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This chapter shall govern the installation, maintenance, design, minimum safety requirements, repair and approval of factory-built chimneys, chimney liners, vents and connectors, and field built chimneys and connectors. This chapter shall also govern the utilization of masonry chimneys. Gas-fired appliances shall be vented in accordance with the New York City Fuel Gas Code.
Whenever a building is erected, enlarged, or increased in height so that any portion of such building, except chimneys or vents, extends higher than the top of any previously constructed chimneys or vents within 100 feet (30 480 mm), the owner of such new or altered building shall have the responsibility of altering such chimneys or vents to make them conform with the requirements of this chapter. A chimney or vent that is no longer connected with a fireplace or combustion or other equipment for which a chimney or vent was required, shall be exempt from this requirement. Such alterations shall be accomplished by one of the following means or a combination thereof:
- Carry up the previously constructed chimneys or vents to the height required in this chapter.
- Offset such chimneys or vents to a distance beyond that required in Chapter 5 of this code from the new or altered building provided that the new location of the outlet of the offset chimney or vent shall otherwise comply with the requirements of this chapter.
Such requirements shall not dispense with or modify any additional requirements that may be applicable pursuant to rules of the New York City Department of Environmental Protection.
The owner of the new or altered building shall notify the owner of the building affected in writing at least forty-five days before starting the work required and request written consent to do such work. Such notice shall be companied by plans indicating the manner in which the proposed alterations are to be made.
If consent is not granted by the owner of the previously constructed building to do the alteration work required by this section, such owner shall signify his or her refusal in writing to the owner of the new or altered building and to the commissioner; and the owner of the new or altered building having submitted plans that conform to the requirements of this section, shall thereupon be released from any responsibility for the proper operation of the equipment due to loss of draft and for any health hazard or nuisance that may occur as a result of the new or altered building. Such responsibilities shall then be assumed by the owner of the previously constructed building. Similarly, should such owner fail to grant consent within forty-five days from the date of written request or fail to signify his or her refusal, he or she shall then assume all responsibilities as prescribed above.
It shall be the obligation of the owner of the new or altered building to:
- Schedule this work so as to create a minimum of disturbance to the occupants of the affected building; and
- Provide such essential services as are normally supplied by the equipment while it is out of service; and
- Where necessary, support such extended chimneys, vents and equipment from this building or to carry up such chimneys or vents within his or her building; and
- Provide for the maintenance, repair, and/or replacement of such extensions and added equipment; and
- Make such alterations of the same material as the original chimney or vent so as to maintain the same quality and appearance, except where the affected owner of the chimney or vent shall give his or her consent to do otherwise. All work shall be done in such fashion as to maintain the architectural aesthetics of the existing building. Where there is practical difficulty in complying strictly with the provisions of this Item, the commissioner may permit an equally safe alternative.
The commissioner may grant a variance in accordance with the provisions of this code.
Chimneys and vents shall be designed and constructed so as to provide the necessary draft and capacity for each appliance connected to completely exhaust the products of combustion to the outside air. The temperature on adjacent combustible surfaces shall not be raised above 160°F (71°C). Condensation shall not be developed to an extent that can cause deterioration of the chimney or vent.
The outlet shall be arranged that the flue gases are not directed so that they jeopardize people, overheat combustible structures, or enter building openings in the vicinity of the outlet.
Oil-fired appliances shall be vented in accordance with this code and NFPA 31.
A connector shall extend from the appliance to the flue serving a masonry fireplace such that the flue gases are exhausted directly into the flue. The connector shall be provided with access or shall be removable for inspection and cleaning of both the connector and the flue. Listed direct connection devices shall be installed in accordance with their listing.
Masonry chimney flues shall be provided with a cleanout opening having a minimum height of 6 inches (152 mm). The upper edge of the opening shall be located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) below the lowest chimney inlet opening. The cleanout shall be provided with a tight-fitting, noncombustible cover of a minimum size of 8 inches by 8 inches (203 mm by 203 mm).
All appliance connections to a chimney or vent equipped with a power exhauster shall be made on the inlet side of the exhauster. All joints and piping on the positive pressure side of the exhauster shall be listed for positive pressure applications as specified by the manufacturer's installation instructions for the exhauster.
Masonry chimneys shall be lined. The lining material shall be compatible with the type of appliance connected, in accordance with the appliance listing and manufacturer's installation instructions. Listed materials used as flue linings shall be installed in accordance with their listings and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Flue lining systems for use with residential-type and low-heat appliances shall be limited to the following:
- Clay flue lining complying with the requirements of ASTM C 315 or equivalent. Clay flue lining shall be installed in accordance with the New York City Building Code.
- Listed chimney lining systems complying with UL 1777.
- Other approved materials that will resist, without cracking, softening or corrosion, flue gases and condensate at temperatures up to 1,800°F (982°C).
The chimney or vent shall be resized as necessary to control flue gas condensation in the interior of the chimney or vent and to provide the appliance or appliances served with the required draft. For the venting of oil-fired appliances to masonry chimneys, the resizing shall be in accordance with NFPA 31.
The flue gas passageway shall be free of obstructions and combustible deposits and shall be cleaned if previously used for venting a solid or liquid fuel-burning appliance or fireplace. The flue liner, chimney innerwall or vent innerwall shall be continuous and shall be free of cracks, gaps, perforations or other damage or deterioration which would allow the escape of combustion products, including gases, moisture and creosote. Where an oil-fired appliance is connected to an existing masonry chimney, such chimney flue shall be repaired or relined in accordance with NFPA 31.
Chimneys and vents shall have air-space clearance to combustibles in accordance with the New York City Building Code and the chimney or vent manufacturer's installation instructions.
Exception: Masonry chimneys equipped with a chimney lining system tested and listed for installation in chimneys in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 1777, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, shall not be required to have clearance between combustible materials and exterior surfaces of the masonry chimney. Noncombustible fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with the New York City Building Code.
Common venting systems for appliances located on more than one floor level shall be prohibited, except where all of the appliances served by the common vent are located in rooms or spaces that are accessed only from the outdoors. The appliance enclosures shall not communicate with the occupiable areas of the building.
Type L vents shall terminate not less than 2 feet (610 mm) above the highest point of the roof penetration and not less than 2 feet (610 mm) higher than any portion of a building within 10 feet (3048 mm). Chimneys serving appliances less than 600°F (316°C) shall extend at least 3 feet (914 mm) above the highest construction, such as a roof ridge, parapet wall, or penthouse, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same buildings as the chimney or on another building. Any chimney located in an area that is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from such construction but not more than the distance determined by Equation 8-1 and Table 802.5, shall be at least as high as the highest construction in such area. For purposes of determining the required height of the chimney, such construction does not include other chimneys, vents, or open structural framing.
D = F x √A (Equation 8-1)
|D||=||Distance, in feet, measured from the center of the chimney outlet to the nearest edge of the construction.|
|F||=||Value determined from Table 802.5.|
|A||=||Free area, in square inches, of chimney flue space.|
|TYPE OF FUEL||"F" FACTOR|
|600°F (316°C) and less||600°F (316°C) to 1000°F (538°C)||Greater than 1000°F (538°C)|
|No.2 Fuel Oil||2.5||2.5||3|
|No. 4, 6 Fuel Oil||3||3||3|
Vents shall terminate not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) in vertical height above the highest connected appliance flue collar.
- Venting systems of direct vent appliances shall be installed in accordance with the appliance and the vent manufacturer's instructions.
- Appliances listed for outdoor installations incorporating integral venting means shall be installed in accordance with their listings and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
All portions of vents shall be adequately supported for the design and weight of the materials employed.
Where vents pass through insulated assemblies, an insulation shield constructed of not less than No. 26 Gage sheet metal shall be installed to provide clearance between the vent and the insulation material. The clearance shall be not less than the clearance to combustibles specified by the vent manufacturer's installation instructions. Where vents pass through attic space, the shield shall terminate not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above the insulation materials and shall be secured in place to prevent displacement. Insulation shields provided as part of a listed vent system shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
The connector shall not be smaller than the size of the flue collar supplied by the manufacturer of the appliance. Where the appliance has more than one flue outlet, and in the absence of the manufacturer's specific instructions, the connector area shall be not less than the combined area of the flue outlets for which it acts as a common connector.
Automatic dampers shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 17 for oil-fired heating appliances. The dampers shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. An automatic vent damper device shall not be installed on an existing appliance unless the appliance is listed and labeled and the device is installed in accordance with the terms of its listing. The name of the installer and date of installation shall be marked on a label affixed to the damper device.
Vent connectors shall be constructed of metal. The minimum nominal thickness of the connector shall be 0.019 inch (0.5 mm) (No. 28 Gage) for galvanized steel, 0.022 inch (0.6 mm) (No. 26 B & S Gage) for copper, and 0.020 inch (0.5 mm) (No. 24 B & S Gage) for aluminum.
Chimney connectors for low-heat appliances shall be of sheet steel pipe having resistance to corrosion and heat not less than that of galvanized steel specified in Table 803.9(1). Connectors for medium-heat appliances and high-heat appliances shall be of sheet steel not less than the thickness specified in Table 803.9(2).
|DIAMETER OF CONNECTOR
|MINIMUM NOMINAL THICKNESS
|5 and smaller||0.022 (No. 26 Gage)|
|Larger than 5 and up to 10||0.028 (No. 24 Gage)|
|Larger than 10 and up to 16||0.034 (No. 22 Gage)|
|Larger than 16||0.064 (No. 16 Gage)|
|0-154||0-14||0.060 (No. 16 Gage)|
|155-201||15-16||0.075 (No. 14 Gage)|
|202-254||17-18||0.105 (No. 12 Gage)|
|Greater than 254||Greater than 18||0.135 (No. 10 Gage)|
Connectors shall be supported in an approved manner, and joints shall be fastened with sheet metal screws, rivets or other approved means.
The maximum horizontal length of a single- wall connector shall not affect the capability of the system to produce adequate draft.
The connector shall extend to the inner face of the chimney or vent liner, but not beyond. A connector entering a masonry chimney shall be cemented to masonry in an approved manner. Where thimbles are installed to facilitate removal of the connector from the masonry chimney, the thimble shall be permanently cemented in place with high-temperature cement.
Chimney connectors shall not pass through any floor or ceiling, nor through a fire-resistance-rated wall assembly. Chimney connectors for domestic-type appliances shall not pass through walls or partitions constructed of combustible material to reach a masonry chimney unless:
- The connector is labeled for wall pass-through and is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions; or
- The connector is put through a device labeled for wall pass-through; or
- The connector has a diameter not larger than 10 inches (254 mm) and is installed in accordance with one of the methods in Table 803.10.4. Concealed metal parts of the pass-through system in contact with flue gases shall be of stainless steel or equivalent material that resists corrosion, softening or cracking up to 1,800°F (980°C).
CHIMNEY CONNECTOR SYSTEMS AND CLEARANCES
TO COMBUSTIBLE WALL MATERIALS FOR
DOMESTIC HEATING APPLIANCESa,b,c
A 3.5-inch-thick brick wall shall be framed into the combustible wall. A 0.625-inch-thick fire-clay liner(ASTM C 315 or equivalent) shall be firmly cemented in the center of the brick wall maintaining a 12-inch clearance to combustibles. The clay liner shall run from the outer surface of the bricks to the inner surface of the chimney liner. System B
A labeled solid-insulated factory-built chimney section(1-inch insulation) the same inside diameter as the connector shall be utilized. Sheet metal supports cut to maintain a 9-inch clearance to combustibles shall be fastened to the wall surface and to the chimney section.Fasteners shall not penetrate the chimney flue liner. The chimney length shall be flush with the masonry chimney liner and sealed to the masonry with water-insoluble refractory cement. Chimney manufacturers' parts shall be utilized to securely fasten the chimney connector to the chimney section. System C
A sheet metal (minimum number 24 Gage) ventilated thimble having two 1-inch air channels shall be installed with a sheet steel chimney connector (minimum number 24 Gage). Sheet steel supports (minimum number 24 Gage)shall be cut to maintain a 6-inch clearance between the thimble and combustibles. One side of the support shall be fastened to the wall on all sides. Glass-fiber insulation shall fill the 6-inch space between the thimble and the supports. System D
A labeled solid-insulated factory-built chimney section(1-inch insulation) with a diameter 2 inches larger than the chimney connector shall be installed with a sheet steel chimney connector (minimum number 24 Gage). Sheet metal supports shall be positioned to maintain a 2-inch clearance to combustibles and to hold the chimney connector to ensure that a 1-inch airspace surrounds the chimney connector through the chimney section. The steel support shall be fastened to the wall on all sides and the chimney section shall be fastened to the supports.Fasteners shall not penetrate the liner of the chimney section.
- Insulation material that is part of the wall pass-through system shall be noncombustible and shall have a thermal conductivity of 1.0 Btu × in/ft2• h• F or less.
- All clearances and thicknesses are minimums.
- Materials utilized to seal penetrations for the connector shall be non-combustible
Connectors shall have a minimum clearance to combustibles in accordance with Table 803.10.6. The clearances specified in Table 803.10.6 apply, except where the listing and labeling of an appliance specifies a different clearance, in which case the labeled clearance shall apply. The clearance to combustibles for connectors shall be reduced only in accordance with Section 308 or via the use of a listed chimney or vent connector system.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
TYPE OF APPLIANCE
|Commercial, industrial-type appliances|
||In accordance with
Appliances designed for natural draft venting and incorporating integral venting means shall be located so that a minimum clearance of 9 inches (229 mm) is maintained between vent terminals and from any openings through which combustion products enter the building. Appliances using forced draft venting shall be located so that a minimum clearance of 12 inches (305 mm) is maintained between vent terminals and from any openings through which combustion products enter the building.
Horizontal terminations shall only be allowed if approved by the commissioner, if they are in a nonhazardous location and if the appliance has a sealed combustion chamber (direct vent) in accordance with the appliance listing and manufacturers instructions. In addition, horizontal terminations shall comply with the following requirements:
- Where located adjacent to walkways, the termination of mechanical draft systems shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the level of the walkway.
- Vents shall terminate at least 3 feet (914 mm) above any forced air inlet located within 10 feet (3048 mm).
- The vent system shall terminate at least 4 feet (1219 mm) below, 4 feet (1219 mm) horizontally from or 1 foot (305 mm) above any door, window or gravity air inlet into the building.
- The vent termination point shall not be located closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an interior corner formed by two walls perpendicular to each other.
- The vent termination shall not be mounted directly above or within 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally from any gas or electric metering, regulating, venting relief equipment or other building opening.
- The bottom of the vent termination shall be located at least 24 inches (610 mm) above finished grade.
Vertical terminations shall comply with the following requirements and in accordance with the appliance listing and manufacturers instructions:
- Chimneys serving appliances less than 600°F (316°C) shall extend at least 3 feet (914 mm) above the highest construction, such as a roof ridge, parapet wall, or penthouse, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as the chimney or on another building. Any chimney located in an area that is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from such construction, but not more than the distance determined by Equation 8-2 shall be at least as high as the highest construction in such area. However, for purposes of determining the required height of a chimney, such construction does not include other chimneys, vents, or open structural framing.
- Chimneys serving appliances between 600°F (316°C) and 1000°F (538°C) shall extend at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above the highest construction, such as a roof ridge, or parapet wall or penthouse within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as the chimney or on another building. Any chimney located in an area more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from such construction, but not more than the distance determined from Equation 8-2 shall be at least as high as the highest construction in such area. However, for purposes of determining the required height of the chimney, such construction does not include other chimneys, vents or open structural framing.
- Chimneys serving appliances greater than 1000°F (538°C) shall extend at least 20 feet (6096 mm) above the highest construction, such as roof ridge, parapet wall, penthouse, or other obstruction within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the chimney outlet, whether the construction is on the same building as the chimney or in another building. Any chimney located in an area that is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from such construction, but not more than the distance determined from Equation 8-2 shall be at least as high as the highest construction located in such area. However, for purposes of determining the required height of the chimney, such construction does not include other chimneys, vents, or open structural framing.
- Vent termination caps shall not be permitted and a 3-inch (76 mm) minimum drain installed to receive condensed water shall be required. A positive means shall be provided to prevent water from entering the appliance.
- The following formula shall be used in order to determine the distance referred to in Items 1, 2 and 3 of this section:
D = F x √A (Equation 8-2)
|D||=||Distance, in feet, measured from the center of the chimney outlet to the nearest edge of the construction.|
||=||Value determined from Table 802.5.|
||=||Free area, in square inches, of chimney flue space.|
A mechanical draft system shall be permitted to be used with manually fired appliances and fireplaces where such system complies with all of the following requirements:
- The mechanical draft device shall be listed and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
- A device shall be installed that produces visible and audible warning upon failure of the mechanical draft device or loss of electrical power, at any time that the mechanical draft device is turned on. This device shall be equipped with a battery backup if it receives power from the building wiring.
- A smoke detector shall be installed in the room with the appliance or fireplace. This device shall be equipped with a battery backup if it receives power from the building wiring.
Where factory-built chimneys are supported by structural members, such as joists and rafters, such members shall be designed to support the additional load.
Exterior metal chimneys shall be galvanized, painted on the exterior surface with a heat resisting paint or constructed of equal corrosion resistive alloys.
Conversion from gas to fuel oil for a heating appliances shall be made only if:
- The chimney design meets the requirements of this chapter for the conversion fuel; and
- The chimney size is adequate to vent the combustion products from the new fuel. Conversion from solid or liquid fuels to natural gas fuels for heating appliances shall be made only if:
- The chimney design meets the requirements of this chapter for the conversion fuel and the New York City Fuel Gas Code.
- The chimney is thoroughly cleaned prior to the conversion to remove collected flue deposits, which can spill off when gas is used as a fuel;
- Chimney provides adequate draft the new fuel;
- Drains are installed to remove condensed water; and
- Gas vents are installed within the chimney for venting purposes if required by the appliance listing.
Conversion from one fuel to another or the use of an existing chimney to service a fireplace or wood-burning appliance may require a flue size change for proper operation. This may be done if the redesigned flue meets the criteria for the fuel and chimney type to be used as set forth in this chapter.
All new chimneys shall be test run under operating conditions to demonstrate fire safety and the complete exhausting of smoke and the products of combustion to the outer air. The test run shall be conducted by a registered design professional responsible for the test, and the results of such test run shall be certified as correct by such professional and submitted in writing to the department.
A smoke test shall be made as outlined in Section 810.3. Any faults or leaks found shall be corrected. Such smoke test shall be witnessed by a representative of the commissioner. In lieu thereof, the commissioner may accept the test report of a registered design professional responsible for the test which shall be submitted in writing to the department.
To determine the tightness of chimney construction, a smoke test shall be made in accordance with the following conditions and requirements:
- The equipment, materials, power and labor necessary for such test shall be furnished by, and at the expense of, the owner or holder of the work permit.
- If the test shows any evidence of leakage or other defects, such defects shall be corrected in accordance with the requirements of this chapter, and the test shall be repeated until the results are satisfactory.
- The chimney shall be filled with a thick penetrating smoke produced by one or more smoke machines, or smoke bombs, or other equivalent method. As the smoke appears at the stack opening on the roof, such opening shall be tightly closed and a pressure equivalent to 1/2- inch (13 mm) column of water measured at the base of the stack, shall be applied. The test shall be applied for a length of time sufficient to permit the inspection of the chimney.
The exhaust pipe from internal combustion engines shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements for metal chimneys in this chapter, NFPA 211 and NFPA 37 based on the temperature of the gases entering the exhaust pipe, and in accordance with the following:
- The exhaust pipe, if factory fabricated shall be constructed in accordance with their listing and manufacturers instructions.
- The exhaust pipe, if field fabricated, shall be constructed of at least 3/16-inch (5 mm) steel, or of other equivalent metal of similar strength and resistance to the temperature and corrosive action of the exhaust gases.
- No lining shall be required.
- Where the exhaust pipe runs inside a building, it shall be insulated with insulation adequate for the temperature of the pipe, so that the surface temperature shall be not more than 200°F (93°C).
- All joints shall be constructed so as to be gas tight under all operating conditions.
The location of discharge openings for emergency and standby internal combustion engines shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 37 so that the flue gases are not directed to jeopardize the health or safety of people, overheat combustible structures, nor enter building openings in the vicinity of the outlet, nor shall the location of such openings cause the condensate leaving the outlet to come into contact with people.
No discharge opening shall be located and constructed so as to interfere with the proper functioning of other openings in the same building or adjoining buildings, to interfere unreasonably with the occupants of the same building or adjoining buildings, or with the general public, or to create a fire or health hazard.