Dedication

Effective Date of Local Laws

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Precautions Against Fire

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Operations Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Furnishings, Decorations and Scenery

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities and Operations

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction, Alteration and Demolition

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Wood Waste Materials

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 21 Industrial Furnaces

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 23 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 24 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 27 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Chapter 28 Aerosols

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 33 Explosives, Fireworks and Special Effects

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 40 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin Plastics

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 44 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 45 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Fees

Appendix B Referenced Standard Modifications

This chapter shall govern high-piled combustible storage, and the design, installation, operation and maintenance of any building, structure or premises used for such purpose.
Permits shall be required as set forth in FC105.6.
Applications for permits for high-piled combustible storage shall include design and installation documents that contain the following information, and such other information and documentation as the commissioner may prescribe:

1. Floor plan of the building showing locations and dimensions of high-piled storage areas.

2. Usable storage height for each storage area.

3. Number of tiers within each rack, if applicable.

4. Commodity clearance between top of storage and the sprinkler deflector for each storage arrangement.

5. Aisle dimensions between each storage array.

6. Maximum pile volume for each storage array.

7. Location and classification of commodities in accordance with FC2303.

8. Location of commodities that are banded or encapsulated.

9. Location of required fire department access doors.

10. Type of fire extinguishing and fire detection systems.

11. Location of valves controlling the water supply of ceiling and in-rack sprinklers.

12. Type, location and specifications of smoke removal and curtain board systems.

13. Dimension and location of transverse and longitudinal flue spaces.

14. Such other information, regarding design features, commodities, storage arrangement and fire protection features within the high-piled storage area, as may be required by the commissioner to ensure compliance with the requirements of this chapter.
A copy of the permit application documents shall be maintained on the premises and made available for inspection by any department representative.
Where the area of the high-piled combustible storage requires a permit, the owner shall prepare and familiarize employees with an egress plan that indicates the location and width of aisles, exits, exit access doors, exit signs, height of storage and location of hazardous materials. Such plan shall be maintained in an approved location and shall be made available for inspection by any representative of the department.

Exception: Any high-piled combustible storage facility or area required to have an emergency preparedness plan pursuant to FC Chapter 4.
All buildings, structures and premises that contain high-piled combustible storage shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter. In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the following material-specific requirements shall apply:

1. Aerosols shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 28.

2. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 34.

3. Hazardous materials shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 27.

4. Storage of combustible paper records shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B.

5. Storage of combustible fibers shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 29.

6. Storage of miscellaneous combustible material shall be in accordance with FC Chapter 3.
The following terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ARRAY. Each separate storage configuration, taking into consideration the type of packaging, flue spaces, height of storage and compactness of storage.

ARRAY, CLOSED. A storage configuration having a 6-inch (152-mm) or smaller width vertical flue space that restricts air movement through the stored commodity.

AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE. A method of stocking racks and retrieving stored products or pallets of products from racks, whereby the movement of products and pallets of products is controlled by computer or other automated means.

BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing an aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists around the boxes.

COMMODITY. Items in high-piled combustible storage, including products and product packaging.

DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof.

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed for early suppression fast-response performance.

EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material.

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV commodities that exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height and storage on racks of high-hazard commodities that exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in height.

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage of combustible materials in closely packed piles or combustible materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of storage is greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height. High-piled combustible storage also includes certain high-hazard commodities, such as rubber tires, Group A plastics, flammable liquids, idle pallets and similar commodities, where the top of storage is greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. An area within a building, structure or premises that is designed or used for high-piled combustible storage.

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. The flue space between rows of storage perpendicular to the direction of loading.

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing ladders or other nonmechanical equipment to move stock.

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing motorized vehicles or hydraulic jacks to move stock.

RACK STORAGE. Any storage system, except shelf storage.

SHELF STORAGE. Storage on shelves less than 30 inches (762 mm) deep with the distance between shelves not exceeding 3 feet (914 mm) vertically.

SOLID SHELVING. Shelving that is solid, slatted or of other construction located in racks and that obstructs sprinkler discharge down into the racks.

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. The space between rows of storage parallel to the direction of loading.
Commodities shall be classified as Class I, II, III, IV or high hazard in accordance with this section. Materials listed within each commodity classification are assumed to be unmodified for improved combustibility characteristics. Use of flame-retarding modifiers or the physical form of the material could change the classification. See FC2303.7 for classification of Group A, B and C plastics.
Class I commodities are essentially noncombustible products on wooden or nonexpanded polyethylene solid deck pallets, in ordinary corrugated cartons with or without single-thickness dividers, or in ordinary paper wrappings with or without pallets. Class I commodities are allowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics in accordance with FC2303.7.4. Examples of Class I commodities include the following:

Alcoholic beverages not more than 20-percent alcohol

Cement in bags

Ceramics

Dairy products in nonwax-coated containers (excluding bottles)

Dry insecticides

Electrical appliances, noncombustible

Foods in noncombustible containers

Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers

Frozen foods

Glass

Glycol in metal cans

Gypsum board

Inert materials, bagged

Insulation, noncombustible

Liquids, noncombustible, in plastic containers having less than a 5-gallon (19 L) capacity

Metal products, noncombustible
Class II commodities are Class I products in slatted wooden crates, solid wooden boxes, multiple-thickness paperboard cartons or equivalent combustible packaging material with or without pallets. Class II commodities are allowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics in accordance with FC2303.7.4. Examples of Class II commodities include the following:

Alcoholic beverages not more than 20-percent alcohol, in combustible containers

Foods in combustible containers

Incandescent or fluorescent light bulbs in cartons

Thinly coated fine wire on reels or in cartons
Class III commodities are commodities of wood, paper, natural fiber cloth, or Group C plastics or products thereof, with or without pallets. Products are allowed to contain limited amounts of Group A or B plastics, such as metal bicycles with plastic handles, pedals, seats and tires. Group A plastics shall be limited in accordance with FC2303.7.4. Examples of Class III commodities include the following:

Aerosol, Level 1 (see FC Chapter 28)

Combustible fiberboard

Cork, baled

Feed, bagged

Fertilizers, bagged

Food in plastic containers

Furniture: wood, natural fiber, upholstered, nonplastic, wood or metal with plastic-padded and covered arm rests

Glycol in combustible containers not more than 25 percent

Liquids, noncombustible, in plastic containers having a capacity of more than 5 gallons (19 L)

Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in metal cans

Lumber

Mattresses, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics

Paints, oil base, in metal cans

Paper, waste, baled

Paper and pulp, horizontal storage, or vertical storage that is banded or protected with approved wrap

Paper in cardboard boxes

Pillows, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics

Plastic-coated paper food containers

Plywood

Rags, baled

Rugs, without foam backing

Sugar, bagged

Wood, baled

Wood doors, frames and cabinets

Yarns of natural fiber and viscose
Class IV commodities are Class I, II or III products containing Group A plastics in ordinary corrugated cartons and Class I, II and III products, with Group A plastic packaging, with or without pallets. Group B plastics and free-flowing Group A plastics are also included in this class. The total amount of nonfree-flowing Group A plastics shall be in accordance with FC2303.7.4. Examples of Class IV commodities include the following:

Aerosol, Level 2 (see FC Chapter 28)

Alcoholic beverages, more than 20-percent but less than 80-percent alcohol, in cans or bottles in cartons.

Clothing, synthetic or nonviscose

Combustible metal products (solid)

Furniture, plastic upholstered

Furniture, wood or metal with plastic covering and padding

Glycol in combustible containers (more than 25 percent and less than 50 percent)

Linoleum products

Paints, oil base in combustible containers

Pharmaceutical, alcoholic elixirs, tonics, etc.

Rugs, foam back

Shingles, asphalt

Thread or yarn, synthetic or nonviscose
High-hazard commodities are high-hazard products presenting special fire hazards beyond those of Class I, II, III or IV. Group A plastics not otherwise classified are included in this class. Examples of high-hazard commodities include the following:

Aerosol, Level 3 (see FC Chapter 28)

Alcoholic beverages, more than 80-percent alcohol, in bottles or cartons

Commodities of any class in plastic containers in carousel storage

Flammable solids (except solid combustible metals)

Glycol in combustible containers (50 percent or more)

Lacquers, which dry by solvent evaporation, in metal cans or cartons

Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in plastic containers

Mattresses, foam rubber or foam plastics

Pallets and flats which are idle combustible

Paper, asphalt, rolled, horizontal storage

Paper, asphalt, rolled, vertical storage

Paper and pulp, rolled, in vertical storage which is unbanded or not protected with an approved wrap

Pillows, foam rubber and foam plastics

Pyroxylin

Rubber tires

Vegetable oil and butter in plastic containers
Plastics shall be designated as Group A, B or C in accordance with this section.
Group A plastics are plastic materials having a heat of combustion that is much higher than that of ordinary combustibles, and a burning rate higher than that of Group B plastics. Examples of Group A plastics include the following:

ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer)

Acetal (polyformaldehyde)

Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate)

Butyl rubber

EPDM (ethylene propylene rubber)

FRP (fiberglass-reinforced polyester)

Natural rubber (expanded)

Nitrile rubber (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber)

PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate)

Polybutadiene

Polycarbonate

Polyester elastomer

Polyethylene

Polypropylene

Polystyrene (expanded and unexpanded)

Polyurethane (expanded and unexpanded)

PVC (polyvinyl chloride more than 15 percent plasticized, e.g., coated fabric unsupported film)

SAN (styrene acrylonitrile)

SBR (styrene butadiene rubber)
Group B plastics are plastic materials having a heat of combustion and a burning rate higher than that of ordinary combustibles, but not as high as those of Group A plastics. Examples of Group B plastics include the following:

Cellulosics (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, ethyl cellulose)

Chloroprene rubber

Fluoroplastics (ECTFE, ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer; ETFE, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer; FEP, fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer)

Natural rubber (nonexpanded)

Nylon (Nylon 6, Nylon 6/6)

PVC (polyvinyl chloride more than 5-percent, but not more than 15-percent plasticized)

Silicone rubber
Group C plastics are plastic materials having a heat of combustion and a burning rate similar to those of ordinary combustibles. Examples of Group C plastics include the following:

Fluoroplastics (PCTFE, polychlorotrifluoroethylene; PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene)

Melamine (melamine formaldehyde)

Phenol

PVC (polyvinyl chloride, rigid or plasticized less than 5 percent, e.g., pipe, pipe fittings)

PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride)

PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride)

PVF (polyvinyl fluoride)

Urea (urea formaldehyde)
FC Figure 2303.7.4 shall be used to determine the quantity of Group A plastics allowed to be stored in a package or carton or on a pallet without increasing the commodity classification.



FIGURE 2303.7.4 MIXED COMMODITIESa, b

a. This figure is intendedto determine the commodity classification of a mixed commodity in a package, carton or on a pallet where plastics are involved.
b. The following is an example of how to apply the figure: A package containing a Class III commodity has 12-percent Group A expanded plastic by volume. The weight of the unexpanded Group A plastic is 10 percent. This commodity is classified as a Class IV commodity. If the weightof the unexpanded plastic is increased to 14 percent, the classification changes to a high-hazard commodity.
c.
d.
High-piled storage areas, and portions of high-piled storage areas for storage of a commodity class different from adjacent areas, shall be designed and specifically designated to contain Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV or high-hazard commodities. The designation of a high-piled combustible storage area, or portion thereof intended for storage of a different commodity class, shall be based on the highest hazard commodity class stored except as provided in FC2304.2.
The designation of a high-piled combustible storage area, or portion thereof, is allowed to be based on a lower hazard class than that of the highest class of commodity stored when a limited quantity of the higher hazard commodity has been demonstrated by engineering analysis to be adequately protected by the sprinkler system provided. The engineering analysis shall consider the ability of the sprinkler system to deliver the higher density required by the higher hazard commodity. The higher density shall be based on the actual storage height of the pile or rack and the minimum allowable design area for sprinkler operation as set forth in the density/area figures provided in NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B. The contiguous area occupied by the higher hazard commodity shall not exceed 120 square feet (11 m2), and additional areas of higher hazard commodity shall be separated from other such areas by 25 feet (7620 mm) or more. The sprinkler system shall be capable of delivering the higher density over a minimum area of 900 square feet (84 m2) for wet pipe systems and 1,200 square feet (111 m2) for dry pipe systems. The shape of the design area shall be in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
The structural integrity of racks shall be maintained.
Clearance from ignition sources shall be provided in accordance with FC305.
Smoking is prohibited in high-piled storage areas. "No Smoking" signs complying with the requirements of FC310 shall be conspicuously posted in such areas.
When restocking is not being conducted, aisles shall be kept clear of stored or waste material. Fire department access doors, aisles and exit doors shall not be obstructed. During restocking operations using manual stocking methods, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 24 inches (610 mm) shall be maintained in 48-inch (1219-mm) or smaller aisles, and a minimum unobstructed aisle width of one-half of the required aisle width shall be maintained in aisles greater than 48 inches (1219 mm). During mechanical stocking operations, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be maintained in accordance with FC2306.9.
Pile dimensions and height limitations shall comply with the requirements of FC2307.3.
Arrays shall comply with the requirements of FC2307.4.
Flue spaces shall comply with the requirements of FC2308.3.
Fire protection and life safety features for high-piled storage areas shall be in accordance with this section.
Where required by FC Table 2306.2, fire detection systems, smoke and heat removal, draft curtains and sprinkler design densities shall extend the lesser of 15 feet (4572 mm) beyond the high-piled storage area or to a permanent partition. Where portions of high-piled storage areas have different fire protection requirements because of commodity, method of storage or storage height, the fire protection features required by FC Table 2306.2 within this area shall be based on the most restrictive design requirements.

FC TABLE 2306.2 GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

COMMODITY
CLASS
SIZE OF HIGH-
PILED STORAGE
AREAa
(square feet)
(see FC 2306.2
and 2306.4)
ALL STORAGE AREAS
(See FC 2306, 2307 and 2308)b
SOLID-PILED STORAGE, SHELF
STORAGE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE
(see FC2307.3)
Automatic fire-
extinguishing
system
(see FC2306.4)
Fire
detection
system
(see FC2306.5)
Building
access
(see FC2306.6)
Smoke and
heat removal
(see FC2306.7)
Draft
curtains
(see FC2306.7)
Maximum pile
dimensionc
(feet)
Maximum
permissible
storage heightd
(feet)
Maximum
pile volume
(cubic feet)
I-IV 0-500 Not
Requireda
Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
Not
Required
501-2,500 Not
Requireda
Yesi Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
100 40 100,000
2,501-12,000
Public
accessible
Yes Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
100 40 400,000
2,501-12,000
Nonpublic
accessible
(Option 1)
Yes Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
100 40 400,000
2,501-12,000
Nonpublic
accessible
(Option 2)
Not
Requireda
Yes Yes Yesj Yesj 100 30f 200,000
12,001-20,000 Yes Not
Required
Yes Yesj Not
Required
100 40 400,000
20,001-500,000 Yes Not
Required
Yes Yesj Not
Required
100 40 400,000
Greater than
500,000g
Yes Not
Required
Yes Yesj Not
Required
100 40 400,000
High
hazard
0-500 Not
Requireda
Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
50 Not
Required
Not
Required
501-2,500
Public
accessible
Yes Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
50 30 75,000
501-2,500
Nonpublic
accessible
(Option 1)
Yes Not
Required
Not
Requirede
Not
Required
Not
Required
50 30 75,000
501-2,500
Nonpublic
accessible
(Option 2)
Not
Requireda
Yes Yes Yesj Yesj 50 20 50,000
2,501-300,000 Yes Not
Required
Yes Yesj Not
Required
50 30 75,000
300,001-500,000g, h Yes Not
Required
Yes Yesj Not
Required
50 30 75,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. When sprinkler systems are required for reasons other than those in FC Chapter 23, the portion of the sprinkler system protecting the high-piled storage area shall be designed and installed in accordance with FC 2307 and 2308.
b. For aisles, see FC2306.9.
c. Piles shall be separated by aisles complying with the requirements of FC2306.9.
d. For storage in excess of the height indicated, special fire protection shall be provided in accordance with Note g when required by the commissioner. See also FC Chapters 28 and 34 for special limitations for aerosols and flammable and combustible liquids.
e. FC503 shall apply for fire apparatus access.
f. For storage exceeding 30 feet in height, Option 1 shall be used.
g. Special fire protection provisions including fire protection of exposed steel columns; increased sprinkler density; additional in-rack sprinklers, without associated reductions in ceiling sprinkler density; or additional fire department hose connections shall be provided when required by the commissioner.
h. High-piled storage areas shall not exceed 500,000 square feet. A 2-hour fire wall constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code shall be used to divide high-piled storage exceeding 500,000 square feet in area.
i. Not required when a fire extinguishing system is designed and installed to protect the high-piled storage area in accordance with FC 2307 and 2308.
j. Not required when storage areas are protected throughout by early suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B.
High-piled storage areas shall be separated from other portions of the building where required by FC 2306.3.1 through 2306.3.2.2.
Mixed occupancies shall be separated in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Multiple high-piled storage areas shall be designed and installed in accordance with FC 2306.3.2.1 or 2306.3.2.2.
The aggregate of all high-piled storage areas within a building shall be used for application of FC Table 2306.2 unless such areas are separated from each other by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier walls constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code. Openings in such walls shall be protected by opening protective assemblies having a 1-hour fire protection rating.
High-piled storage areas classified as Class I through Class IV not separated from high-piled storage areas classified as high hazard shall utilize the aggregate of all high-piled storage areas as high hazard for purposes of application of FC Table 2306.2. To be considered as separated, 1-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier walls shall be constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code. Openings in such walls shall be protected by opening protective assemblies having a 1-hour fire protection rating.

Exception: As provided for in FC2304.2.
Sprinkler systems shall be provided in accordance with FC 2307, 2308 and 2309.
Where fire detection is required by FC Table 2306.2, an approved automatic fire detection system shall be installed throughout the high-piled storage area. The system shall be monitored and be in accordance with FC907.
Where building access is required by FC Table 2306.2, fire apparatus access roads in accordance with FC503 shall be provided within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the exterior walls of buildings used for high-piled storage.

Exception: Where fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed because of topography, railways, waterways, non-negotiable grades or other similar conditions, the commissioner may require additional fire protection.
Where building access is required by FC Table 2306.2, fire department access doors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Access doors shall be accessible without the use of a ladder.
A minimum of one access door shall be provided in each 100 lineal feet (30 480 mm), or fraction thereof, of the exterior walls which face required fire apparatus access roads. The required access doors shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent access doors does not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm).
Access doors shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. Roll-up doors shall not be used unless approved.
Only approved locking devices shall be used.
Where smoke and heat removal are required by FC Table 2306.2, smoke and heat vents shall be provided in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code. Where draft curtains are required by FC Table 2306.2, they shall be provided in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Where exit passageways are required by the construction codes, including the Building Code for egress, a Class I standpipe system shall be provided in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Aisles providing access to exits and fire department access doors shall be provided in high-piled storage areas exceeding 500 square feet (46 m2), in accordance with FC 2306.9.1 through 2306.9.3. Aisles separating storage piles or racks shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B. Aisles shall also comply with the requirements of the construction codes, including the Building Code.

Exception: Where aisles are precluded by rack storage systems, alternate methods of access and protection are allowed when approved.
Aisle width shall be in accordance with FC 2306.9.1.1 and 2306.9.1.2.

Exceptions:

1. Aisles crossing rack structures or storage piles, which are used only for employee access between aisles shall be a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) wide.

2. Aisles separating shelves classified as shelf storage shall be a minimum of 30 inches (762 mm) wide.
Aisles in buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system shall be a minimum of 44 inches (1118 mm) wide. Aisles shall be a minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) wide in high-piled storage areas that exceed 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area, and that are accessible to the public and designated to contain high-hazard commodities.

Exception: Aisles in high-piled storage areas exceeding 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area, that are accessible to the public and designated to contain high-hazard commodities, and that are protected throughout by a sprinkler system designed for multiple-row racks of high-hazard commodities, shall be a minimum of 44 inches (1118 mm) wide.

Aisles shall be a minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) wide in areas accessible to the public where mechanical stocking methods are used.
Aisles in buildings not protected throughout by a sprinkler system shall be a minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) wide.
The required aisle width shall extend from floor to ceiling. Rack structural supports and catwalks are allowed to cross aisles at a minimum height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above the finished floor level, provided that such supports do not interfere with fire department hose stream trajectory.
Dead-end aisles shall be in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with FC906.
Shelf storage and storage in solid piles, solid piles on pallets and bin box storage in bin boxes not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) in any dimension, shall be designed and maintained in accordance with FC2306 and this section.
Where sprinkler systems are required for solid-piled and shelf storage pursuant to FC Table 2306.2, a sprinkler system shall be provided in any area containing such storage that is enclosed in 1-hour fire-rated walls in accordance with the Building Code, or, if such storage is not enclosed within such fire-rated walls, throughout the building. Openings in such walls shall be protected by opening protective assemblies having 1-hour fire protection ratings. The design and installation of the sprinkler system and other applicable fire protection shall be in accordance with this code, the construction codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B.
Shelf storage greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) but less than 15 feet (4572 mm) in height shall be in accordance with the fire protection requirements set forth in NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B. Shelf storage 15 feet (4572 mm) or more in height shall be protected in an approved manner with special fire protection, such as in-rack sprinklers.
Pile dimensions, the maximum permissible storage height and pile volume shall be in accordance with FC Table 2306.2.
Where a sprinkler system design utilizes protection based on a closed array, array clearances shall be provided and maintained as specified by the standard used.
Rack storage shall be designed and maintained in accordance with FC2306 and this section. Bin boxes exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) in any dimension shall be regulated as rack storage.
Where a sprinkler system is required for rack storage pursuant to FC Table 2306.2, a sprinkler system shall be provided in any area containing such storage that is enclosed in 1-hour fire-rated walls in accordance with the Building Code, or, if such storage is not enclosed within such fire-rated walls, throughout the building. Openings in such walls shall be protected by opening protective assemblies having 1-hour fire protection ratings. The design and installation of the sprinkler system and other applicable fire protection shall be in accordance with this code, the construction codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B.
Storage on plastic pallets or plastic shelves shall be protected by approved specially-engineered fire protection systems, except that plastic pallets listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2335 shall be treated as wood pallets for determining required sprinkler protection.
Racks with solid shelving having an area greater than 32 square feet (3 m2), measured between approved flue spaces at all four edges of the shelf, shall be in accordance with this section.

Exceptions:

1. Racks with mesh, grated, slatted or similar shelves having uniform openings not more than 6 inches (152 mm) apart, comprising at least 50 percent of overall shelf area, and with approved flue spaces, are allowed to be treated as racks without solid shelves.

2. Racks used for the storage of combustible paper records, with solid shelving, shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B.
Fire protection for racks with solid shelving shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B.
Flue spaces shall be provided in accordance with FC Table 2308.3. Required flue spaces shall be maintained.

FC TABLE 2308.3 REQUIRED FLUE SPACES FOR RACK STORAGE

RACK
CONFIGURATION
SPRINKLER
PROTECTION
SPRINKLER AT THE CEILING WITH OR
WITHOUT MINIMUM IN-RACK SPRINKLERS
IN-RACK
SPRINKLERS AT
EVERY TIER
NONSPRINKLERED
≤ 25 feet > 25 feet Any height Any height
Storage height Option 1 Option 2
Single-row
rack
Transverse
flue space
Sizeb 3 inches Not Applicable 3 inches Not Required Not Required
Vertically
aligned
Not Required Not Applicable Yes Not Applicable Not Required
Longitudinal flue space Not Required Not Applicable Not Required Not Required Not Required
Double-row
rack
Transverse
flue space
Sizeb 6 inchesa 3 inches 3 inches Not Required Not Required
Vertically
aligned
Not Required Not Required Yes Not Applicable Not Required
Longitudinal flue space Not Required 6 inches 6 inches Not Required Not Required
Multi-row
rack
Transverse
flue space
Sizeb 6 inches Not Applicable 6 inches Not Required Not Required
Vertically
aligned
Not Required Not Applicable Yes Not Applicable Not Required
Longitudinal flue space Not Required Not Applicable Not Required Not Required Not Required

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Three-inch transverse flue spaces shall be provided at least every 10 feet where ESFR sprinkler protection is provided.
b. Random variations are allowed, provided that the configuration does not obstruct water penetration.
Steel building columns shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B.
Approval of the commissioner shall be obtained prior to installing extra-high-rack combustible storage.
Buildings with extra-high-rack combustible storage shall be protected with a specially engineered sprinkler system. Extra-high-rack combustible storage shall be provided with additional special fire protection, such as separation from other buildings and additional built-in fire protection features and fire department access, when required by the commissioner.
Automated storage shall be designed and maintained in accordance with this section.
Where a sprinkler system is required by FC Table 2306.2, a sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building. The design and installation of such system shall be in accordance with this code and the construction codes, including the Building Code.
High-piled storage areas having greater than 500 square feet (46 m2) of carousel storage shall be provided with automatic shutdown in accordance with one of the following:

1. An automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code, with coverage extending 15 feet (4575 mm) in all directions beyond unenclosed carousel storage systems and which sounds a local alarm at the operator's station and stops the carousel storage system upon the activation of a single detector.

2. An automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building Code and within enclosed carousel storage systems, that sounds a local alarm at the operator's station and stops the carousel storage system upon the activation of a single detector.

3. A single dead-man-type control switch that allows the operation of the carousel storage system only when the operator is present. The switch shall be in the same room as the carousel storage system and located to allow for observation of the carousel system.
High-piled storage areas with automated rack storage shall be provided with a manually activated emergency shutdown switch for use by firefighters and other emergency response personnel. The switch shall be clearly marked and shall be located at the fire command center. In buildings without a fire command center, such switch shall be located in a conspicuous, readily accessible location near the entrance to the building, occupancy or area containing the automated rack storage, or other approved location.
Records storage facilities used for the rack or shelf storage of combustible paper records greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with FC 2306 and 2308 and NFPA 13, as modified by FC Appendix B. Palletized storage of records shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance with FC2307.
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