916 N/m2) for floors.
  3.3. Ground snow loads shall not exceed 50 psf (2395 N/m2).
  4. Wind speeds shall not exceed 110 miles per hour (mph) (48.4 m/s) (3-second gust) for buildings in Exposure Category A or B.
  5. Roof trusses and rafters shall not span more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between points of vertical support.
  6. The use of the provisions for conventional light-frame construction in this section shall not be permitted for buildings in Seismic Design Category B, C, or D for Seismic Use Group III, as determined in Section 1616.
  7. Conventional light-frame construction is limited in irregular structures in Seismic Design Category D, as specified in Section 2308.12.6.
Where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 mph (3-second gust), the provisions of either the AF&PA; Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (WFCM), or the SBCCI Standard for Hurricane-Resistant Residential Construction (SSTD 10), are permitted to be used.
Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category B or C, as determined in Section 1616, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section 2308.11.
  Exceptions:
  1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category B.
  2. Detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category C where masonry veneer is limited to the first two stories above grade.
  Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category D, as determined in Section 1616, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section 2308.12.
Buildings shall be provided with exterior and interior braced wall lines as described in Section 2308.9.3 and installed in accordance with Sections 2308.3.1 through 2308.3.4.
Spacing of braced wall lines shall not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) o.c. in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in each story.
Forces shall be transferred from the roofs and floors to braced wall panels and from the braced wall panels in upper stories to the braced wall panels in the story below by the following:
  1. Braced wall panel top and bottom plates shall be fastened to joists, rafters or full-depth blocking. Braced wall panels shall be extended and fastened to roof framing at intervals not to exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) between parallel braced wall lines.
  Exception: Where roof trusses are used, lateral forces shall be transferred from the roof diaphragm to the braced wall by blocking of the ends of the trusses or by other approved methods.
  2. Bottom plate fastening to joist or blocking below shall be with not less than 3-16d nails at 16 inches (406 mm) o.c.
  3. Blocking shall be nailed to the top plate below with not less than 3-8d toenails per block.
  4. Joists parallel to the top plates shall be nailed to the top plate with not less than 8d toenails at 6 inches (152 mm) o.c.
  In addition, top plate laps shall be nailed with not less than 8-16d face nails on each side of each break in the top plate.
Where foundations are required by Section 2308.3.4, braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations. Such anchorage shall conform to the requirements of Section 2308.6 except that such anchors shall be spaced at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. for structures over two stories in height. The anchors shall be distributed along the length of the braced wall line. Other anchorage devices having equivalent capacity are permitted.
Where all-wood foundations are used, the force transfer from the braced wall lines shall be determined based on calculation and shall have a capacity greater than or equal to the connections required by Section 2308.3.3.
Braced wall lines shall be supported by continuous foundations.
  Exception: For structures with maximum plan dimensions not over 50 feet (15 240 mm), continuous foundations are required at exterior walls only.
Where a building of otherwise conventional construction contains non-conventional structural elements, those elements shall be designed to resist the forces specified in Chapter 16. The extent of such design need only demonstrate compliance of non-conventional elements with other applicable provisions of this code, and shall be compatible with the performance of the conventional framed system.
Connections and fasteners used in conventional light-frame construction shall comply with the requirements of Section 2304.9.
Foundations and footings shall be as specified in Chapter 18. Foundation plates or sills resting on concrete or masonry foundations shall comply with Section 2304.3.1. Foundation plates or sills shall be bolted or anchored to the foundation with not less than 1 / 2 -inch-diameter (12.7 mm) steel bolts or approved anchors. Bolts shall be embedded at least 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete or masonry, and spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) apart. There shall be a minimum of two bolts or anchor straps per piece with one bolt or anchor strap located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than 4 inches (102 mm) from each end of each piece. A properly sized nut and washer shall be tightened on each bolt to the plate.
Girders for single-story construction or girders supporting loads from a single floor shall not be less than 4 inches by 6 inches (102 mm by 152 mm) for spans 6 feet (1829 mm) or less, provided that girders are spaced not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) o.c. Spans for built-up 2-inch (51 mm) girders shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.5 or 2308.9.6. Other girders shall be designed to support the loads specified in this code. Girder end joints shall occur over supports.
  Where a girder is spliced over a support, an adequate tie shall be provided. The ends of beams or girders supported on masonry or concrete shall not have less than 4 inches (102 mm) of bearing.
Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Table 2308.8(1) or 2308.8(2). For other grades and or species, refer to the AF&PA; Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.
Except where supported on a 1-inch by 4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjoining stud, the ends of each joist shall not have less than 1 1 / 2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal, or less than 4 inches (102 mm) on masonry.
Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends and at each support by solid blocking except where the ends of the joists are nailed to a header, band or rim joist or to an adjoining stud or by other means. Solid blocking shall not be less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness and the full depth of the joist. Notches on the ends of joists shall not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in joists shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top or bottom of the joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not exceed one-third the depth of the joist. Notches in the top or bottom of joists shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be located in the middle third of the span.
  Joist framing from opposite sides of a beam, girder or partition shall be lapped at least 3 inches (76 mm) or the opposing joists shall be tied together in an approved manner.
  Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, laminated veneer lumber, glue-laminated members or I-joists are not permitted unless the effects of such penetrations are specifically considered in the design of the member.
Trimmer and header joists shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent cross section, where the span of the header exceeds 3 feet (914 mm). The ends of header joists more than 6 feet (1829 mm) long shall be supported by framing anchors or joist hangers unless bearing on a beam, partition or wall. Tail joists over 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
Bearing partitions parallel to joists shall be supported on beams, girders, doubled joists, walls or other bearing partitions. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the additional load.
Floor, attic and roof framing with a nominal depth-to-thickness ratio greater than or equal to 5:1 shall have one edge held in line for the entire span. Where the nominal depth-to-thickness ratio of the framing member exceeds 6:1, there shall be one line of bridging for each 8 feet (2438 mm) of span, unless both edges of the member are held in line. The bridging shall consist of not less than 1-inch by 3-inch (25 mm by 76 mm) lumber, double nailed at each end, of equivalent metal bracing of equal rigidity, full-depth solid blocking or other approved means. A line of bridging shall also be required at supports where equivalent lateral support is not otherwise provided.
Structural floor sheathing shall comply with the provisions of Section 2304.7.1.
For under-floor ventilation, see Section 1203.3.
The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.1 except that utility-grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c., or support more than a roof and ceiling, or exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior non-load-bearing walls.
Studs shall be placed with their wide dimension perpendicular to the wall. Not less than three studs shall be installed at each corner of an exterior wall.
  Exception: At corners, two studs are permitted, provided wood spacers or backup cleats of 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) Type M "Exterior Glue" particleboard, 1-inch-thick (25 mm) lumber or other approved devices that will serve as an adequate backing for the attachment of facing materials are used. Where fire-resistance ratings or shear values are involved, wood spacers, backup cleats or other devices shall not be used unless specifically approved for such use.
Bearing and exterior wall studs shall be capped with double top plates installed to provide overlapping at corners and at intersections with other partitions. End joints in double top plates shall be offset at least 48 inches (1219 mm), and shall be nailed with not less than eight 16d face nails on each side of the joint. Plates shall be a nominal 2 inches (51 mm) in depth and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
  Exception: A single top plate is permitted, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting walls by at least the equivalent of 3-inch by 6-inch (76 mm by 152 mm) by 0.036-inch-thick (0.914 mm) galvanized steel that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails or equivalent, provided the rafters, joists or trusses are centered over the studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm).
Where bearing studs are spaced at 24-inch (610 mm) intervals and top plates are less than two 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (76 mm by 102 mm) members and where the floor joists, floor trusses or roof trusses that they support are spaced at more than 16-inch (406 mm) intervals, such joists or trusses shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath or a third plate shall be installed.
In non-bearing walls and partitions, studs shall be spaced not more than 28 inches (711 mm) o.c. and are permitted to be set with the long dimension parallel to the wall. Interior nonbearing partitions shall be capped with no less than a single top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and at intersections with other walls and partitions. The plate shall be continuously tied at joints by solid blocking at least 16 inches (406 mm) in length and equal in size to the plate or by 1 / 2 -inch by 1 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm by 38 mm) metal ties with spliced sections fastened with two 16d nails on each side of the joint.
Studs shall have full bearing on a plate or sill not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness having a width not less than that of the wall studs.
Braced wall lines shall consist of braced wall panels that meet the requirements for location, type and amount of bracing as shown in Figure 2308.9.3, specified in Table 2308.9.3(1), and are in line or offset from each other by not more than 4 feet (1219 mm). Braced wall panels shall start not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of a braced wall line. A designed collector shall be provided if the bracing begins more than 12.5 feet (3810 mm) from an end of a braced wall line. Braced wall panels shall be clearly indicated on the plans. Construction of braced wall panels shall be by one of the following methods:
  1. Nominal 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) continuous diagonal braces let into top and bottom plates and intervening studs, placed at an angle not more than 60 degrees (1.0 rad) or less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal and attached to the framing in conformance with Table 2304.9.1.
  2. Wood boards of 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) net minimum thickness applied diagonally on studs spaced not over 24 inches (610 mm) o.c.
  3. Wood structural panel sheathing with a thickness not less than 5/16 inch (7.9 mm) for a 16-inch (406 mm) stud spacing and not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) for a 24-inch (610 mm) stud spacing in accordance with Tables 2308.9.3(2) and 2308.9.3(3).
  4. Fiberboard sheathing panels not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) thick applied vertically or horizontally on studs spaced not over 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. where installed with fasteners in accordance with Section 2306.4.4 and Table 2308.9.3(4).
  5. Gypsum board [sheathing 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) thick by 4 feet (1219 mm) wide wallboard or veneer base] on studs spaced not over 24 inches (610 mm) o.c. and nailed at 7 inches (178 mm) o.c. with nails as required by Table 2306.4.5.
  6. Particleboard wall sheathing panels where installed in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(5).
  7. Portland cement plaster on studs spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. installed in accordance with Section 2510.
  8. Hardboard panel siding where installed in accordance with Section 2303.1.6 and Table 2308.9.3(6).
  For cripple wall bracing, see Section 2308.9.4.1. For Methods 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, each panel must be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, covering three stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) apart and covering two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) apart.
  For Method 5, each panel must be at least 96 inches (2438 mm) in length where applied to one face of a panel and 48 inches (1219 mm) where applied to both faces.
  All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over studs and adjacent panel joints shall be nailed to common framing members. Horizontal joints shall occur over blocking or other framing equal in size to the studding except where waived by the installation requirements for the specific sheathing materials.
  Sole plates shall be nailed to the floor framing and top plates shall be connected to the framing above in accordance with Section 2308.3.2. Where joists are perpendicular to braced wall lines above, blocking shall be provided under and in line with the braced wall panels.
Any bracing required by Section 2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the following:
  1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a length of not less than 2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) and a height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each panel shall be sheathed on one face with 3/8-inch-minimum-thickness (9.5 mm) wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d common or galvanized box nails in accordance with Table 2304.9.1 and blocked at wood structural panel edges. Two anchor bolts installed in accordance with Section 2308.6 shall be provided in each panel. Anchor bolts shall be placed at each panel outside quarter points. Each panel end stud shall have a tie-down device fastened to the foundation, capable of providing an approved uplift capacity of not less than 1,800 pounds (8006 N). The tie-down device shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The panels shall be supported directly on a foundation or on floor framing supported directly on a foundation that is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line. This foundation shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.
  Where the continuous foundation is required to have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305 mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge is permitted at door openings in the braced wall line. This continuous footing or turned down slab edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be lapped 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement required in the continuous foundation located directly under the braced wall line.
  2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall panel shall be braced in accordance with Section 2308.9.3.1, Item 1, except that the wood structural panel sheathing shall be provided on both faces, three anchor bolts shall be placed at one-quarter points, and tie-down device uplift capacity shall not be less than 3,000 pounds (13 344 N).


Seismic Design Category

Maximum Wall Spacing
(feet)

Required Bracing
Length, b










B, and C

35'–0"











D and E

25'–0"










[See Table 1]

Exposed Plywood Panel Siding


Minimum Thicknessa

Minimum Number
of Plies

Stud Spacing
(inches)
Plywood siding applied directly
to studs or over sheathing










3/8

3

16b










1/2

4

24









For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a.
Thickness of grooved panels is measured at bottom of grooves.
b.
Spans are permitted to be 24 inches if plywood siding applied with face grain perpendicular to studs or over one of the following: (1) 1-inch board sheathing, (2) 7/16-inch wood structural panel sheathing or (3) 3/4-inchy wood structural panel sheathing with strength axis (which is the long direction of the penal unless otherwise marked) of sheathing perpendicular to studs.
Wood Structural Panel Wall Sheathing
b
(Not Exposed to the Weather, Strength Axis Parallel or Perpendicular
to Studs Except as Indicated Below)


Minimum
Thickness (inch)

Panel Span Rating

Stud Spacing (inches)
________________________________________










Siding nailed to
studs
Nailable sheathing
________________________________________
Sheathing
perpendicular
to studs












5/16

12/0, 16/0, 20/0
Wall–16" o.c.

16


16














3/8, 15/32, 1/2

16/0, 20/0 24/0, 32/16
Wall–24" o.c.

24

16

24














7/16, 15/32, 1/2

24/0, 24/16, 32/16
Wall–24" o.c.

24

24a

24













For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a.
Plywood shall consist of four or more plies.
b.
Blocking of horizontal joints shall not be required except as specified in Sections 2306.4 and 2308.12.4.
Allowable Shear Values (plf) for Wind or Seismic Loading on Vertical
Diaphragms of Fiberboard Sheathing Board Construction for
Type V Construction Only
a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h









Thickness and Grade

Fastener Size

Shear Value
(pounds per linear foot)
3-Inch Nail Spacing Around Perimeter and 6-Inch
at Intermediate Points










1/2" Structural

No. 11 gage galvanized
roofing nail 11/2" long,
7/16" head

125g










25/32" Structural

No. 11 gage galvanized
roofing nail 13/4" long,
7/16" head

175g









For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.
a.
Fiberboard sheathing diaphragms shall not be used to brace concrete or masonry walls.
b. Panel edges shall be backed with 2 inch or wider framing of Douglas fir-larch or Southern pine.
c. Fiberboard sheathing on one side only.
d. Fiberboard panels are installed with their long dimension parallel or perpendicular to studs.
e. Fasteners shall be spaced 6 inches on center along intermediate framing members.
f.
For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of lumber in AF&PA; National Design Specification, and (2) Multiply the shear value from the above table by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species.
g. The same values can be applied when staples are used as described in Table 2304.9.1.
h. Values are not permitted in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
Allowable Spans for Particleboard Wall Sheathing
(Not Exposed to the Weather, Long Dimension of the Panel Parallel
or Perpendicular to Studs)


Grade

Thickness
(inch)

Stud Spacing (inches)
________________________________________







Siding nailed
to studs
Sheathing under coverings
specified in Section 2308.9.3
parallel or perpendicular to studs











M-S "Exterior Glue"
and M-2 "Exterior Glue"

3/8
________________________________________
1/2

16
________________________________________
16

________________________________________
16











For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not less in size than the studding above with a minimum length of 14 inches (356 mm), or shall be framed of solid blocking. Where exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.
For the purposes of this section, cripple walls having a stud height exceeding 14 inches (356 mm) shall be considered a story and shall be braced in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(1) for Seismic Design Category B or C. See Section 2308.12.4 for Seismic Design Category D.
Spacing of edge nailing for required wall bracing shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm) o.c. along the foundation plate and the top plate of the cripple wall. Nail size, nail spacing for field nailing and more restrictive boundary nailing requirements shall be as required elsewhere in the code for the specific bracing material used.
Headers shall be provided over each opening in exterior-bearing walls. The spans in Table 2308.9.5 are permitted to be used for one- and two-family dwellings. Headers for other buildings shall be designed in accordance with Section 2301.2.1 or 2301.2.2. Headers shall be of two pieces of nominal 2-inch (51 mm) framing lumber set on edge as permitted by Table 2308.9.5 and nailed together in accordance with Table 2304.9.1 or of solid lumber of equivalent size.
Wall studs shall support the ends of the header in accordance with Table 2308.9.5. Each end of a lintel or header shall have a length of bearing of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) for the full width of the lintel.
Headers shall be provided over each opening in interior bearing partitions as required in Section 2308.9.5. The spans in Table 2308.9.6 are permitted to be used for one- and two-family dwellings. Wall studs shall support the ends of the header in accordance with Table 2308.9.5 or 2308.9.6 as appropriate.
             
    
Openings in nonbearing partitions are permitted to be framed with single studs and headers. Each end of a lintel or header shall have a length of bearing of not less than 1 1 / 2 inches (38 mm) for the full width of the lintel.
Stud partitions containing plumbing, heating or other pipes shall be so framed and the joists underneath so spaced as to give proper clearance for the piping. Where a partition containing such piping runs parallel to the floor joists, the joists underneath such partitions shall be doubled and spaced to permit the passage of such pipes and shall be bridged. Where plumbing, heating or other pipes are placed in or partly in a partition, necessitating the cutting of the soles or plates, a metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.47 mm) (16 galvanized gage) and 1 1 / 2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened to each plate across and to each side of the opening with not less than six 16d nails.
Unless covered by interior or exterior wall coverings or sheathing meeting the minimum requirements of this code, stud partitions or walls with studs having a height-to-least-thickness ratio exceeding 50 shall have bridging not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness and of the same width as the studs fitted snugly and nailed thereto to provide adequate lateral support. Bridging shall be placed in every stud cavity and at a frequency such that no stud so braced shall have a height-to-least-thickness ratio exceeding 50 with the height of the stud measured between horizontal framing and bridging or between bridging, whichever is greater.
In exterior walls and bearing partitions, any wood stud is permitted to be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Cutting or notching of studs to a depth not greater than 40 percent of the width of the stud is permitted in nonbearing partitions supporting no loads other than the weight of the partition.
A hole not greater in diameter than 40 percent of the stud width is permitted to be bored in any wood stud. Bored holes not greater than 60 percent of the width of the stud are permitted in nonbearing partitions or in any wall where each bored stud is doubled, provided not more than two such successive doubled studs are so bored.
  In no case shall the edge of the bored hole be nearer than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) to the edge of the stud.
  Bored holes shall not be located at the same section of stud as a cut or notch.
The framing details required in this section apply to roofs having a minimum slope of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) or greater. Where the roof slope is less than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope), members supporting rafters and ceiling joists such as ridge board, hips and valleys shall be designed as beams.
Roof assemblies shall have rafter and truss ties to the wall below. Resultant uplift loads shall be transferred to the foundation using a continuous load path. The rafter or truss to wall connection shall comply with Tables 2304.9.1 and 2308.10.1.[See Table 1]

Allowable spans for ceiling joists shall be in accordance with Table 2308.10.2(1) or 2308.10.2(2). For other grades and species, refer to the AF&PA; Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.
Allowable spans for rafters shall be in accordance with Table 2308.10.3(1), 2308.10.3(2), 2308.10.3(3), 2308.10.3(4), 2308.10.3(5) or 2308.10.3(6). For other grades and species, refer to the AF&PA; Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.
Rafters shall be framed directly opposite each other at the ridge. There shall be a ridge board at least 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness at ridges and not less in depth than the cut end of the rafter. At valleys and hips, there shall be a single valley or hip rafter not less than 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness and not less in depth than the cut end of the rafter.
Ceilings joists and rafters shall be nailed to each other and the assembly shall be nailed to the top wall plate in accordance with Tables 2304.9.1 and 2308.10.1. Ceiling joists shall be continuous or securely joined where they meet over interior partitions and fastened to adjacent rafters in accordance with Tables 2308.10.4.1 and 2304.9.1 to provide a continuous rafter tie across the building where such joists are parallel to the rafters. Ceiling joists shall have a bearing surface of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) on the top plate at each end.
  Where ceiling joists are not parallel to rafters, an equivalent rafter tie shall be installed in a manner to provide a continuous tie across the building, at a spacing of not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. The connections shall be in accordance with Tables 2308.10.4.1 and 2304.9.1, or connections of equivalent capacities shall be provided. Where ceiling joists or rafter ties are not provided at the top of the rafter support walls, the ridge formed by these rafters shall also be supported by a girder conforming to Section 2308.4.
  Rafter ties shall be spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. Rafter tie connections shall be based on the equivalent rafter spacing in Table 2308.10.4.1. Where rafter ties are spaced at 32 inches (813 mm) o.c., the number of 16d common nails shall be two times the number specified for rafters spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c., with a minimum of 4-16d common nails where no snow loads are indicated. Where rafter ties are spaced at 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c., the number of 16d common nails shall be two times the number specified for rafters spaced 24 inches (610 mm) o.c., with a minimum of 6-16d common nails where no snow loads are indicated. Rafter/ceiling joist connections and rafter/tie connections shall be of sufficient size and number to prevent splitting from nailing.
Notching at the ends of rafters or ceiling joists shall not exceed one-fourth the depth. Notches in the top or bottom of the rafter or ceiling joist shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be located in the middle one-third of the span, except that a notch not exceeding one-third of the depth is permitted in the top of the rafter or ceiling joist not further from the face of the support than the depth of the member.
  Holes bored in rafters or ceiling joists shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top and bottom and their diameter shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member.
Trimmer and header rafters shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent cross section, where the span of the header exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm). The ends of header rafters more than 6 feet (1829 mm) long shall be supported by framing anchors or rafter hangers unless bearing on a beam, partition or wall.
Purlins to support roof loads are permitted to be installed to reduce the span of rafters within allowable limits and shall be supported by struts to bearing walls. The maximum span of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) purlins shall be 4 feet (1219 mm). The maximum span of the 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) purlin shall be 6 feet (1829 mm), but in no case shall the purlin be smaller than the supported rafter. Struts shall not be smaller than 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) members. The unbraced length of struts shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) and the minimum slope of the struts shall not be less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal.
Roof rafters and ceiling joists shall be supported laterally to prevent rotation and lateral displacement in accordance with the provisions of Section 2308.8.5.
Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter and accepted engineering practice. Members are permitted to be joined by nails, glue, bolts, timber connectors, metal connector plates or other approved framing devices.
The bracing of wood trusses shall comply with their appropriate engineered design.
Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, drilled, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without written concurrence and approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heater) shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting such additional loading.
Roof sheathing shall be in accordance with Tables 2304.7(3) and 2304.7(5) for wood structural panels, and Tables 2304.7(1) and 2304.7(2) for lumber and shall comply with Section 2304.7.2.
Joints in lumber sheathing shall occur over supports unless approved end-matched lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at least two supports.
Planking shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code. In lieu of such design, 2-inch (51 mm) tongue-and groove planking is permitted in accordance with Table 2308.10.9. Joints in such planking are permitted to be randomly spaced, provided the system is applied to not less than three continuous spans, planks are center matched and end matched or splined, each plank bears on at least one support, and joints are separated by at least 24 inches (610 mm) in adjacent pieces.
For attic ventilation, see Section 1203.2.
Structures of conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category B or C, as determined in Section 1616, shall comply with Sections 2308.11.1 through 2308.11.3, in addition to the provisions of Sections 2308.1 through 2308.10.
Structures of conventional light-frame construction shall not exceed two stories in height in Seismic Design Category C.
  Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings are permitted to be three stories in height in Seismic Design Category C.
Concrete or masonry walls, or masonry veneer shall not extend above the basement.
  Exceptions:
  1. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first two stories above grade or the first three stories above grade where the lowest story has concrete or masonry walls in Seismic Design Category B, provided that structural use panel wall bracing is used, and the length of bracing provided is 1.5 times the required length as determined in Table 2308.9.3(1).
  2. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first story above grade or the first two stories above grade where the lowest story has concrete or masonry walls in Seismic Design Category B or C.
  3. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first two stories above grade in Seismic Design Categories Band C provided the following criteria are met:
  3.1. Type of brace per Section 2308.9.3 shall be Method 3 and the allowable shear capacity in accordance with Table 2306.4.1 shall be a minimum of 350 plf (5108 N/m) (ASD).
  3.2. The bracing of the top story shall be located at each end and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) o.c. but not less than 40 percent of the braced wall line. The bracing of the first story shall be located at each end and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) o.c. but not less than 35 percent of the braced wall line.
  3.3. Hold-down connectors shall be provided at the ends of braced walls for the second floor to first floor wall assembly with an allowable design of 2,000 pounds (907.0 kg). Hold-down connectors shall be provided at the ends of each wall segment of the braced walls for the first floor to foundation with an allowable design of 3,900 pounds (1768 kg). In all cases, the hold-down connector force shall be transferred to the foundation.
  3.4. Cripple walls shall not be permitted.
Framing and connection details shall conform to Sections 2308.11.3.1 through 2308.11.3.3.
Braced wall lines shall be anchored in accordance with Section 2308.6 at foundations.
Where the height of a required braced wall panel extending from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the following construction shall be used:
  1. Where the bottom of the footing is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the footings, the sill shall be anchored as required in Section 2308.3.3.
  2. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a footing not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered to be braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing extending to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced to the sill plate with metal ties, one on each side of the sill and plate. The metal ties shall not be less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16 galvanized gage)] by 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide by 48 inches (1219 mm) with eight 16d common nails on each side of the splice location (see Figure 2308.11.3.2). The metal tie shall have a minimum yield of 33,000 pounds per square inch (psi) (227 Mpa).
  3. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the footing and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements for a story shall apply.
Openings in horizontal diaphragms with a dimension perpendicular to the joist that is greater than 4 feet (1.2 m) shall be constructed in accordance with the following:
  1. Blocking shall be provided beyond headers.
  2. Metal ties not less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16 galvanized gage)] by 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide with eight 16d common nails on each side of the header-joist intersection shall be provided (see Figure 2308.11.3.3). The metal ties shall have a minimum yield of 33,000 psi (227 Mpa).
Structures of conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category D, as determined in Section 1616, shall conform to Sections 2308.12.1 through 2308.12.8, in addition to the requirements for Seismic Design Category B or C in Section 2308.11.
Structures of conventional light-frame construction shall not exceed one story in height in Seismic Design Category D.
  Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings are permitted to be two stories high in Seismic Design Category D.
Concrete or masonry walls, or masonry veneer shall not extend above the basement.
  Exception: Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first story above grade in Seismic Design Category D provided the following criteria are met:
  1. Type of brace in accordance with Section 2308.9.3 shall be Method 3 and the allowable shear capacity in accordance with Table 2306.4.1 shall be a minimum of 350 plf (5108 N/m) (ASD).
  2. The bracing of the first story shall be located at each end and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) o.c. but not less than 45 percent of the braced wall line.
  3. Hold-down connectors shall be provided at the ends of braced walls for the first floor to foundation with an allowable design of 2,100 pounds (1768 kg).
  4. Cripple walls shall not be permitted.
Spacing between interior and exterior braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm).
Braced wall lines shall be braced by one of the types of sheathing prescribed by Table 2308.12.4 as shown in Figure 2308.9.3. The sum of lengths of braced wall panels at each braced wall line shall conform to Table 2308.12.4. Braced wall panels shall be distributed along the length of the braced wall line and start at not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of the braced wall line. A designed collector shall be provided where the bracing begins more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of a braced wall line. Panel sheathing joints shall occur over studs or blocking. Sheathing shall be fastened to studs and top and bottom plates and at panel edges occurring over blocking. Wall framing to which sheathing used for bracing is applied shall be nominal 2 inch wide (actual 11/2 inch, 38 mm) or larger members.
  Cripple walls having a stud height exceeding 14 inches (356 mm) shall be considered a story for the purpose of this section and shall be braced as required for braced wall lines in accordance with Table 2308.12.4. Where interior braced wall lines occur without a continuous foundation below, the length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing shall be one and one-half times the lengths required by Table 2308.12.4. Where the cripple wall sheathing type used is Type S-W, and this additional length of bracing cannot be provided, the capacity of Type S-W sheathing shall be increased by reducing the spacing of fasteners along the perimeter of each piece of sheathing to 4 inches (102 mm) o.c.
Fastening of braced wall panel sheathing shall not be less than that prescribed in Table 2308.12.4 or 2304.9.1. Wall sheathing shall not be attached to framing members by adhesives.
Conventional light-frame construction shall not be used in irregular portions of structures in Seismic Design Category D. Such irregular portions of structures shall be designed to resist the forces specified in Chapter 16 to the extent such irregular features affect the performance of the conventional framing system. A portion of a structure shall be considered to be irregular where at least one of the conditions described in Items 1 through 6 below is present.
  1. Where exterior braced wall panels are not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story in which they are required, the structure shall be considered to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(1)].
  Exception: Floors with cantilevers or setbacks not exceeding four times the nominal depth of the floor joists [see Figure 2308.12.6(2)] are permitted to support braced wall panels provided:
  1. Floor joists are 2 inches by 10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c.
  2. The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is at least 2:1.
  3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are doubled.
  4. A continuous rim joist is connected to the ends of cantilevered joists. The rim joist is permitted to be spliced using a metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.47 mm) (16 galvanized gage) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 16d common nails on each side. The metal tie shall have a minimum yield of 33,000 psi (227 Mpa).
  5. Joists at setbacks or the end of cantilevered joists shall not carry gravity loads from more than a single story having uniform wall and roof loads, nor carry the reactions from headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or more.
  2. Where a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by braced wall lines on all edges, the structure shall be considered to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(3)].
  Exception: Portions of roofs or floors that do not support braced wall panels above are permitted to extend up to 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a braced wall line [see Figure 2308.12.6(4)].
  3. Where the end of a required braced wall panel extends more than 1 foot (305 mm) over an opening in the wall below, the structure shall be considered to be irregular. This requirement is applicable to braced wall panels offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset out of plane as permitted by the exception to Item 1 above in this section [see Figure 2308.12.6(5)].
  Exception: Braced wall panels are permitted to extend over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in width where the header is a 4-inch by 12-inch (102 mm by 305 mm) or larger member.
  4. Where portions of a floor level are vertically offset such that the framing members on either side of the offset cannot be lapped or tied together in an approved manner, the structure shall be considered to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(6)].
  Exception: Framing supported directly by foundations need not be lapped or tied directly together.
  5. Where braced wall lines are not perpendicular to each other, the structure shall be considered to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(7)].
  6. Where openings in floor and roof diaphragms having a maximum dimension greater than 50 percent of the distance between lines of bracing or an area greater than 25 percent of the area between orthogonal pairs of braced wall lines are present, the structure shall be considered to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(8)].
                  
              
              
              
                  
              
                  
                  
Exterior exit balconies, stairs and similar exit facilities shall be positively anchored to the primary structure at not over 8 feet (2438 mm) o.c. or shall be designed for lateral forces. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal.
Steel plate washers shall be placed between the foundation sill plate and the nut. Such washers shall be a minimum of 3 / 1 6 inch by 2 inches by 2 inches (4.76 mm by 51 mm by 51 mm) in size.
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