Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this chapter shall govern the construction, installation, alteration and repair of hydronic piping systems. This chapter shall apply to hydronic piping systems that are part of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. Such piping systems shall include steam, hot water, chilled water, condenser water, cooling coil condensate drain, steam condensate and ground source heat pump loop systems. Potable cold and hot water distribution systems shall be installed in accordance with the New York City Plumbing Code.
Reused pipe, fittings, valves or other materials shall be clean and free of foreign materials.
Materials shall be rated for the operating temperature and pressure of the hydronic system. Materials shall be suitable for the type of fluid in the hydronic system.
Hydronic pipe shall conform to the standards listed in Table 1202.4. The exterior of the pipe shall be protected from corrosion and degradation.
|MATERIAL||STANDARD (see Chapter 15)|
|Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS) plastic pipe
|ASTM D 1527; ASTM D 2282|
|Brass pipe||ASTM B 43|
|Brass tubing||ASTM B 135|
|Copper or copper-alloy pipe||ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302|
|Copper or copper-alloy tube
(Type K, L or M)
|ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88;
ASTM B 251
|Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC) plastic pipe
|ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441;
ASTM F 442
|ASTM F 1281;
|Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)
|ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877|
|Polyethylene (PE) pipe, tubing
and fittings (for ground source
heat pump loop systems)
|ASTM D,2513;,ASTM D 3035; ASTM D 2447;,ASTM D 2683; ASTM F 1055;,ASTM D 2837; ASTM D 3350; ASTM D 1693|
|Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic
|ASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241|
|Steel pipe||ASTM A 53; ASTM A 106|
|Steel tubing||ASTM A 254|
Hydronic pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping materials to be installed, and shall conform to the respective pipe standards or to the standards listed in Table 1202.5.
|MATERIAL||STANDARD (see Chapter 15)|
|Bronze||ASME B 16.24|
|Copper and copper alloys||ASME B 16.15; ASME B 16.18; ASME B 16.22; ASME B 16.23; ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29|
|Gray iron||ASTM A 126|
|Malleable iron||ASME B 16.3|
|Plastic||ASTM D 2466; ASTM D 2467;
ASTM D 2468; ASTM F 438;
ASTM F 439; ASTM F 877
|Steel||ASME B 16.5; ASME B 16.9;
ASME B16.11; ASME B16.28;
ASTM A 420
|Brass||ASTM F 1974|
Valves shall be constructed of materials that are compatible with the type of piping material and fluids in the system. Valves shall be rated for the temperatures and pressures of the systems in which the valves are installed.
Flexible connectors, expansion and vibration control devices and fittings shall be of an approved type.
Joints and connections shall be of an approved type. Joints and connections shall be tight for the pressure of the hydronic system.
Joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A 5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.
CPVC joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2846. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture. An approved primer shall be applied to CPVC and PVC pipe-joint surfaces. Joints shall be made while the cement is wet. Solvent cement conforming to the following standards shall be applied to all joint surfaces:
1. ASTM D 2235 for ABS joints.
2. ASTM F 493 for CPVC joints.
3. ASTM D 2564 for PVC joints.
Joint surfaces shall be cleaned by an approved procedure. Joints shall be welded with an approved filler metal.
Grooved and shouldered joints shall be approved and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Mechanically extracted outlets shall have a height not less than three times the thickness of the branch tube wall.
Branch tubes shall not restrict the flow in the run tube. A dimple/depth stop shall be formed in the branch tube to ensure that penetration into the outlet is of the correct depth. For inspection purposes, a second dimple shall be placed 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) above the first dimple. Dimples shall be aligned with the tube run.
Mechanically formed tee fittings shall be brazed in accordance with Section 1203.3.1.
Flared joints shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.
When compression-type fittings include inserts and ferrules or O-rings, the fittings shall be installed without omitting the inserts and ferrules or O-rings.
Soldering on the metal portion of the system shall be performed at least 18 inches (457 mm) from a plastic-to-metal adapter in the same water line.
Joints shall be of the socket-fusion, saddle-fusion or butt-fusion type, fabricated in accordance with the piping manufacturer's instructions. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2683.
Joints shall be of the electrofusion type. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture, and scoured to expose virgin resin. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures for the period of time specified by the manufacturer. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM F 1055.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture. Pipe ends shall be chamfered and inserted into the fittings to full depth. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2513.
Pipe insulation installed in buildings shall conform to the requirements of the New York City Energy Conservation Code, shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 and shall have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a smoke-developed index not exceeding 450. Insulation installed in an air plenum shall comply with Section 602.2.1.
Shutoff valves shall be installed on the supply and return side of a heat exchanger.
Shutoff valves shall be installed on the building supply and return of central utility systems, and district heating and cooling systems.
Shutoff valves shall be installed on the connection to any pressure vessel.
Shutoff valves shall be installed on both sides of a pressure-reducing valve.
Piping, valves, fittings and connections shall be installed in accordance with the conditions of approval.
Fluid in the supply side of a hydronic system shall not enter a tee fitting through the branch opening.
The potable water system shall be protected from backflow in accordance with the New York City Plumbing Code.
The flow velocity of the hydronic piping system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of water hammer. Where a quick-closing valve creates water hammer, an approved water-hammer arrestor shall be installed. The arrestor shall be located within a range as specified by the manufacturer of the quick-closing valve.
Piping shall be installed so as to prevent detrimental strains and stresses in the pipe. Provisions shall be made to protect piping from damage resulting from expansion, contraction and structural settlement. Piping shall be installed so as to avoid structural stresses or strains within building components.
Provisions shall be made to prevent the formation of condensation on the exterior of piping.
The transfer fluid shall be compatible with the makeup water supplied to the system.
Hydronic piping systems other than ground-source heat pump loop systems shall be tested hydrostatically at one and one half times the system design operating pressure, but not less than 100 psi (689 kPa). The duration of each test shall be not less than 2 hours. Ground-source heat pump loop systems shall be tested in accordance with Section 1208.1.1.
Before connection (header) trenches are backfilled, the assembled loop system shall be pressure tested with water at 100 psi (689 kPa) for 30 minutes with no observed leaks. Flow and pressure loss testing shall be performed and the actual flow rates and pressure drops shall be compared to the calculated design values. If actual flow rate or pressure drop values differ from calculated design values by more than 10 percent, the problem shall be identified and corrected.
For purposes of this section, the replacement of existing steam piping systems, the installation of a new system in existing buildings, as well as installations in buildings hereafter constructed, shall be considered to be new high-pressure steam piping systems. The following requirements are applicable:
The design of new steam piping systems shall be conducted as follows:
1. The system shall be designed by an engineer. An application and plans shall be filed and the approval of the department obtained. The plans and application shall contain, but not be limited to, the following information:
1.1. Size and location of all steam piping.
1.2 The operating pressures and temperatures.
1.3 The location, type, specifications and details of all expansion joints.
1.4 The design, size, material and location of all anchors, guides and auxiliary steel, and the stresses thereon.
2. Systems using utility street steam shall be designed for a pressure of 200 psig (1379 kPa) and 413°F (212°C) up to and including the steam pressure reducing valve or valves which reduce the pressure of 90 psig (621 kPa) or below. For steam pressures between 90 psig (621 kPa) and 16 psig (110 kPa), the system shall be designed for 125 psig (108 kPa).
The installation of new steam piping systems shall be conducted as follows:
1. Installations, including any welding, shall be by special inspection by the engineer responsible for the design, or by an engineer acceptable to him or her.
2. Welders shall be qualified for all required pipe sizes, wall thicknesses and positions in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX. Requalification is required every three years or sooner if the commissioner has a specific reason to doubt a welder's ability to make sound welds.
3. Welder qualification testing shall be performed by an agency listed with the department, and if the testing is by radiography, the inspection shall have a minimum radiography qualification of Level II in accordance with the ASNT, Document No. SNT-TC-1A.
4. Copies of the certified welder qualification reports shall be maintained by the responsible welding agency and the company performing the welding, and shall be made available upon request to the department.
5. No reports from any welding inspection agency shall be accepted unless such agency has first requested and obtained approval from the department in accordance with rules of the department.
6. Pipe welding shall conform to the following:
6.1 All piping over 2 inches (51 mm) shall be butt-welded. Piping 2 inches (76 mm) and under may be socket-welded or threaded.
6.2 Threaded piping may continue to be used for existing construction in sizes of 6 inches (152 mm) and under.
6.3 Where welding is not feasible, the commissioner may allow an acceptable alternative.
7. Radiographic examination, when required, shall be performed on butt-welds in accordance with ASME B31.1 based on the piping pressure and shall be as follows:
|90 psig (621 kPa) or below||Not Required|
|91 psig (627 kPa) to
150 psig (1034 kPa)
|10 at Random|
|Over 150 psig (1034 kPa)||100|
However, if, in the opinion of the engineer responsible for special inspection, radiographic examination is not required for piping at pressure between 90 psig (621 kPa) and 150 psig (1034 kPa), the engineer shall so specify in writing, and the final report on the installation may omit the foregoing, and be predicated on all of the other requirements noted in this section, and a hydrostatic test.
The commissioner, where deemed necessary, shall require the replacement or relocation of any joints, guides or anchors. The commissioner shall cause the joints in potentially hazardous locations, such as those that are located adjacent to tenant occupied spaces, to be relocated, unless means exist or are provided for eliminating the hazard.
Existing steam piping systems shall be in accordance with Sections 1210.3.1 through 1210.3.3. Upon the completion of a new high-pressure steam piping system and department approval of same, the rules relating to maintenance requirements and the keeping of records for existing high-pressure steam piping systems shall apply.
Expansion joints, anchorage and guides shall be inspected as follows:
1. Expansion joints shall be inspected weekly.
2. The anchorage and guides shall be inspected annually. Exposure of the structural attachments to the buildings of the anchorages or guides shall not be required..
No joint, anchorage or guides shall be repaired, replaced or relocated without a work permit issued by the department. The application for the permit shall contain all pertinent information and shall be filed by an engineer knowledgeable as to high-pressure steam piping systems. The engineer shall be responsible for the special inspection of the proposed work in accordance with the approved application. This provision shall not apply to the repacking of a slip or ball joint; however, records of such repacking shall be kept in the inspection records as provided in Section 1210.3.1, Item 3. When, in the opinion of the engineer, the requirement for prior department approval would create an imminent health or safety hazard, the engineer may permit the work to proceed without prior approval. In such cases, the engineer shall, prior to the repair, replacement or relocation, notify by telephone the borough commissioner of the borough in which the building is located; and, if the emergency occurs at other than normal working hours, he or she shall notify the department in a manner prescribed by the commissioner. This shall be followed by the filing of the application for department approval as specified in Section 28-105.4.1 of the Administrative Code.