CODES

ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2015 (IFC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Legislation

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 12 through 19

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Agro-Industrial, Solid Biomass and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 32 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 36 Marinas

Chapter 37 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 38 through 49

Chapter 50 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Chapter 51 Aerosols

Chapter 52 Reserved

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids

Chapter 60 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 67 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 68 through 79

Chapter 80 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids - Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (Hmmp) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (Hmis) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems - Noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Building Information Sign

Appendix K Construction Requirements for Existing Ambulatory Care Facilities

Appendix L Requirements for Fire Fighter Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix M HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS—RETROACTIVE AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER REQUIREMENT

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the possession, manufacture, storage, handling, sale and use of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks and small arms ammunition.

Exceptions:

1. The Armed Forces of the United States, Coast Guard or National Guard.

2. Explosives in forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopoeia.

3. The possession, storage and use of small arms ammunition where packaged in accordance with DOTn packaging requirements.

4. The possession, storage and use of not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of commercially manufactured sporting black powder, 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless powder and 10,000 small arms primers for hand loading of small arms ammunition for personal consumption.

5. The use of explosive materials by federal, state and local regulatory, law enforcement and fire agencies acting in their official capacities.

6. Special industrial explosive devices that in the aggregate contain less than 50 pounds (23 kg) of explosive materials.

7. The possession, storage and use of blank industrial-power load cartridges where packaged in accordance with DOTn packaging regulations.

8. Transportation in accordance with DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100‒185.

9. Items preempted by federal regulations.
In addition to the requirements of this chapter, NFPA 495 shall govern the manufacture, transportation, storage, sale, handling and use of explosive materials.
In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the operation of explosive material terminals shall conform to the provisions of NFPA 498.
The possession, manufacture, storage, sale, handling and use of fireworks are prohibited.

Exceptions:

1. Storage and handling of fireworks as allowed in Section 5604.

2. Manufacture, assembly and testing of fireworks as allowed in Section 5605.

3. The use of fireworks for fireworks displays as allowed in Section 5608.

4. The possession, storage, sale, handling and use of specific types of Division 1.4G fireworks where allowed by applicable laws, ordinances and regulations, provided such fireworks and facilities comply with NFPA 1124, CPSC 16 CFR Parts 1500 and 1507, and DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100‒185, for consumer fireworks.
The storage, handling and use of model and high-power rockets shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 1122, NFPA 1125 and NFPA 1127.
The storage and handling of ammonium nitrate shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 400 and Chapter 63.

Exception: Storage of ammonium nitrate in magazines with blasting agents shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 495.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 and regulated in accordance with this section.
Persons shall not keep or store, nor shall any permit be issued to keep or store, any explosives at any place of habitation, or within 100 feet (30 480 mm) thereof.

Exception: Storage of smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms primers for personal use and not for resale in accordance with Section 5606.
Persons shall not construct a retail display nor offer for sale explosives, explosive materials or fireworks upon highways, sidewalks, public property or in Group A or E occupancies.
The fire code official is authorized to limit the quantity of explosives, explosive materials or fireworks permitted at a given location. Persons possessing a permit for storage of explosives at any place, shall not keep or store an amount greater than authorized in such permit. Only the kind of explosive specified in such a permit shall be kept or stored.
Before a permit is issued, as required by Section 5601.2, the applicant shall file with the jurisdiction a corporate surety bond in the principal sum of $100,000 or a public liability insurance policy for the same amount, for the purpose of the payment of all damages to persons or property that arise from, or are caused by, the conduct of any act authorized by the permit upon which any judicial judgment results. The fire code official is authorized to specify a greater or lesser amount when, in his or her opinion, conditions at the location of use indicate a greater or lesser amount is required. Government entities shall be exempt from this bond requirement.
Before approval to do blasting is issued, the applicant for approval shall file a bond or submit a certificate of insurance in such form, amount and coverage as determined by the legal department of the jurisdiction to be adequate in each case to indemnify the jurisdiction against any and all damages arising from permitted blasting.
The permit holder shall furnish a bond or certificate of insurance in an amount deemed adequate by the fire code official for the payment of all potential damages to a person or persons or to property by reason of the permitted display, and arising from any acts of the permit holder, the agent, employees or subcontractors.
Permits shall not be issued or renewed for possession, manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of the following materials and such materials currently in storage or use shall be disposed of in an approved manner.

1. Liquid nitroglycerin.

2. Dynamite containing more than 60-percent liquid explosive ingredient.

3. Dynamite having an unsatisfactory absorbent or one that permits leakage of a liquid explosive ingredient under any conditions liable to exist during storage.

4. Nitrocellulose in a dry and uncompressed condition in a quantity greater than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) of net weight in one package.

5. Fulminate of mercury in a dry condition and fulminate of all other metals in any condition except as a component of manufactured articles not hereinafter forbidden.

6. Explosive compositions that ignite spontaneously or undergo marked decomposition, rendering the products of their use more hazardous, when subjected for 48 consecutive hours or less to a temperature of 167°F (75°C).

7. New explosive materials until approved by DOTn, except that permits are allowed to be issued to educational, governmental or industrial laboratories for instructional or research purposes.

8. Explosive materials forbidden for transport by DOTn.

9. Explosive materials containing an ammonium salt and a chlorate.

10. Explosives not packed or marked as required by DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100‒185.

Exception: Gelatin dynamite.
Persons in charge of magazines, blasting, fireworks display or pyrotechnic special effect operations shall not be under the influence of alcohol or drugs that impair sensory or motor skills, shall be not less than 21 years of age and shall demonstrate knowledge of all safety precautions related to the storage, handling or use of explosives, explosive materials or fireworks.
The fire code official is authorized to require operations permitted under the provisions of Section 5601.2 to be supervised at any time by the fire code official in order to determine compliance with all safety and fire regulations.
Whenever a new explosive material storage or manufacturing site is established, including a temporary job site, the local law enforcement agency, fire department and local emergency planning committee shall be notified 48 hours in advance, not including Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, of the type, quantity and location of explosive materials at the site.
The fire code official is authorized to remove or cause to be removed or disposed of in an approved manner, at the expense of the owner, explosives, explosive materials or fireworks offered or exposed for sale, stored, possessed or used in violation of this chapter.
The quantity of explosives and distances shall be in accordance with Sections 5601.8.1 and 5601.8.1.1.
The quantity-distance (Q-D) tables in Sections 5604.5 and 5605.3 shall be used to provide the minimum separation distances from potential explosion sites as set forth in Tables 5601.8.1(1) through 5601.8.1(3). The classification and the weight of the explosives are primary characteristics governing the use of these tables. The net explosive weight shall be determined in accordance with Sections 5601.8.1.1 through 5601.8.1.4.

TABLE 5601.8.1(1) APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES‒DIVISION 1.1, 1.2 AND 1.5 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c

ITEM MAGAZINE Q-D OPERATING
BUILDING
Q-D INHABITED
BUILDING
Q-D PUBLIC
TRAFFIC
ROUTE
Q-D
Magazine Table
5604.5.2(1)
IMD Table 5605.3 ILD or IPD Table
5604.5.2(1)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(1)
PTR
Operating
building
Table
5604.5.2(1)
ILD or IPD Table 5605.3 ILD or IPD Table
5604.5.2(1)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(1)
PTR
Inhabited
building
Table
5604.5.2(1)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(1)
IBD Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Public traffic
route
Table
5604.5.2(1)
PTR Table
5604.5.2(1)
PTR Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be 60 feet. Where a building or magazine containing explosives is barricaded, the minimum distance shall be 30 feet.
b. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D tables shall not be allowed. Nonlinear interpolation of the values shall be allowed subject to an approved technical opinion and report prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2.
c. For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.


TABLE 5601.8.1(2) APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES‒DIVISION 1.3 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c

ITEM MAGAZINE Q-D OPERATING
BUILDING
Q-D INHABITED
BUILDING
Q-D PUBLIC
TRAFFIC
ROUTE
Q-D
Magazine Table
5604.5.2(2)
IMD Table
5604.5.2(2)
ILD or IPD Table
5604.5.2(2)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(2)
PTR
Operating
building
Table
5604.5.2(2)
ILD or IPD Table
5604.5.2(2)
ILD or IPD Table
5604.5.2(2)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(2)
PTR
Inhabited
building
Table
5604.5.2(2)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(2)
IBD Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Public traffic
route
Table
5604.5.2(2)
PTR Table
5604.5.2(2)
PTR Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be not less than 50 feet.
b. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D table shall be allowed.
c. For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.


TABLE 5601.8.1(3) APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES‒DIVISION 1.4 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c, d

ITEM MAGAZINE Q-D OPERATING
BUILDING
Q-D INHABITED
BUILDING
Q-D PUBLIC
TRAFFIC
ROUTE
Q-D
Magazine Table
5604.5.2(3)
IMD Table
5604.5.2(3)
ILD or IPD Table
5604.5.2(3)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(3)
PTR
Operating
building
Table
5604.5.2(3)
ILD or IPD Table
5604.5.2(3)
ILD or IPD Table
5604.5.2(3)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(3)
PTR
Inhabited
building
Table
5604.5.2(3)
IBD Table
5604.5.2(3)
IBD Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Public traffic
route
Table
5604.5.2(3)
PTR Table
5604.5.2(3)
PTR Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be not less than 50 feet.
b. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D table shall not be allowed.
c. For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.
d. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.
The total net explosive weight of mass-detonating explosives (Division 1.1, 1.2 or 1.5) shall be used. See Table 5604.5.2(1) or Table 5605.3 as appropriate.

Exception: Where the TNT equivalence of the explosive material has been determined, the equivalence is allowed to be used to establish the net explosive weight.
Nonmass-detonating explosives (excluding Division 1.4) shall be as follows:

1. Division 1.3 propellants. The total weight of the propellants alone shall be the net explosive weight. The net weight of propellant shall be used. See Table 5604.5.2(2).

2. Combinations of bulk metal powder and pyrotechnic compositions. The sum of the net weights of metal powders and pyrotechnic compositions in the containers shall be the net explosive weight. See Table 5604.5.2(2).
Combination of mass-detonating and nonmass-detonating explosives (excluding Division 1.4) shall be as follows:

1. Where Division 1.1 and 1.2 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distance for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as 1.2. The required distance is the greater of the two. Where the Division 1.1 requirements are controlling and the TNT equivalence of the 1.2 is known, the TNT equivalent weight of the 1.2 items shall be allowed to be added to the total explosive weight of Division 1.1 items to determine the net explosive weight for Division 1.1 distance determination. See Table 5604.5.2(2) or Table 5605.3 as appropriate.

2. Where Division 1.1 and 1.3 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as 1.3. The required distance is the greater of the two. Where the Division 1.1 requirements are controlling and the TNT equivalence of the 1.3 is known, the TNT equivalent weight of the 1.3 items shall be allowed to be added to the total explosive weight of Division 1.1 items to determine the net explosive weight for Division 1.1 distance determination. See Table 5604.5.2(1), 5604.5.2(2) or 5605.3, as appropriate.

3. Where Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1, next as 1.2 and finally as 1.3. The required distance is the greatest of the three. As allowed by paragraphs 1 and 2 above, TNT equivalent weights for 1.2 and 1.3 items are allowed to be used to determine the net weight of explosives for Division 1.1 distance determination. Table 5604.5.2(1) or 5605.3 shall be used where TNT equivalency is used to establish the net explosive weight.

4. For composite pyrotechnic items Division 1.1 and Division 1.3, the sum of the net weights of the pyrotechnic composition and the explosives involved shall be used. See Tables 5604.5.2(1) and 5604.5.2(2).
For Division 1.4 explosives, the total weight of the explosive material alone is the net weight. The net weight of the explosive material shall be used.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

AMMONIUM NITRATE.

BARRICADE.

Artificial barricade.

Natural barricade.

BARRICADED.

BLAST AREA.

BLAST SITE.

BLASTER.

BLASTING AGENT.

BULLET RESISTANT.

DETONATING CORD.

DETONATION.

DETONATOR.

DISCHARGE SITE.

DISPLAY SITE.

EXPLOSIVE.

High explosive.

Low explosive.

Mass-detonating explosives.

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives.

Division 1.1.

Division 1.2.

Division 1.3.

Division 1.4.

Division 1.5.

Division 1.6.

EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL.

FALLOUT AREA.

FIREWORKS.

Fireworks, 1.4G.

Fireworks, 1.3G.

FIREWORKS DISPLAY.

HIGHWAY.

INHABITED BUILDING.

MAGAZINE.

Indoor.

Type 1.

Type 2.

Type 3.

Type 4.

Type 5.

MORTAR.

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight).

OPERATING BUILDING.

OPERATING LINE.

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL.

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE.

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR).

PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE.

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL.

PYROTECHNICS.

QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D).

Inhabited building distance (IBD).

Intermagazine distance (IMD).

Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD).

Minimum separation distance (Do).

RAILWAY.

READY BOX.

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION.

SMALL ARMS PRIMERS.

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS.

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE.

THEFT RESISTANT.
Records of the receipt, handling, use or disposal of explosive materials, and reports of any accidents, thefts or unauthorized activities involving explosive materials shall conform to the requirements of this section.
The permittee shall maintain a record of all transactions involving receipt, removal, use or disposal of explosive materials. Such records shall be maintained for a period of 5 years.

Exception: Where only Division 1.4G (consumer fireworks) are handled, records need only be maintained for a period of 3 years.
The loss, theft or unauthorized removal of explosive materials from a magazine or permitted facility shall be reported to the fire code official, local law enforcement authorities and the U.S. Department of Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives within 24 hours.

Exception: Loss of Division 1.4G (consumer fireworks) need not be reported to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives.
Accidents involving the use of explosives, explosive materials and fireworks that result in injuries or property damage shall be reported to the fire code official immediately.
The pyrotechnic display operator or blaster in charge shall keep a record of all aerial shells that fail to fire or charges that fail to detonate.
Manufacturers of explosive materials and fireworks shall maintain records of chemicals, chemical compounds and mixtures required by DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1200, and Section 407.
Current safety rules covering the operation of magazines, as described in Section 5604.7, shall be posted on the interior of the magazine in a visible location.
Storage of explosives and explosive materials, small arms ammunition, small arms primers, propellant-actuated cartridges and smokeless propellants in magazines shall comply with the provisions of this section.
Explosives and explosive materials, and Division 1.3G fireworks shall be stored in magazines constructed, located, operated and maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 5604 and NFPA 495 or NFPA 1124.

Exceptions:

1. Storage of fireworks at display sites in accordance with Section 5608.5 and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.

2. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 square feet (11 m2) in area shall not be required to comply with the requirements of the International Building Code.
The storage of explosives and explosive materials in magazines shall comply with Table 5604.3.

TABLE 5604.3 STORAGE AMOUNTS AND MAGAZINE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPLOSIVES, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS AND FIREWORKS, 1.3G MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA

NEW UN/
DOTn
DIVISION
OLD DOTn
CLASS
ATF/OSHA
CLASS
INDOORa (pounds) OUTDOOR
(pounds)
MAGAZINE TYPE REQUIRED
Unprotected Cabinet Sprinklers Sprinklers
& cabinet
1 2 3 4 5
1.1b A High 0 0 1 2 1 X X X
1.2 A High 0 0 1 2 1 X X X
1.2 B Low 0 0 1 1 1 X X X X
1.3 B Low 0 0 5 10 1 X X X X
1.4c B Low 0 0 50 100 1 X X X X
1.5 C Low 0 0 1 2 1 X X X X
1.5 Blasting
Agent
Blasting
Agent
0 0 1 2 1 X X X X X
1.6 Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
0 0 1 2 1 X X X X X

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 pound per gallon = 0.12 kg per liter, 1 ounce = 28.35 g.
a. A factor of 10 pounds per gallon shall be used for converting pounds (solid) to gallons (liquid) in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
b. Black powder shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 magazine as provided for in Section 5604.3.1.
c. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.
Explosive materials classified as Division 1.1 or 1.2 or formerly classified as Class A by the U.S. Department of Transportation shall be stored in Type 1, 2 or 3 magazines.

Exceptions:

1. Black powder shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 magazine.

2. Cap-sensitive explosive material that is demonstrated not to be bullet sensitive shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 magazine.
Explosive materials that are not cap sensitive shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 magazine.
For quantity and distance purposes, detonating cord of 50 grains per foot shall be calculated as equivalent to 8 pounds (4 kg) of high explosives per 1,000 feet (305 m). Heavier or lighter core loads shall be rated proportionally.
Detonators shall be stored in a separate magazine for blasting supplies and shall not be stored in a magazine with other explosive materials.
The use of magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall comply with Sections 5604.5.1 through 5604.5.3.3.
The use of indoor magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall comply with the requirements of Sections 5604.5.1.1 through 5604.5.1.7.
The use of indoor magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall be limited to occupancies of Group F, H, M or S, and research and development laboratories.
Indoor magazines shall comply with the following construction requirements:

1. Construction shall be fire resistant and theft resistant.

2. Exterior shall be painted red.

3. Base shall be fitted with wheels, casters or rollers to facilitate removal from the building in an emergency.

4. Lid or door shall be marked with conspicuous white lettering not less than 3 inches (76 mm) high and minimum 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) stroke, reading EXPLOSIVES‒KEEP FIRE AWAY.

5. The least horizontal dimension shall not exceed the clear width of the entrance door.
Not more than 50 pounds (23 kg) of explosives or explosive materials shall be stored within an indoor magazine.

Exception: Day boxes used for the storage of in-process material in accordance with Section 5605.6.4.1.
Indoor magazines shall not be used within buildings containing Group R occupancies.
Indoor magazines shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an entrance and only on floors at or having ramp access to the exterior grade level.
Not more than two indoor magazines shall be located in the same building. Where two such magazines are located in the same building, one magazine shall be used solely for the storage of not more than 5,000 detonators.
Where two magazines are located in the same building, they shall be separated by a distance of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).
Outdoor magazines other than Type 3 shall be located so as to comply with Table 5604.5.2(2) or 5604.5.2(3) as set forth in Tables 5601.8.1(1) through 5601.8.1(3). Where a magazine or group of magazines, as described in Section 5604.5.2.2, contains different classes of explosive materials, and Division 1.1 materials are present, the required separations for the magazine or magazine group as a whole shall comply with Table 5604.5.2(2).

TABLE 5604.5.2(1) AMERICAN TABLE OF DISTANCES FOR STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AS APPROVED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MAKERS OF EXPLOSIVES AND REVISED JUNE 1991a

QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE
MATERIALSc
DISTANCES IN FEET
Inhabited buildings Public highways with traffic
volume less than 3,000
vehicles per day
Public highways with traffic
volume greater than 3,000
vehicles per day and
passenger railways
Separation of magazinesd
Pounds over Pounds not
over
Barricaded Unbarricaded Barricaded Unbarricaded Barricaded Unbarricaded Barricaded Unbarricaded
0 5 70 140 30 60 51 102 6 12
5 10 90 180 35 70 64 128 8 16
10 20 110 220 45 90 81 162 10 20
20 30 125 250 50 100 93 186 11 22
30 40 140 280 55 110 103 206 12 24
40 50 150 300 60 120 110 220 14 28
50 75 170 340 70 140 127 254 15 30
75 100 190 380 75 150 139 278 16 32
100 125 200 400 80 160 150 300 18 36
125 150 215 430 85 170 159 318 19 38
150 200 235 470 95 190 175 350 21 42
200 250 255 510 105 210 189 378 23 46
250 300 270 540 110 220 201 402 24 48
300 400 295 590 120 240 221 442 27 54
400 500 320 640 130 260 238 476 29 58
500 600 340 680 135 270 253 506 31 62
600 700 355 710 145 290 266 532 32 64
700 800 375 750 150 300 278 556 33 66
800 900 390 780 155 310 289 578 35 70
900 1,000 400 800 160 320 300 600 36 72
1,000 1,200 425 850 165 330 318 636 39 78
1,200 1,400 450 900 170 340 336 672 41 82
1,400 1,600 470 940 175 350 351 702 43 86
1,600 1,800 490 980 180 360 366 732 44 88
1,800 2,000 505 1,010 185 370 378 756 45 90
2,000 2,500 545 1,090 190 380 408 816 49 98
2,500 3,000 580 1,160 195 390 432 864 52 104
3,000 4,000 635 1,270 210 420 474 948 58 116
4,000 5,000 685 1,370 225 450 513 1,026 61 122
5,000 6,000 730 1,460 235 470 546 1,092 65 130
6,000 7,000 770 1,540 245 490 573 1,146 68 136
7,000 8,000 800 1,600 250 500 600 1,200 72 144
8,000 9,000 835 1,670 255 510 624 1,248 75 150
9,000 10,000 865 1,730 260 520 645 1,290 78 156
10,000 12,000 875 1,750 270 540 687 1,374 82 164
12,000 14,000 885 1,770 275 550 723 1,446 87 174
14,000 16,000 900 1,800 280 560 756 1,512 90 180
16,000 18,000 940 1,880 285 570 786 1,572 94 188
18,000 20,000 975 1,950 290 580 813 1,626 98 196
20,000 25,000 1,055 2,000 315 630 876 1,752 105 210


(continued)

TABLE 5604.5.2(1)-continued AMERICAN TABLE OF DISTANCES FOR STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AS APPROVED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MAKERS OF EXPLOSIVES AND REVISED JUNE 1991a

QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALSc DISTANCES IN FEET
Inhabited buildings Public highways with traffic
volume less than 3,000 vehicles per day
Public highways with traffic
volume greater than 3,000
vehicles per day and
passenger railways
Separation of magazinesd
Pounds
over
Pounds not
over
Barricaded Unbarricaded Barricaded Unbarricaded Barricaded Unbarricaded Barricaded Unbarricaded
25,000 30,000 1,130 2,000 340 680 933 1,866 112 224
30,000 35,000 1,205 2,000 360 720 981 1,962 119 238
35,000 40,000 1,275 2,000 380 760 1,026 2,000 124 248
40,000 45,000 1,340 2,000 400 800 1,068 2,000 129 258
45,000 50,000 1,400 2,000 420 840 1,104 2,000 135 270
50,000 55,000 1,460 2,000 440 880 1,140 2,000 140 280
55,000 60,000 1,515 2,000 455 910 1,173 2,000 145 290
60,000 65,000 1,565 2,000 470 940 1,206 2,000 150 300
65,000 70,000 1,610 2,000 485 970 1,236 2,000 155 310
70,000 75,000 1,655 2,000 500 1,000 1,263 2,000 160 320
75,000 80,000 1,695 2,000 510 1,020 1,293 2,000 165 330
80,000 85,000 1,730 2,000 520 1,040 1,317 2,000 170 340
85,000 90,000 1,760 2,000 530 1,060 1,344 2,000 175 350
90,000 95,000 1,790 2,000 540 1,080 1,368 2,000 180 360
95,000 100,000 1,815 2,000 545 1,090 1,392 2,000 185 370
100,000 110,000 1,835 2,000 550 1,100 1,437 2,000 195 390
110,000 120,000 1,855 2,000 555 1,110 1,479 2,000 205 410
120,000 130,000 1,875 2,000 560 1,120 1,521 2,000 215 430
130,000 140,000 1,890 2,000 565 1,130 1,557 2,000 225 450
140,000 150,000 1,900 2,000 570 1,140 1,593 2,000 235 470
150,000 160,000 1,935 2,000 580 1,160 1,629 2,000 245 490
160,000 170,000 1,965 2,000 590 1,180 1,662 2,000 255 510
170,000 180,000 1,990 2,000 600 1,200 1,695 2,000 265 530
180,000 190,000 2,010 2,010 605 1,210 1,725 2,000 275 550
190,000 200,000 2,030 2,030 610 1,220 1,755 2,000 285 570
200,000 210,000 2,055 2,055 620 1,240 1,782 2,000 295 590
210,000 230,000 2,100 2,100 635 1,270 1,836 2,000 315 630
230,000 250,000 2,155 2,155 650 1,300 1,890 2,000 335 670
250,000 275,000 2,215 2,215 670 1,340 1,950 2,000 360 720
275,000 300,000b 2,275 2,275 690 1,380 2,000 2,000 385 770

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
a. This table applies only to the manufacture and permanent storage of commercial explosive materials. It is not applicable to transportation of explosives or any handling or temporary storage necessary or incident thereto. It is not intended to apply to bombs, projectiles or other heavily encased explosives.
b. Storage in excess of 300,000 pounds of explosive materials in one magazine is not allowed.
c. Where a manufacturing building on an explosive materials plant site is designed to contain explosive materials, such building shall be located with respect to its proximity to inhabited buildings, public highways and passenger railways based on the maximum quantity of explosive materials permitted to be in the building at one time.
d. Where two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, railways and highways, and, in addition, they should be separated from each other by not less than the distances shown for separation of magazines, except that the quantity of explosives in detonator magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator magazines from magazines containing other explosive materials. Where any two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified separation of magazines distances, then two or more such magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if stored in a single magazine located on the site of any magazine in the group and shall comply with the minimum distances specified from other magazines, inhabited buildings, railways and highways.


TABLE 5604.5.2(2) TABLE OF DISTANCES (Q-D) FOR BUILDINGS AND MAGAZINES CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES‒DIVISION 1.3 MASS-FIRE HAZARDa, b, c

QUANTITY OF DIVISION 1.3 EXPLOSIVES
(NET EXPLOSIVES WEIGHT)
DISTANCES IN FEET
Pounds over Pounds not over Inhabited Building
Distance (IBD)
Distance to Public Traffic
Route (PTR)
Intermagazine Distance
(IMD)
Intraline Distance (ILD)
or Intraplant Distance
(IPD)
0 1,000 75 75 50 50
1,000 5,000 115 115 75 75
5,000 10,000 150 150 100 100
10,000 20,000 190 190 125 125
20,000 30,000 215 215 145 145
30,000 40,000 235 235 155 155
40,000 50,000 250 250 165 165
50,000 60,000 260 260 175 175
60,000 70,000 270 270 185 185
70,000 80,000 280 280 190 190
80,000 90,000 295 295 195 195
90,000 100,000 300 300 200 200
100,000 200,000 375 375 250 250
200,000 300,000 450 450 300 300

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg
a. Black powder, where stored in magazines, is defined as low explosive by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF).
b. For quantities less than 1,000 pounds, the required distances are those specified for 1,000 pounds. The use of lesser distances is allowed where supported by approved test data and/or analysis.
c. Linear interpolation of explosive quantities between table entries is allowed.


TABLE 5604.5.2(3) TABLE OF DISTANCES (Q-D) FOR BUILDINGS AND MAGAZINES CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES‒DIVISION 1.4c

QUANTITY OF DIVISION 1.4 EXPLOSIVES
(NET EXPLOSIVES WEIGHT)
DISTANCES IN FEET
Pounds over Pounds not over Inhabited Building
Distance (IBD)
Distance to Public
Traffic Route (PTR)
Intermagazine
Distancea, b (IMD)
Intraline Distance (ILD)
or Intraplant Distancea
(IPD)
50 Not Limited 100 100 50 50

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
a. A separation distance of 100 feet is required for buildings of other than Type I or Type II construction as defined in the International Building Code.
b. For earth-covered magazines, specific separation is not required.
1. Earth cover material used for magazines shall be relatively cohesive. Solid or wet clay and similar types of soil are too cohesive and shall not be used. Soil shall be free from unsanitary organic matter, trash, debris and stones heavier than 10 pounds or larger than 6 inches in diameter. Compaction and surface preparation shall be provided, as necessary, to maintain structural integrity and avoid erosion. Where cohesive material cannot be used, as in sandy soil, the earth cover over magazines shall be finished with a suitable material to ensure structural integrity.
2. The earth fill or earth cover between earth-covered magazines shall be either solid or sloped, in accordance with the requirements of other construction features, but not less than 2 feet of earth cover shall be maintained over the top of each magazines. To reduce erosion and facilitate maintenance operations, the cover shall have a slope of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.
c. Restricted to articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpacked articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.
Where two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, public transportation routes and operating buildings. Magazines shall be separated from each other by not less than the intermagazine distances (IMD) shown for the separation of magazines.
Where two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the intermagazine distances (IMD), such magazines as a group shall be considered as one magazine and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in the group shall be treated as if stored in a single magazine. The location of the group of magazines shall comply with the intermagazine distances (IMD) specified from other magazines or magazine groups, inhabited buildings (IBD), public transportation routes (PTR) and operating buildings (ILD or IPD) as required.
Type 3 magazines shall comply with Sections 5604.5.3.1 through 5604.5.3.3.
Wherever practicable, Type 3 magazines shall be located away from neighboring inhabited buildings, railways, highways and other magazines in accordance with Table 5604.5.2(2) or 5604.5.2(3) as applicable.
Type 3 magazines shall be attended when explosive materials are stored within. Explosive materials shall be removed to appropriate storage magazines for unattended storage at the end of the work day.
Not more than two Type 3 magazines shall be located at the same blasting site. Where two Type 3 magazines are located at the same blasting site, one magazine shall used solely for the storage of detonators.
Magazines shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 5604.6.1 through 5604.6.5.2.
The ground around a magazine shall be graded so that water drains away from the magazine.
Magazines requiring heat shall be heated as prescribed in NFPA 495 by either hot water radiant heating within the magazine or by indirect warm air heating.
Where lighting is necessary within a magazine, electric safety flashlights or electric safety lanterns shall be used, except as provided in NFPA 495.
In other than Type 5 magazines, there shall not be exposed ferrous metal on the interior of a magazine containing packages of explosives.
Property upon which Type 1 magazines and outdoor magazines of Types 2, 4 and 5 are located shall be posted with signs stating: EXPLOSIVES‒KEEP OFF. These signs shall be of contrasting colors with a minimum letter height of 3 inches (76 mm) with a minimum brush stroke of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). The signs shall be located to minimize the possibility of a bullet shot at the sign hitting the magazine.
At the entrance to explosive material manufacturing and storage sites, all access roads shall be posted with the following warning sign or other approved sign:

DANGER!
NEVER FIGHT EXPLOSIVE FIRES.
EXPLOSIVES ARE STORED ON THIS SITE
CALL _______.

The sign shall be weather-resistant with a reflective surface and have lettering not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high.
Type 5 magazines containing Division 1.5 blasting agents shall be prominently placarded as required during transportation by DOTn 49 CFR Part 172 and DOTy 27 CFR Part 55.
Magazines shall be operated in accordance with Sections 5604.7.1 through 5604.7.9.
Magazines shall be kept locked in the manner prescribed in NFPA 495 at all times except during placement or removal of explosives or inspection.
Smoking, matches, flame-producing devices, open flames, firearms and firearms cartridges shall not be allowed inside of or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of magazines.
The area located around a magazine shall be kept clear of brush, dried grass, leaves, trash, debris and similar combustible materials for a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).
Combustible materials shall not be stored within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of magazines.
Containers of explosive materials, except fiberboard containers, and packages of damaged or deteriorated explosive materials or fireworks shall not be unpacked or repacked inside or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a magazine or in close proximity to other explosive materials.
Packages of explosive materials that have been opened shall be closed before being placed in a magazine.
Tools used for the opening and closing of packages of explosive materials, other than metal slitters for opening paper, plastic or fiberboard containers, shall be made of nonsparking materials.
Empty containers and paper and fiber packaging materials that previously contained explosive materials shall be disposed of or reused in a approved manner.
Metal tools, other than nonferrous transfer conveyors and ferrous metal conveyor stands protected by a coat of paint, shall not be stored in a magazine containing explosive materials or detonators.
Magazines shall be used exclusively for the storage of explosive materials, blasting materials and blasting accessories.
Corresponding grades and brands of explosive materials shall be stored together and in such a manner that the grade and brand marks are visible. Stocks shall be stored so as to be easily counted and checked. Packages of explosive materials shall be stacked in a stable manner not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height.
When explosive material is removed from a magazine for use, the oldest usable stocks shall be removed first.
Maintenance of magazines shall comply with Sections 5604.8.1 through 5604.8.3.
Magazine floors shall be regularly swept and be kept clean, dry and free of grit, paper, empty packages and rubbish. Brooms and other cleaning utensils shall not have any spark-producing metal parts. Sweepings from magazine floors shall be disposed of in accordance with the manufacturers' approved instructions.
Explosive materials shall be removed from the magazine before making repairs to the interior of a magazine. Explosive materials shall be removed from the magazine before making repairs to the exterior of the magazine where there is a possibility of causing a fire. Explosive materials removed from a magazine under repair shall either be placed in another magazine or placed a safe distance from the magazine, where they shall be properly guarded and protected until repairs have been completed. Upon completion of repairs, the explosive materials shall be promptly returned to the magazine. Floors shall be cleaned before and after repairs.
Magazine floors stained with liquid shall be dealt with in accordance with instructions obtained from the manufacturer of the explosive material stored in the magazine.
Magazines containing explosive materials shall be opened and inspected at maximum seven-day intervals. The inspection shall determine whether there has been an unauthorized or attempted entry into a magazine or an unauthorized removal of a magazine or its contents.
Explosive materials shall be disposed of in accordance with Sections 5604.10.1 through 5604.10.7.
The fire code official shall be notified immediately where deteriorated or leaking explosive materials are determined to be dangerous or unstable and in need of disposal.
Where an explosive material has deteriorated to an extent that it is in an unstable or dangerous condition, or when a liquid has leaked from an explosive material, the person in possession of such material shall immediately contact the material's manufacturer to obtain disposal and handling instructions.
The work of destroying explosive materials shall be directed by persons experienced in the destruction of explosive materials.
Explosive materials and fireworks recovered from blasting or display misfires shall be placed in a magazine until an experienced person has determined the proper method for disposal.
Sites for the destruction of explosive materials and fireworks shall be approved and located at the maximum practicable safe distance from inhabited buildings, public highways, operating buildings and all other exposures to ensure keeping air blast and ground vibration to a minimum. The location of disposal sites shall not be closer to magazines, inhabited buildings, railways, highways and other rights-of-way than is allowed by Tables 5604.5.2(1), 5604.5.2(2) and 5604.5.2(3). Where possible, barricades shall be utilized between the destruction site and inhabited buildings. Areas where explosives are detonated or burned shall be posted with adequate warning signs.
Unless an approved burning site has been thoroughly saturated with water and has passed a safety inspection, 48 hours shall elapse between the completion of a burn and the placement of scrap explosive materials for a subsequent burn.
Once an explosive burn operation has been started, personnel shall relocate to a safe location where adequate protection from air blast and flying debris is provided. Personnel shall not return to the burn area until the person in charge has inspected the burn site and determined that it is safe for personnel to return.
The manufacture, assembly and testing of explosives, ammunition, blasting agents and fireworks shall comply with the requirements of this section and NFPA 495 or NFPA 1124.

Exceptions:

1. The hand loading of small arms ammunition prepared for personal use and not offered for resale.

2. The mixing and loading of blasting agents at blasting sites in accordance with NFPA 495.

3. The use of binary explosives or plosophoric materials in blasting or pyrotechnic special effects applications in accordance with NFPA 495 or NFPA 1126.
Emergency plans, emergency drills, employee training and hazard communication shall conform to the provisions of this section and Sections 404, 405, 406 and 407.
Detailed Hazardous Materials Management Plans (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statements (HMIS) complying with the requirements of Section 407 shall be prepared and submitted to the local emergency planning committee, the fire code official and the local fire department.
A copy of the required HMMP and HMIS shall be maintained on site and furnished to the fire code official on request.
Workers who handle explosives or explosive charges or dispose of explosives shall be trained in the hazards of the materials and processes in which they are to be engaged and with the safety rules governing such materials and processes.
Approved emergency procedures shall be formulated for each plant and shall include personal instruction in any anticipated emergency. Personnel shall be made aware of an emergency warning signal.
Explosives manufacturing buildings and fireworks manufacturing buildings, including those where explosive charges are assembled, manufactured, prepared or loaded utilizing Division 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 or 1.5 explosives, shall be separated from all other buildings, including magazines, within the confines of the manufacturing plant, at a distance not less than those shown in Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

The quantity of explosives in an operating building shall be the net weight of all explosives contained therein. Distances shall be based on the hazard division requiring the greatest separation, unless the aggregate explosive weight is divided by approved walls or shields designed for that purpose. Where dividing a quantity of explosives into smaller stacks, a suitable barrier or adequate separation distance shall be provided to prevent propagation from one stack to another.

Where distance is used as the sole means of separation within a building, such distance shall be established by testing. Testing shall demonstrate that propagation between stacks will not result. Barriers provided to protect against explosive effects shall be designed and installed in accordance with approved standards.

TABLE 5605.3 MINIMUM INTRALINE (INTRAPLANT) SEPARATION DISTANCES (ILD OR IPD) BETWEEN BARRICADED OPERATING BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES‒DIVISION 1.1, 1.2 OR 1.5 MASS-EXPLOSION HAZARDa

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT
Pounds over Pounds not over Intraline Distance (ILD)
or Intraplant Distance (IPD)
(feet)
Pounds over Pounds not over Intraline Distance (ILD)
or Intraplant Distance (IPD)
(feet)
0 50 30 20,000 25,000 265
50 100 40 25,000 30,000 280
100 200 50 30,000 35,000 295
200 300 60 35,000 40,000 310
300 400 65 40,000 45,000 320
400 500 70 45,000 50,000 330
500 600 75 50,000 55,000 340
600 700 80 55,000 60,000 350
700 800 85 60,000 65,000 360
800 900 90 65,000 70,000 370
900 1,000 95 70,000 75,000 385
1,000 1,500 105 75,000 80,000 390
1,500 2,000 115 80,000 85,000 395
2,000 3,000 130 85,000 90,000 400
3,000 4,000 140 90,000 95,000 410
4,000 5,000 150 95,000 100,000 415
5,000 6,000 160 100,000 125,000 450
6,000 7,000 170 125,000 150,000 475
7,000 8,000 180 150,000 175,000 500
8,000 9,000 190 175,000 200,000 525
9,000 10,000 200 200,000 225,000 550
10,000 15,000 225 225,000 250,000 575
15,000 20,000 245 250,000 275,000 600
275,000 300,000 635

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
a. Where a building or magazine containing explosives is not barricaded, the intraline distances shown in this table shall be doubled.
Where an operating building on an explosive materials plant site is designed to contain explosive materials, such a building shall be located away from inhabited buildings, public traffic routes and magazines in accordance with Table 5604.5.2(2) or 5604.5.2(3) as appropriate, based on the maximum quantity of explosive materials permitted to be in the building at one time (see Section 5601.8).

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings constructed and operated in accordance with NFPA 1124.
In addition to the requirements of Section 5601.8 to determine the net explosive weight for materials stored or used in operating buildings, quantities of explosive materials stored in magazines located at distances less than intraline distances from the operating building shall be added to the contents of the operating building to determine the net explosive weight for the operating building.
The storage of explosive materials located in indoor magazines in operating buildings shall be limited to a net explosive weight not to exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).
The storage of explosive materials in outdoor magazines located at less than intraline distances from operating buildings shall be limited to a net explosive weight not to exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).
The storage of explosive materials in outdoor magazines in quantities exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) net explosive weight shall be limited to storage in outdoor magazines located not less than intraline distances from the operating building in accordance with Section 5604.5.2.
The aggregate quantity of explosive materials stored in any combination of indoor magazines or outdoor magazines located at less than the intraline distances from an operating building shall not exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).
Buildings or rooms that exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area of explosive materials shall be operated in accordance with this section and constructed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code for Group H occupancies.

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings constructed and operated in accordance with NFPA 1124.
Explosives dust shall not be exhausted to the atmosphere.
When collecting explosives dust, a wet collector system shall be used. Wetting agents shall be compatible with the explosives. Collector systems shall be interlocked with process power supplies so that the process cannot continue without the collector systems also operating.
Explosives dust shall be removed from the collection chamber as often as necessary to prevent overloading. The entire system shall be cleaned at a frequency that will eliminate hazardous concentrations of explosives dust in pipes, tubing and ducts.
Squirrel cage blowers shall not be used for exhausting hazardous fumes, vapors or gases. Only nonferrous fan blades shall be used for fans located within the ductwork and through which hazardous materials are exhausted. Motors shall be located outside the duct.
Work stations shall be separated by distance, barrier or other approved alternatives so that fire in one station will not ignite material in another work station. Where necessary, the operator shall be protected by a personnel shield located between the operator and the explosive device or explosive material being processed. This shield and its support shall be capable of withstanding a blast from the maximum amount of explosives allowed behind it.
Operations involving explosives shall comply with Sections 5605.6.1 through 5605.6.10.
Where the type of material and processing warrants, mechanical operations involving explosives in excess of 1 pound (0.454 kg) shall be carried on at isolated stations or at intraplant distances, and machinery shall be controlled from remote locations behind barricades or at separations so that workers will be at a safe distance while machinery is operating.
The work area where the screening, grinding, blending and other processing of static-sensitive explosives or pyrotechnic materials is done shall be provided with approved static controls.
Bulk explosives shall be kept in approved, nonsparking containers when not being used or processed. Explosives shall not be stored or transported in open containers.
The quantity of explosives at any particular work station shall be limited to that posted on the load limit signs for the individual work station. The total quantity of explosives for multiple workstations shall not exceed that established by the intraplant distances in Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.
Magazines used for storage in processing areas shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 5604.5.1. Explosive materials shall be removed to appropriate storage magazines for unattended storage at the end of the work day. The contents of indoor magazines shall be added to the quantity of explosives contained at individual workstations and the total quantity of material stored, processed or used shall be utilized to establish the intraplant separation distances indicated by Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.
Approved receptacles with covers shall be provided for each location for disposing of waste material and debris. These waste receptacles shall be emptied and cleaned as often as necessary but not less than once each day or at the end of each shift.
General safety rules and operating instructions governing the particular operation or process conducted at that location shall be available at each location.
The number of occupants in each process building and in each magazine shall not exceed the number necessary for proper conduct of production operations.
Not more than 500 pounds (227 kg) of pyrotechnic or explosive composition, including not more than 10 pounds (5 kg) of salute powder shall be allowed at one time in any process building or area. Compositions not in current use shall be kept in covered nonferrous containers.

Exception: Composition that has been loaded or pressed into tubes or other containers as consumer fireworks.
The maximum number of occupants and maximum weight of pyrotechnic and explosive composition permitted in each process building shall be posted in a conspicuous location in each process building or magazine.
Fireworks, explosives or explosive charges in explosive materials manufacturing, assembly or testing shall not be stored near any source of heat.

Exception: Approved drying or curing operations.
Maintenance and repair of explosives-manufacturing facilities and areas shall comply with Section 5604.8.
Detonation of explosive materials or ignition of fireworks for testing purposes shall be done only in isolated areas at sites where distance, protection from missiles, shrapnel or flyrock, and other safeguards provides protection against injury to personnel or damage to property.
Protective clothing and equipment shall be provided to protect persons engaged in the testing, ignition or detonation of explosive materials.
Where tests are being conducted or explosives are being detonated, only authorized persons shall be present. Areas where explosives are regularly or frequently detonated or burned shall be approved and posted with adequate warning signs. Warning devices shall be activated before burning or detonating explosives to alert persons approaching from any direction that they are approaching a danger zone.
Disposal of explosive materials waste from manufacturing, assembly or testing operations shall be in accordance with Section 5604.10.
Indoor storage and display of black powder, smokeless propellants, small arms primers and small arms ammunition shall comply with this section and NFPA 495.
Small arms ammunition shall not be stored together with Division 1.1, Division 1.2 or Division 1.3 explosives unless the storage facility is suitable for the storage of explosive materials.
Smokeless propellants shall be stored in approved shipping containers conforming to DOTn 49 CFR Part 173.
The bulk repackaging of smokeless propellants, black powder and small arms primers shall not be performed in retail establishments.
Damaged containers shall not be repackaged.

Exception: Approved repackaging of damaged containers of smokeless propellant into containers of the same type and size as the original container.
The storage of small arms ammunition components in Group R occupancies shall comply with Sections 5606.4.1 through 5606.4.3.
Black powder for personal use in quantities not exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) shall be stored in original containers in occupancies limited to Group R-3. Quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) shall not be stored in any Group R occupancy.
Smokeless propellants for personal use in quantities not exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) shall be stored in original containers in occupancies limited to Group R-3. Smokeless propellants in quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) but not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) and kept in a wooden box or cabinet having walls of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness shall be allowed to be stored in occupancies limited to Group R-3. Quantities exceeding these amounts shall not be stored in any Group R occupancy.
Not more than 10,000 small arms primers shall be stored in occupancies limited to Group R-3.
The display and storage of small arms ammunition components in Group M occupancies shall comply with Sections 5606.5.1 through 5606.5.2.3.
Display of small arms ammunition components in Group M occupancies shall comply with Sections 5606.5.1.1 through 5606.5.1.3.
Not more than 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless propellants, in containers of 1 pound (0.454 kg) or less capacity each, shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
Not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of black powder shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
Not more than 10,000 small arms primers shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
Storage of small arms ammunition components shall comply with Sections 5606.5.2.1 through 5606.5.2.3.
Commercial stocks of smokeless propellants shall be stored as follows:

1. Quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg), but not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) shall be stored in portable wooden boxes having walls of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness.

2. Quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg), but not exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having walls not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness. Not more than 400 pounds (182 kg) shall be stored in any one cabinet, and cabinets shall be separated by a distance of not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

3. Storage of quantities exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), but not exceeding 5,000 pounds (2270 kg) in a building shall comply with all of the following:

3.1. The warehouse or storage room is unaccessible to unauthorized personnel.

3.2. Smokeless propellant shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having wood walls not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness and having shelves with not more than 3 feet (914 mm) of separation between shelves.

3.3. Not more than 400 pounds (182 kg) is stored in any one cabinet.

3.4. Cabinets shall be located against walls of the storage room or warehouse with not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets.

3.5. The minimum required separation between cabinets shall be 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades must extend not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) outward, be firmly attached to the wall and be constructed of steel not less than 1/4 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick or concrete block.

3.6. Smokeless propellant shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.

3.7. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

4. Smokeless propellants not stored in accordance with Item 1, 2, or 3 above shall be stored in a Type 2 or 4 magazine in accordance with Section 5604 and NFPA 495.
Commercial stocks of black powder in quantities less than 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be allowed to be stored in Type 2 or 4 indoor or outdoor magazines. Quantities greater than 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be stored in outdoor Type 2 or 4 magazines. Where black powder and smokeless propellants are stored together in the same magazine, the total quantity shall not exceed that permitted for black powder.
Commercial stocks of small arms primers shall be stored as follows:

1. Quantities not to exceed 750,000 small arms primers stored in a building shall be arranged such that not more than 100,000 small arms primers are stored in any one pile and piles are not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) apart.

2. Quantities exceeding 750,000 small arms primers stored in a building shall comply with all of the following:

2.1. The warehouse or storage building shall not be accessible to unauthorized personnel.

2.2. Small arms primers shall be stored in cabinets. Not more than 200,000 small arms primers shall be stored in any one cabinet.

2.3. Shelves in cabinets shall have vertical separation of not less than 2 feet (610 mm).

2.4. Cabinets shall be located against walls of the warehouse or storage room with not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets. The minimum required separation between cabinets shall be allowed to be reduced to 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades shall be firmly attached to the wall and shall be constructed of steel not less than 1/4 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick or concrete block.

2.5. Small arms primers shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.

2.6. The building shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

3. Small arms primers not stored in accordance with Item 1 or 2 of this section shall be stored in a magazine meeting the requirements of Section 5604 and NFPA 495.
Blasting operations shall be conducted only by approved, competent operators familiar with the required safety precautions and the hazards involved and in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 495.
Blasting operations shall be performed in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer of the explosive materials being used.
Where blasting is done in a congested area or in close proximity to a structure, railway or highway, or any other installation, precautions shall be taken to minimize earth vibrations and air blast effects. Blasting mats or other protective means shall be used to prevent fragments from being thrown.
Surface-blasting operations shall only be conducted during daylight hours between sunrise and sunset. Other blasting shall be performed during daylight hours unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.
Where blasting is being conducted in the vicinity of utility lines or rights-of-way, the blaster shall notify the appropriate representatives of the utilities not less than 24 hours in advance of blasting, specifying the location and intended time of such blasting. Verbal notices shall be confirmed with written notice.

Exception: In an emergency situation, the time limit shall not apply where approved.
Precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental discharge of electric detonators from currents induced by radar and radio transmitters, lightning, adjacent power lines, dust and snow storms, or other sources of extraneous electricity.
Precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental initiation of nonelectric detonators from stray currents induced by lightning or static electricity.
During the time that holes are being loaded or are loaded with explosive materials, blasting agents or detonators, only authorized persons engaged in drilling and loading operations or otherwise authorized to enter the site shall be allowed at the blast site. The blast site shall be guarded or barricaded and posted. Blast site security shall be maintained until after the post-blast inspection has been completed.
Holes drilled for the loading of explosive charges shall be made and loaded in accordance with NFPA 495.
After loading for a blast is completed and before firing, excess explosive materials shall be removed from the area and returned to the proper storage facilities.
The initiation of blasts shall be by means conforming to the provisions of NFPA 495.
The blaster shall supervise the connecting of the blastholes and the connection of the loadline to the power source or initiation point. Connections shall be made progressively from the blasthole back to the initiation point.

Blasting lead lines shall remain shunted (shorted) and shall not be connected to the blasting machine or other source of current until the blast is to be fired.
A blast shall not be fired until the blaster has made certain that all surplus explosive materials are in a safe place in accordance with Section 5607.10, all persons and equipment are at a safe distance or under sufficient cover and that an adequate warning signal has been given.
After the blast, the following procedures shall be observed.

1. No person shall return to the blast area until allowed to do so by the blaster in charge.

2. The blaster shall allow sufficient time for smoke and fumes to dissipate and for dust to settle before returning to or approaching the blast area.

3. The blaster shall inspect the entire blast site for misfires before allowing other personnel to return to the blast area.
Where a misfire is suspected, all initiating circuits shall be traced and a search made for unexploded charges. Where a misfire is found, the blaster shall provide proper safeguards for excluding all personnel from the blast area. Misfires shall be reported to the blasting supervisor immediately. Misfires shall be handled under the direction of the person in charge of the blasting operation in accordance with NFPA 495.
Outdoor fireworks displays, use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience and pyrotechnic special effects in motion picture, television, theatrical and group entertainment productions shall comply with Sections 5608.2 through 5608.10 and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.
Prior to issuing permits for a fireworks display, plans for the fireworks display, inspections of the display site and demonstrations of the display operations shall be approved. A plan establishing procedures to follow and actions to be taken in the event that a shell fails to ignite in, or discharge from, a mortar or fails to function over the fallout area or other malfunctions shall be provided to the fire code official.
In addition to the requirements of Section 403, permit applications for outdoor fireworks displays using Division 1.3G fireworks shall include a diagram of the location at which the fireworks display will be conducted, including the site from which fireworks will be discharged; the location of buildings, highways, overhead obstructions and utilities; and the lines behind which the audience will be restrained.
Where the separation distances required in Section 5608.4 and NFPA 1123 are unavailable or cannot be secured, fireworks displays shall be conducted in accordance with NFPA 1126 for proximate audiences. Applications for use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience shall include plans indicating the required clearances for spectators and combustibles, crowd control measures, smoke control measures and requirements for standby personnel and equipment where provision of such personnel or equipment is required by the fire code official.
Approved fireworks displays shall include only the approved fireworks 1.3G, fireworks 1.4G, fireworks 1.4S and pyrotechnic articles, 1.4G, which shall be handled by an approved, competent operator. The approved fireworks shall be arranged, located, discharged and fired in a manner that will not pose a hazard to property or endanger any person.
Spectators, spectator parking areas, and dwellings, buildings or structures shall not be located within the display site.

Exceptions:

1. This provision shall not apply to pyrotechnic special effects and fireworks displays using Division 1.4G materials before a proximate audience in accordance with NFPA 1126.

2. This provision shall not apply to unoccupied dwellings, buildings and structures with the approval of the building owner and the fire code official.
The storage of fireworks at the display site shall comply with the requirements of this section and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.
Beginning as soon as fireworks have been delivered to the display site, they shall not be left unattended.
Fireworks shall be kept dry after delivery to the display site.
Shells shall be inspected by the operator or assistants after delivery to the display site. Shells having tears, leaks, broken fuses or signs of having been wet shall be set aside and shall not be fired. Aerial shells shall be checked for proper fit in mortars prior to discharge. Aerial shells that do not fit properly shall not be fired. After the fireworks display, damaged, deteriorated or dud shells shall either be returned to the supplier or destroyed in accordance with the supplier's instructions and Section 5604.10.

Exception: Minor repairs to fuses shall be allowed. For electrically ignited displays, attachment of electric matches and similar tasks shall be allowed.
After delivery to the display site and prior to the fireworks display, all shells shall be separated according to their size and their designation as salutes.

Exception: For electrically fired displays, or displays where all shells are loaded into mortars prior to the show, there is no requirement for separation of shells according to their size or their designation as salutes.
Display fireworks, 1.3G, that will be temporarily stored at the site during the fireworks display shall be stored in ready boxes located upwind and not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the mortar placement and separated according to their size and their designation as salutes.

Exception: For electrically fired fireworks displays, or fireworks displays where all shells are loaded into mortars prior to the show, there is no requirement for separation of shells according to their size, their designation as salutes or for the use of ready boxes.
Mortars for firing fireworks shells shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 1123 and shall be positioned so that shells are propelled away from spectators and over the fallout area. Under no circumstances shall mortars be angled toward the spectator viewing area. Prior to placement, mortars shall be inspected for defects, such as dents, bent ends, damaged interiors and damaged plugs. Defective mortars shall not be used.
Aerial shells shall be carried to mortars by the shell body. For the purpose of loading mortars, aerial shells shall be held by the thick portion of the fuse and carefully loaded into mortars.
Whenever in the opinion of the fire code official or the operator a hazardous condition exists, the fireworks display shall be discontinued immediately until such time as the dangerous situation is corrected.
After the fireworks display, the firing crew shall conduct an inspection of the fallout area for the purpose of locating unexploded aerial shells or live components. This inspection shall be conducted before public access to the site shall be allowed. Where fireworks are displayed at night and it is not possible to inspect the site thoroughly, the operator or designated assistant shall inspect the entire site at first light.

A report identifying any shells that fail to ignite in, or discharge from, a mortar or fail to function over the fallout area or otherwise malfunction, shall be filed with the fire code official.
Any shells found during the inspection required in Section 5608.9 shall not be handled until not less than 15 minutes have elapsed from the time the shells were fired. The fireworks shall then be doused with water and allowed to remain for not less than 5 additional minutes before being placed in a plastic bucket or fiberboard box. The disposal instructions of the manufacturer as provided by the fireworks supplier shall then be followed in disposing of the fireworks in accordance with Section 5604.10.
Where the temporary storage of consumer fireworks, 1.4G is allowed by Section 5601.1.3, Exception 4, such storage shall comply with the applicable requirements of NFPA 1124.
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