About this chapter: Chapter 23 sets forth regulations for motor fuel-dispensing stations and repair garages. It addresses both liquid and gaseous motor fuels associated with automotive, marine, aircraft and fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities. The repair garage provisions specifically address hazards associated with the different types of fuel used, including flammable and combustible liquids, hydrogen, LPG, LNG and CNG.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENING FACILITY.
Dispensing devices shall be located as follows:
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines.
- Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be on the premises of the motor fuel-dispensing facility.
- Such that the nozzle, where the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 feet (1524 mm) of building openings.
- Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of ignition.
IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE
- USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF
- REPORT THE ACCIDENT!
FIRE DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE NO.______
FACILITY ADDRESS _____________________
Dispensing equipment used at unsupervised locations shall comply with one of the following:
Where maintenance to Class I liquid dispensing devices becomes necessary and such maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions shall be taken before such maintenance is begun:
- Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required maintenance shall perform the work.
- Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main electrical disconnect panel.
- The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where installed, shall be closed.
- Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the dispensing device.
Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted within sight of each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the following:
- No smoking.
- Shut off motor.
- Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a metal surface away from the nozzle.
- To prevent static charge, do not reenter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping.
- If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle—back away immediately.
- It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unapproved containers.
- No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. Place container on ground before filling.
Weeds, grass, brush, trash and other combustible materials shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from fuel-handling equipment.
- Above-ground tanks used for outdoor, above-grade storage of Class I liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be in accordance with Chapter 57. Such tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.
- Above-ground tanks used for outdoor, above-grade storage of Class II or IIIA liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 57. Tank locations shall be in accordance withTable 2306.2.3.
- 3. Tanks containing fuels shall not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in individual capacity or 48,000 gallons (181 680 L) in aggregate capacity. Installations with the maximum allowable aggregate capacity shall be separated from other such installations by not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
- 4. Tanks located at farms, construction projects, or rural areas shall comply with Section 5706.2.
- 5. Above-ground tanks used for outdoor, above-grade storage of Class IIIB liquid motor fuel shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 142 or listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 57. Tank locations shall be in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.
MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVE-GROUND TANKS
|TANK TYPE||INDIVIDUAL TANK|
BUILDING ON SAME
LOT LINE THAT IS
OR CAN BE BUILT
SIDE OF A PUBLIC
NEAREST SIDE OF
ANY PUBLIC WAY
|MINIMUM DISTANCE |
BETWEEN TANKS (feet)
|Less than or equal |
|Greater than 6,000||15||25a, c||25||15||3|
|Tanks in vaults||0—20,000||0b||0||0b||0||Separate compartment |
required for each tank
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
- At fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, a minimum separation distance is not required.
- Underground vaults shall be located such that they will not be subject to loading from nearby structures, or they shall be designed to accommodate applied loads from existing or future structures that can be built nearby.
- For Class IIIB liquids in protected above-ground tanks, a minimum separation distance is not required.
Where installation of tanks in accordance with Section 5704.2.11 is impractical, or because of property or building limitations, tanks for liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in buildings in special enclosures in accordance with all of the following:
- The special enclosure shall be liquid tight and vapor tight.
- The special enclosure shall not contain backfill.
- Sides, top and bottom of the special enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete not less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick, with openings for inspection through the top only.
- Tank connections shall be piped or closed such that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space between the special enclosure and any tanks inside the special enclosure.
- Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment can be employed to discharge to the outside any vapors that might accumulate inside the special enclosure should leakage occur.
- Tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids inside a special enclosure shall not exceed 6,000 gallons (22 710 L) in individual capacity or 18,000 gallons (68 130 L) in aggregate capacity.
- Each tank within special enclosures shall be surrounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (910 mm) to allow for maintenance and inspection.
2306.6 Piping, Valves, Fittings and Ancillary Equipment for Use With Flammable or Combustible Liquids
2306.6.2 Piping, Valves, Fittings and Ancillary Equipment for Above-Ground Tanks for Class I, II and III Liquids
Exception: A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with latch-open device is allowed to be used on overhead-type dispensing units where the design of the system is such that the hose nozzle valve will close automatically in the event the valve is released from a fill opening or upon impact with a driveway.
- The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an integral latch-open device.
- The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling operation.
- The system shall include listed equipment with a feature that causes or requires the closing of the hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser.
Dispensing devices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery shall be listed and labeled. Where existing listed or labeled dispensing devices are modified for vapor recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The listing by report shall contain a description of the component parts used in the modification and recommended method of installation on specific dispensers. Such report shall be made available on request of the fire code official.
Means shall be provided to shut down fuel dispensing in the event the vapor return line becomes blocked.
Existing and new vent piping shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6 and 5704.2. Vapor return piping shall be installed in a manner that drains back to the tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can become trapped. If necessary, because of grade, condensate tanks are allowed in vapor return piping. Condensate tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can be drained without opening.
Flexible joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 5703.6.9.
An approved shear joint shall be rigidly mounted and connected by a union in the vapor return piping at the base of each dispensing device. The shear joint shall be mounted flush with the top of the surface on which the dispenser is mounted.
Equipment in vapor-processing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for prevention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-processing equipment, shall be individually listed for the intended use in a specified manner.
Vapor-processing systems that introduce air into the underground piping or storage tanks shall be provided with equipment for prevention of flame propagation that has been tested and listed as suitable for the intended use.
Vapor-processing equipment shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dispenser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest building or lot line of a property that can be built on.
Exception: Where the required distances to buildings, lot lines or fuel-transfer areas cannot be obtained, means shall be provided to protect equipment against fire exposure. Acceptable means shall include but not be limited to either of the following:
The point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations shall be separated from buildings and other exposures in accordance with the following:
- Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from buildings where the exterior wall is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 hour or greater.
- Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from combustible overhangs on buildings, measured from a vertical line dropped from the face of the overhang at a point nearest the point of transfer.
- Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the lot line of property that can be built on.
- Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the centerline of the nearest mainline railroad track.
- Not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from public streets, highways, thoroughfares, sidewalks and driveways.
LP-gas dispensers and related equipment shall comply with the following provisions.
- Pumps shall be fixed in place and shall be designed to allow control of the flow and to prevent leakage and accidental discharge.
- Dispensing devices installed within 10 feet (3048 mm) of where vehicle traffic occurs shall be protected against physical damage by mounting on a concrete island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in height, or shall be protected in accordance with Section 312.
- Dispensing devices shall be securely fastened to their mounting surface in accordance with the dispenser manufacturer's instructions.
The dispenser system piping shall be protected from uncontrolled discharge in accordance with the following:
- Where mounted on a concrete base, a means shall be provided and installed within 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the top of the concrete base that will prevent flow from the supply piping in the event that the dispenser is displaced from its mounting.
- A manual shutoff valve and an excess flow-control check valve shall be located in the liquid line between the pump and the dispenser inlet where the dispensing device is installed at a remote location and is not part of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a common base.
- An excess flow-control check valve or an emergency shutoff valve shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the point at which the dispenser hose is connected to the liquid piping.
- A listed automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open device shall be provided on island-type dispensers.
Self-service LP-gas dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted containers providing fuel to the LP-gas powered vehicle.
- The arrangement and operation of the transfer of product into a vehicle shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 61.
- The system shall be provided with an emergency shutoff switch located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, dispensers.
- The owner of the LP-gas motor fuel-dispensing facility or the owner's designee shall provide for the safe operation of the system and the training of users.
- The dispenser and hose-end valve shall release not more than 1/8 fluid ounce (4 cc) of liquid to the atmosphere upon breaking the connection with the fill valve on the vehicle.
- Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 2305.5.
- Warning signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 2305.6.
- The area around the dispenser shall be maintained in accordance with Section 2305.7.
Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located above ground, outdoors.
- Compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed in buildings of noncombustible construction, as set forth in the International Building Code, that are unenclosed for three-quarters or more of the perimeter.
- Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be allowed indoors or in vaults in accordance with Chapter 53.
- Not beneath power lines.
- Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track or any railroad or transit line where power for train propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source, such as third rail or overhead catenary.
- Fifty feet (15 240 mm) or more from the vertical plane below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line.
A vent tube that will divert the gas flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the cylinder prior to commencement of the venting and purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with CNG in accordance with Chapter 53.
The vent tube shall be capable of dispersing the gas not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. The vent tube shall not be provided with a rain cap or other feature that would limit or obstruct the gas flow.
Self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on hydrogen-powered vehicles.
In addition to the requirements in Section 2311, the owner of a self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility shall provide for the safe operation of the system through the institution of a fire safety plan submitted in accordance with Section 404, the training of employees and operators who use and maintain the system in accordance with Section 406, and provisions for hazard communication in accordance with Section 407.
The repair, purging, defueling or discharge activities associated with hydrogen motor fuel supply systems and tanks and the installation of the systems shall be in accordance with Chapters 53 and 58 and NFPA 2.
Exception: The fuel supply piping from the fuel storage tank to the engine compartment on a motor vehicle or forklift.
Class I, II or IIIA liquids stored inside of buildings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in approved containers or portable tanks. Storage of Class I liquids shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).
Fueling of floating marine craft with Class II or III fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be in accordance with all of the following:
- The premises and operations shall be approved by the fire code official.
- Tank vehicles and fueling operations shall comply with Section 5706.6.
- The dispensing nozzle shall be of the listed automatic-closing type without a latch-open device.
- Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in lighted areas.
- The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while dispensing.
- Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase.
Containers with tight-fitting or self-closing lids shall be provided for temporary storage of combustible debris, rubbish and waste material. The rubbish containers shall be constructed entirely of materials that comply with any one of the following:
- Noncombustible materials.
- Materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.
Warning signs shall be prominently displayed at the face of each wharf, pier or float at such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of marine craft being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color bearing the following or approved equivalent wording:
NO SMOKING—STOP ENGINE WHILE FUELING,
SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY
DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER BELOW
DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED.
Portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Section 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C, shall be provided as follows:
Repair garages shall comply with this section and the International Building Code. Repair garages for vehicles that use more than one type of fuel shall comply with the applicable provisions of this section for each type of fuel used.
CNG vehicle fuel system pressure and the ambient temperature shall be measured and recorded prior to entering the repair facility. Pressure greater than the indicated maximum pressure in accordance with Table 2311.6.2 shall be reduced by defueling the vehicle.
|GAS TEMPERATURE °F||PRESSURE IN FULL 3,600 PSI |
CNG CONTAINER, psig
For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, 1 psig = 6.895 kPa.
- 3,600 psi service pressure calculated from the standard gas composition used to create the gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE).
The room, motor vehicle repair booth or motor vehicle repair space containing repair garage activities for the conversion or repair of vehicles that use CNG, LNG, hydrogen or other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2311.8 through 2311.8.11 in addition to the other requirements of Section 2311. Repair garages for the repair of vehicles that use hydrogen fuel shall be in accordance with this code and NFPA 2.
- Repair garages where work is conducted only on vehicles that have been defueled and their systems purged with nitrogen gas, and where standard operating procedures to document and maintain the fueling status throughout repair operations are approved.
- Repair garages where work is not performed on the fuel system and is limited to exchange of parts and maintenance not requiring open flame or welding on the CNG-, LNG-, hydrogen- or other lighter-than-air-fueled motor vehicle.
- Repair garages for hydrogen-fueled vehicles where work is not performed on the hydrogen storage tank and is limited to the exchange of parts and maintenance not requiring open flame or welding on the hydrogen-fueled vehicle. During the work, the entire hydrogen fuel system shall contain less than 200 cubic feet (5.6 m3) of hydrogen.
- Repair garages for natural-gas-fueled vehicles where work is not being performed on the fuel storage tank, and is limited to the exchange of parts and maintenance not requiring open flame or welding on the natural-gas-fueled vehicle. During the work, the natural gas, in the vehicle fuel tank shall contain a pressure of not more than 250 psi at 70°F (1724 kPa at 21°C).
For vehicles powered by gaseous fuels, the fuel shutoff valves shall be closed prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system.
Vehicles powered by gaseous fuels in which the fuel system has been damaged shall be inspected and evaluated for fuel system integrity prior to being brought into the repair garage. The inspection shall include testing of the entire fuel delivery system for leakage.
Motor vehicle repair booths shall be installed so that all parts of the booth be provided with ready access for cleaning. A clear area of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) wide shall be maintained on all sides of the motor vehicle repair booth. This clear area shall be kept free of any storage or combustible construction.
- This requirement shall not prohibit locating a motor vehicle repair booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or directly against an interior partition, wall or floor/ceiling assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, provided that the motor vehicle repair booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
- This requirement shall not prohibit locating a motor vehicle repair booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an exterior wall or a roof assembly, provided that the wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible material and the motor vehicle repair booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
Repair garages used for the repair of CNG, LNG, or other lighter-than-air motor fuels other than hydrogen shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The mechanical exhaust ventilation system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and Sections 23126.96.36.199 and 23188.8.131.52.
For indoor locations, air supply inlets and exhaust outlets for mechanical ventilation shall be arranged to provide uniformly distributed air movement with inlets uniformly arranged on walls near floor level and outlets at the high point of the room in walls or the roof.
The exhaust ventilation rate shall be not less than 1 cubic foot per minute (0.03 m3/minute) per 12 cubic feet (34 m3) of room volume.
- Mechanical exhaust ventilation systems that are interlocked with a gas detection system designed in accordance with Sections 2311.8.9 through 23184.108.40.206.
- Mechanical exhaust ventilation systems in repair garages that are used only for repair of vehicles fueled by liquid fuels or odorized gases, such as CNG, where the ventilation system is electrically interlocked with the lighting circuit.
Activation of the gas detection alarm shall result in all of the following:
Areas within 18 inches (450 mm) of a ceiling within a motor vehicle repair room or motor vehicle repair booth shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements for Class I, Division 2 classified locations, as set forth in NFPA 70.
- Rooms with exhaust ventilation of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.3 m3/ min/m2) of floor area, with suction taken from a point within 18 inches (450 mm) of the highest point in the ceiling in repair garages for vehicles that use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG) or other lighter-than-air motor fuels.
- Rooms used for the repair of hydrogen-fueled vehicles that have an approved exhaust ventilation system in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and NFPA 2.