ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 1, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Occupancies containing high hazard contents shall comply with this chapter in addition to other applicable requirements of this Code. [5000:34.1.1.1]
Buildings, and portions thereof, containing high hazard contents limited to any of the following shall not be required to comply with this chapter:
  1. Flammable and combustible liquids associated with application of flammable finishes and complying with Chapter 43.
  2. Flammable and combustible liquids associated with wholesale and retail sales and storage in mercantile occupancies and complying with Chapter 66
  3. Class IIIA and Class IIIB combustible liquid solvents in closed systems employing listed cleaning equipment complying with Chapter 24
  4. Refrigerants and refrigerant oil contained within closed-cycle refrigeration systems complying with Chapter 53 and the building code
  5. Flammable and combustible liquid beverages in liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage
  6. High hazard contents stored or used in farm buildings or similar occupancies for on-premises agricultural use
  7. Corrosive materials in stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power, uninterrupted power supply, or similar purposes, provided that the batteries are provided with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in accordance with Chapter 52
  8. Corrosive materials displayed in original packaging in mercantile occupancies and intended for personal or household use or as building materials
  9. Aerosol products in storage or mercantile occupancies and complying with Chapter 61
  10. Flammable and combustible liquids storage tank buildings meeting the requirements of Chapter 24 of NFPA 30
  11. Flammable and combustible liquids storage tank vaults meeting the requirements of Chapter 25 of NFPA 30
  12. Flammable and combustible liquids process buildings meeting the requirements of Chapter 17 of NFPA 30
  13. Installation of fuel gas distribution systems and associated equipment in accordance with Section 11.4 and Chapter 69

[5000:34.1.1.2]

Storage, use, and handling of hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding maximum allowable quantities permitted in control areas set forth in Section 60.1.3.1 shall be in accordance with Section 60.1 through Section 60.5.
Chapter 60 shall apply in its entirety to all hazardous materials except where Chapters 61 through 73 of this Code specify that only certain sections of this chapter shall apply to a specific material classification category.
Where required by the AHJ, no facility storing hazardous materials listed in 1.1.1 of NFPA 400 shall close or abandon an entire storage facility without notifying the AHJ at least 30 days prior to the scheduled closing. [400:1.9.1]
The AHJ shall be permitted to reduce the 30-day period specified in 60.1.4.1 when there are special circumstances requiring such reduction. [400:1.9.2]
Facilities that are temporarily out of service shall continue to maintain a permit and be monitored and inspected. [400:1.9.3.1]
Facilities for which a permit is not kept current or that are not monitored and inspected on a regular basis shall be deemed to be permanently out of service and shall be closed in accordance with 60.1.4.4.1 through 60.1.4.4.2. [400:1.9.3.2]
Where required by the AHJ, the permit holder or applicant shall submit a closure plan to the fire department to terminate storage, dispensing, handling, or use of hazardous materials at least 30 days prior to facility closure. [400:1.9.4.1]
The plan shall demonstrate that hazardous materials that were stored, dispensed, handled, or used in the facility have been transported, disposed of, or reused in a manner that eliminates the need for further maintenance and any threat to public health and safety. [400:1.9.4.2]
An emergency action plan, consistent with the available equipment and personnel, shall be established to respond to fire and other emergencies in accordance with requirements set forth in this Code. [400:1.10.1]
The facility responsible for an unauthorized release shall activate the emergency action element of the Hazardous Materials Management Plan. [400:1.10.2]
When required by the AHJ, new or existing facilities that store, use, or handle hazardous materials covered by this Code in amounts above the MAQ specified in 60.4.2.1.2 through 60.4.2.1.13 and 5.4.1.2 of NFPA 400 shall submit a hazardous materials management plan (HMMP) to the AHJ. [400:1.11.1]
The HMMP shall be reviewed and updated as follows:
  1. Annually
  2. When the facility is modified
  3. When hazardous materials representing a new hazard category not previously addressed are stored, used, or handled in the facility

[400:1.11.2]

The HMMP shall comply with the requirements of Section 60.5. [400:1.11.3]
When required by the AHJ, a hazardous materials inventory statement (HMIS) shall be completed and submitted to the AHJ. [400:1.12.1]
See 3.3.271.1.
See 3.3.175.4.
See 3.3.271.2.
See 3.3.191.1.1.
See 3.3.191.1.2.
See 3.3.191.1.3.
See 3.3.191.1.4.
See 3.3.191.1.5.
See 3.3.194.
UpCodes note: This section and its subsections reference section 3.3.194 Open System Use. The correct section seems to be 3.3.201 Oxidizer and its subsections.
See 3.3.194.1.
See 3.3.194.2.
See 3.3.194.3.
See 3.3.194.4.
See 3.3.175.13.
See 3.3.175.14.
Materials shall be classified into one or more of the following categories of hazardous materials, based on the definitions found in Chapter 3:
  1. Corrosive solids, liquids, or gases
  2. Flammable solids
  3. Flammable gases
  4. Flammable cryogenic fluids
  5. Inert cryogenic fluids
  6. Inert gases
  7. Organic peroxide formulations
  8. Oxidizer solids or liquids
  9. Oxidizing gases
  10. Oxidizing cryogenic fluids
  11. Pyrophoric solids, liquids, or gases
  12. Toxic or highly toxic solids, liquids, or gases
  13. Unstable (reactive) solids, liquids, or gases
  14. Water-reactive solids or liquids

[400:4.1]

High hazard contents shall include materials defined as hazardous material in Chapter 3, whether stored, used, or handled. [400:4.2.1.1]
High hazard contents shall include those materials defined as hazardous material solids, liquids, or gases limited to the hazard categories specified in 1.1.1 of NFPA 400 and classified in accordance with 60.3.2.1.2.1 through 60.3.2.1.2.4 whether stored, used, or handled. [400:4.2.1.2]
High hazard Level 1 contents shall include materials that present a detonation hazard, including, but not limited to, the following hazard categories:
  1. Class 4 oxidizers
  2. Detonable pyrophoric solids or liquids
  3. Class 3 detonable and Class 4 unstable (reactive) solids, liquids, or gases
  4. Detonable organic peroxides

[400:4.2.1.2.1]

High-hazard Level 2 contents shall include materials that present a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning limited to the following hazard categories:
  1. Combustible dusts stored, used, or generated in a manner creating a severe fire or explosion hazard
  2. Class I organic peroxides
  3. Class 3 solid or liquid oxidizers that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems or in closed containers or systems at gauge pressures of more than 15 psi (103.4 kPa)
  4. Flammable gases
  5. Flammable cryogenic fluids
  6. Nondetonable pyrophoric solids, liquids, or gases
  7. Class 3 nondetonable unstable (reactive) solids, liquids, or gases
  8. Class 3 water-reactive solids and liquids

[400:4.2.1.2.2]

High-hazard Level 3 contents shall include materials that readily support combustion or present a physical hazard limited to the following hazard categories:
  1. Flammable solids, other than dusts classified as high-hazard Level 2, stored, used, or generated in a manner creating a high fire hazard
  2. Class II and Class III organic peroxides
  3. Class 2 solid or liquid oxidizers
  4. Class 3 solid or liquid oxidizers that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems at gauge pressures of less than 15 psi (103.4 kPa)
  5. Class 2 unstable (reactive) materials
  6. Class 2 water-reactive solids, liquids, or gases
  7. Oxidizing gases
  8. Oxidizing cryogenic fluids

[400:4.2.1.2.3]

High-hazard Level 4 contents shall include materials that are acute health hazards limited to the following hazard categories:
  1. Corrosive solids, liquids, or gases
  2. Highly toxic solids, liquids, or gases
  3. Toxic solids, liquids, or gases [400:4.2.1.2.4]
Mixtures shall be classified in accordance with the hazards of the mixture as a whole by an approved, qualified organization, individual, or testing laboratory. [400:4.3]
Hazardous materials that have multiple hazards shall conform to the code requirements for each applicable hazard category. [400:4.4]
Waste comprised of or containing hazardous materials shall be classified in accordance with 60.3.1 through 60.3.4 as applicable. [400:4.5]
Hazardous materials shall be stored and used in any of the following:
  1. In control areas complying with 60.4.2
  2. In occupancies complying with requirements for Protection Level 1, Protection Level 2, Protection Level 3, or Protection Level 4 in accordance with 60.4.3
  3. In outdoor areas complying with 60.4.4

[400:5.1.1]

Weather protection, when provided, shall comply with 6.2.7.2 of NFPA 400. [400:5.1.2]
Occupancies in which high hazard contents are stored, used, or handled shall also comply with Chapter 6 of NFPA 400. [400:5.1.3]
Hazardous materials shall be permitted to be stored and used in control areas in accordance with 60.4.2.1 and 60.4.2.2. [400:5.2.1]
All occupancies shall be permitted to have one or more control areas in accordance with 60.4.2. [400:5.2.1.1.1]
The quantity of hazardous materials in an individual control area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity (MAQ) for the applicable occupancy set forth in 60.4.2.1.2 through 60.4.2.1.13, except as modified by Table 60.4.2.1.1.3. [400:5.2.1.1.2]
For all occupancies not covered by 60.4.2.1.2 through 60.4.2.1.13, the MAQ of hazardous materials per control area shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.1.3. Ammonium nitrate shall also comply with Chapter 11 of NFPA 400. [400:5.2.1.1.3]

Table 60.4.2.1.1.3 Maximum Allowable Quantity (MAQ) of Hazardous Materials per Control Areaa

Material Class High Hazard Protection Level Storage Use — Closed Systems Use — Open Systems
Solid Pounds Liquid Gallons (lb) Gasb scf (lb) Solid Pounds Liquid Gallons (lb) Gasb scf (lb) Solid Pounds Liquid Gallons (lb)
Physical Hazard Materials   See note See note See note See note          
Combustible liquid See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note
Combustible metals See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid [55:Table 6.3.1.1] Flammable 2 N/A 45j,k N/A N/A 45j,k N/A N/A 45j,k
  Oxidizing 3 N/A 45c,d N/A N/A 45c,d N/A N/A 45c,d
  Inert N/A N/A NL N/A N/A NL N/A N/A NL
Explosives See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasl [55:Table 6.3.1.1] Gaseous 2 N/A N/A 1000c,d N/A N/A 1000c,d N/A N/A
  Liquefied 2 N/A N/A (150)c,d N/A N/A (150)c,d N/A N/A
  Liquefied Petroleum (LP) See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note
Flammable liquid IA See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note See note
  IB and IC                  
  Combination (IA, IB, IC)                  
Flammable solid N/A 3 125c,d N/A N/A 125c,d N/A N/A 25c,d N/A
Inert gas Gaseous N/A N/A N/A NL N/A N/A NL N/A N/A
  Liquefied N/A N/A N/A NL N/A N/A NL N/A N/A
Organic peroxide UD 1 1c,i1 (1)c,I N/A 1/4i (1/4)i N/A 1/4i (1/4)i
  I 1 5c,d (5)c,d N/A 1c,d (1)c,d N/A 1c,d (1)c,d
  II 2 50c,d (50)c,d N/A 50d (50)d N/A 10c,d (10)c,d
  III 3 125c,d (125)c,d N/A 125d (125)d N/A 25c,d (25)c,d
  IV N/A NL NL N/A NL NL N/A NL NL
  V N/A NL NL N/A NL NL N/A NL NL
Oxidizer 4 1 1g,l (1)g,l N/A 1/4l (1/4)l N/A 1/4l (1/4)l
  3j 2 or 3 10g,h (10)g,h N/A 2h (2)h N/A 2h (2)h
  2 3 250g,h (250)g,h N/A 250h (250)h N/A 50h (50)h
  1 N/A 4,000g,I (4,000)g,I NA 4,000g (4,000)g N/A 1,000g (1,000)g
Oxidizing gas [55:Table 6.3.1.1] Gaseous 3 N/A N/A 1,500g,h N/A N/A 1,500g,h N/A N/A
  Liquefied 3 N/A   (150)g,h N/A   (150)g,h N/A N/A
Pyrophoric   2 4g,l (4)g,l NA 11 (1)l NA 0 0
Pyrophoric Gas [55:Table 6.3.1.1] Gaseous 2 N/A N/A 50g,l N/A N/A 50g,l N/A N/A
  Liquefied 2 N/A N/A (4)g,l N/A N/A (4)g,l N/A N/A
Unstable Reactive 4 1 1g,l (1)g,l NA 1/4l (1/4)l NA 1/4l (1/4)h
  3 1 or 2 5g,h (5)g,h N/A 1h (1)h N/A 1h (1)h
  2 2 50g,h (50)g,h N/A 50h (50)h N/A 10d (10)d
  1 N/A NL NL N/A NL NL N/A NL NL
Unstable (reactive) Gas [55:Table 6.3.1.1] Gaseous                  
  4 or 3 detonable 1 N/A N/A 10c,i N/A N/A 10c,i N/A N/A
  3 non-detonable 2 N/A N/A 50c,d N/A N/A 50c,d N/A N/A
  2 3 N/A N/A 750c,d N/A N/A 750c,d N/A N/A
  1 N/A N/A N/A NL N/A N/A NL N/A N/A
Unstable (reactive) Gas [55:Table 6.3.1.1] Liquefied                  
  4 or 3 detonable 1 N/A N/A (1)g,l N/A N/A (1)g,l N/A N/A
  3 non-detonable 2 N/A N/A (2)g,h N/A N/A (2)g,h N/A N/A
  2 3 N/A N/A [30]g,h N/A N/A [30]g,h N/A N/A
  1 N/A N/A N/A NL N/A N/A NL N/A N/A
Water (reactive) 3 2 5g,h (5)g,h N/A 5h (5)h N/A 1h (1)h
  2 3 50g,h (50)g,h N/A 50h (50)h N/A 10h (10)h
  1 N/A NL NL N/A NL NL N/A NL NL
Corrosive N/A 4 5,000g,h 500g,h N/A 5,000h 500 N/A 1,000h 100h
Corrosive gas [55:Table 6.3.1.1] Gaseous 4 N/A N/A 810g,h N/A N/A 810g,h N/A N/A
  Liquefied   N/A N/A (150)g,h N/A N/A (150)g,h N/A N/A
Highly toxic N/A 4 10g,h (10)g,h N/A 10h (10)h N/A 3h (3)h
Highly toxic gas [55:Table 6.3.1.1] Gaseous 4 N/A N/A 20h,s N/A N/A 20h,s N/A N/A
  Liquefied   N/A N/A (4)h,s N/A N/A (4)d,g N/A N/A
Toxic N/A 4 500g,h (500)g,h N/A 500h (500)h N/A 125h (125)h
Toxic gas Gaseous 4 N/A N/A 810g,h N/A N/A 810g,h N/A N/A
  Liquefied   N/A N/A (150)g,h N/A N/A (150)g,h N/A N/A

N/A: Not applicable. NL: Not limited. NP: Not permitted. UD: Unclassified detonable.

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 scf = 0.0283 Nm3.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by Chapter 60 or NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aTable values in parentheses correspond to the unit name in parentheses at the top of the column. The aggregate quantity in use and storage is not permitted to exceed the quantity listed for storage.

bMeasured at NTP or 70°F (21°C) and absolute pressure of 14.7 psi (101.3 kPa).

cQuantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent where stored or used in approved cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures, gas rooms explosives magazines, or safety cans, as appropriate for the material stored, in accordance with this code. Where footnote d also applies, the increase for both footnote c and footnote d is permitted to be applied accumulatively.

dMaximum quantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13. Where footnote c also applies, the increase for both footnote c and footnote d is permitted to be applied accumulatively.

eThe permitted quantities are not limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13.

fA maximum quantity of 220 lb (99 kg) of solid or 22 gal (83 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

gAllowed only where stored or used in gas rooms or approved cabinets, exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures, as specified in this Code. [5000: Table 34.1.3.1]

hConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

iPermitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13.

jNone allowed in unsprinklered buildings unless stored or used in gas rooms or in approved gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures, as specified in this Code.

kWith pressure-relief devices for stationary or portable containers vented directly outdoors or to an exhaust hood. [55: Table 6.3.1.1]

lFlammable gases in the fuel tanks of mobile equipment or vehicles are permitted to exceed the MAQ where the equipment is stored and operated in accordance with this Code. [400:Table 5.2.1.1.3]

mThe permitted quantities are not limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13 and designed in accordance with the protection criteria contained in Chapter 16 of NFPA 30.

nContaining not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class I-A, Class I-B, or Class I-C flammable liquids, individually.

oMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that do not exceed a 1.3-gallon capacity. [30:9.1.4(4)]

pAdditional storage locations are required to be separated by a minimum of 300 ft (92 m).

qIn mercantile occupancies, storage of LP-gas is limited to a maximum of 200 lb (91 kg) in nominal 1 lb (0.45 kg) LP-gas containers.

rSee NFPA 58 for liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas) requirements. LP-gas is not within the scope of NFPA 400.

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in assembly occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.2. [400:5.2.1.2]

Table 60.4.2.1.2 Maximum Allowable Quantities (MAQ) of Hazardous Materials per Control Area in Assembly Occupancies

Material Class Solid Liquidk Gasa (at NTP)
Flammable and combustible liquidb,c, See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid Flammable NA 10 gal NA
Oxidizing NA 10 gal NA
Explosivesd,e,f,g See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasc,h Gaseous NP NP NP
Liquefied NP 20 lb NA
Flammable solid NA 5 lb N/A N/A
Oxidizers 4 NP NP NA
3 10 lbi 1 gali NA
2 250 lb 25 gal NA
1 4,000 lb 400 gal NA
Oxidizing gash Gaseous NA NA NP
Liquefied NA NP NA
Organic peroxides I NP NP NA
II NP NP NA
III 1,500 lb 1,500 lb NA
IV 100,000 lb 100,000 lb NA
V NL NL NA
Pyrophoric materials NA 1 lb 1 lb NP
Unstable reactives 4 1/4 lb (1/4) NP
3 1 lb (1) NP
2 10 lb (10) NPh
1 NL NL NP
Water-reactive 3 1 lb 1 lb NA
2 10 lb 10 lb NA
1 NL NL NA
Corrosives NA 1,000 lb 100 gal NP
Highly toxic NA 3 lb 3 lb NPj
Toxic NA 125 lb 125 lb NPj

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure [measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa)]. N/A: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted. NL: Not limited.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by Chapter 60 or NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 of NFPA 400 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aUnlimited amounts of gas are permitted to be used for personal medical or emergency medical use.

bStorage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids is permitted where stored in safety cabinets with an aggregate quantity not to exceed 180 gal (681 L).

cFuel in the tank of operating mobile equipment is permitted to exceed the specified quantity where the equipment is operated in accordance with this Code.

dThe use of explosive materials required by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties is not required to be limited. The storage of explosive materials is required to be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495.

eThe storage and use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary are not required to be limited.

fThe storage and use of propellant-actuated devices or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured, imported, or distributed for their intended purposes are required to be limited to 50 lb (23 kg) net explosive weight.

gThe storage and use of small arms ammunition, and components thereof, are permitted where in accordance with NFPA 495.

hContainers, cylinders, or tanks not exceeding 250 scf (7.1 m3) content measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) and used for maintenance purposes, patient care, or operation of equipment shall be permitted.

iA maximum quantity of 220 lb (99 kg) of solid or 22 gal (83 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

jGas cylinders not exceeding 20 scf (0.57 m3) measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) are permitted in gas cabinets or fume hoods. [5000:Table 34.1.3.2(a)]

kConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

lMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that so not exceed a 1.3-gallon capacity. [30:9.1.4(4)]

[400: Table 5.2.1.2]

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in educational occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.3. [400:5.2.1.3]

Table 60.4.2.1.3 Maximum Allowable Quantities (MAQ) of Hazardous Materials per Control Area in Educational Occupancies

Material Class Solid Liquidm Gasa (at NTP)
Flammable and combustible liquidb,c See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid Flammable N/A 10 N/A
Oxidizing N/A 10 N/A
Explosivesd,e,f,g See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasc,h Gaseous NP NP NP
Liquefied NP 20 N/A
Flammable solid NA 5 lb N/A N/A
Oxidizers 4 NP NP N/A
3 10 lbi 1 gali N/A
2 250 lb 25 gal N/A
1 4,000 lb 400 gal NA
Oxidizing gash Gaseous N/A N/A NP
Liquefied N/A NP N/A
Organic peroxides I NP NP N/A
II NP NP N/A
III 1,500 lb 1,500 lb N/A
IV 100,000 lb 100,000 lb N/A
V NL NL N/A
Pyrophoric materials N/A 1 lb 1 lb NP
Unstable reactives 4 1/4 lb (1/4) NP
3 1 lb (1) NP
2 10 lb (10) NPh
1 NL NL NP
Water-reactive 3 1 lb 1 lb N/A
2 10 lb 10 lb N/A
1 NL NL N/A
Corrosives N/A 1,000 lb 100 gal NP
Highly toxic N/A 3 lb 3 lb NPj
Toxic N/A 125 lb 125 lb NPj

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure [measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa)]. N/A: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted. NL: Not limited.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by Chapter 60 or NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 of NFPA 400 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aUnlimited amounts of gas are permitted to be used for personal medical or emergency medical use.

bStorage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids is permitted where stored in safety cabinets with an aggregate quantity not to exceed 180 gal (681 L).

cFuel in the tank of operating mobile equipment is permitted to exceed the specified quantity where the equipment is operated in accordance with this Code.

dThe use of explosive materials required by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties is not required to be limited. The storage of explosive materials is required to be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495.

eThe storage and use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary are not required to be limited.

fThe storage and use of propellant-actuated devices or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured, imported, or distributed for their intended purposes are required to be limited to 50 lb (23 kg) net explosive weight.

gThe storage and use of small arms ammunition, and components thereof, are permitted where in accordance with NFPA 495.

hContainers, cylinders or tanks not exceeding 250 scf (7.1 m3) content measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) and used for maintenance purposes, patient care, or operation of equipment shall be permitted.

iA maximum quantity of 220 lb (99 kg) or 22 gal (83 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

jThe permitted quantities are not limited in a building protected throughout by automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with NFPA 13.

kStorage in laboratories only; additional 20 lb (9 kg) units are permitted where minimum 20 ft (6.1 m) separation is provided.

lGas cylinders not exceeding 20scf (0.57 m3) measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) are permitted in gas cabinets or fume hoods.

mConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

nStorage shall be permitted to be increased 100% if the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.

oMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that do not exceed 1.3-gallon capacity. [30:9.1.4(4)]

[400: Table 5.2.1.3]

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in day-care occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.4. [400:5.2.1.4]

Table 60.4.2.1.4 Maximum Allowable Quantities (MAQ) of Hazardous Materials per Control Area in Day-Care Occupancies

Material Class Solid Liquidk Gasa (at NTP)
Flammable and combustible liquidb,c,l See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid Flammable N/A 10 gal N/A
Oxidizing N/A 10 gal N/A
Explosivesd,e,f,g See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasc,h Gaseous NP NP NP
Liquefied NP 20 lb (20)
Flammable solid N/A 5 lb N/A N/A
Oxidizers 4 NP NP N/A
3 10 lbi 1 gali N/A
2 250 25 N/A
1 4,000 400 N/A
Oxidizing gash Gaseous N/A N/A NP
Liquefied N/A NP N/A
Organic peroxides I NP NP N/A
II NP NP N/A
III 1,500 1,500 N/A
IV 100,000 lb 100,000 lb N/A
V NL NL N/A
Pyrophoric materials N/A 1 lb 1 lb NP
Unstable reactives 4 1/4 lb 1/4 lb NP
3 1 lb 1 lb NP
2 10 lb 10 lb NPh
1 NL NL NP
Water-reactive 3 1 lb 1 lb N/A
2 10 lb 10 lb N/A
1 NL NL N/A
Corrosives N/A 1,000 lb 100 gal NP
Highly toxic N/A 3 lb 3 lb NPj
Toxic N/A 125 lb 125 lb NPj

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure [measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa)]. N/A: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted. NL: Not limited.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 of NFPA 400 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aUnlimited amounts of gas are permitted to be used for personal medical or emergency medical use.

bStorage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids is permitted where stored in safety cabinets with an aggregate quantity not to exceed 180 gal (681 L).

cFuel in the tank of operating mobile equipment is permitted to exceed the specified quantity where the equipment is operated in accordance with this Code.

dThe use of explosive materials required by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties is not required to be limited. The storage of explosive materials is required to be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495.

eThe storage and use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary are not required to be limited.

fThe storage and use of propellant-actuated devices or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured, imported, or distributed for their intended purposes are required to be limited to 50 lb (23 kg) net explosive weight.

gContainers, cylinders, or tanks not exceeding 250 scf (7.1 m3) content measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa and used for maintenance purposes, patient care, or operation of equipment shall be permitted.

hThe permitted quantities are not limited in a building protected throughout by automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with NFPA 13.

iA maximum quantity of 220 lb (99 kg) of solid or 22 gal (83 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

jGas cylinders not exceeding 20 scf (0.57 m3) measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) are permitted in gas cabinets or fume hoods.

kConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

lStorage shall be permitted to be increased 100% if the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.

mMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that do exceed a 1.3-gallon capacity.

[400: Table 5.2.1.4]

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in health care occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.5. [400:5.2.1.5]

Table 60.4.2.1.5 Maximum Allowable Quantities (MAQ) of Hazardous Materials per Control Area in Health Care Occupancies

Material Class Solid Liquidk Gasa (at NTP)
Flammable and combustible liquidb,c See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid Flammable N/A 10 N/A
  Oxidizing N/A 10 N/A
Explosivesd,e,f See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasc,g Gaseous N/A N/A NP
  Liquefied N/A 20 N/A
Flammable solid N/A 5 lb N/A N/A
Oxidizers 4 NP NP N/A
  3 10 lbh 1 galh N/A
  2 250 lb 25 gal N/A
  1 4,000 lbi 400 gali N/A
Oxidizing gas Gaseous N/A N/A NPh
  Liquefied N/A 15 gal N/A
Organic peroxides I NP NP N/A
  II NP NP N/A
  III 25 lb (1,500) N/A
  IV NL (100,000) N/A
  V NL NL N/A
Pyrophoric materials N/A NP NP NP
Unstable reactives 4 NP NP NP
  3 NP NP NP
  2 10 (10) NPg
  1 NL NL NP
Water-reactive 3 1 lb (1) N/A
  2 10 lb (10) N/A
  1 NL NL N/A
Corrosives N/A 1,000 lb 100 gal NP
Highly toxic N/A 3 lb (3) NPj
Toxic N/A 125 lb (125) NPj

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure [measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa)]. N/A: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted. NL: Not limited.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 of NFPA 400 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aUnlimited amounts of gas are permitted to be used for personal medical or emergency medical use.

bStorage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids is permitted where stored in safety cabinets with an aggregate quantity not to exceed 180 gal (681 L).

cFuel in the tank of operating mobile equipment is permitted to exceed the specified quantity where the equipment is operated in accordance with this code.

dThe use of explosive materials required by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties is not required to be limited. The storage of explosive materials is required to be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495.

eThe storage and use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary are not required to be limited.

fThe storage and use of propellant-actuated devices or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured, imported, or distributed for their intended purposes are required to be limited to 50 lb (23 kg) net explosive weight.

gContainers, cylinders, or tanks not exceeding 250 scf (7.1 m3) content measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) and used for maintenance purposes, patient care, or operation of equipment shall be permitted.

hA maximum quantity of 220 lb (99 kg) of solid or 22 gal (83 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

iThe permitted quantities are not limited in a building protected throughout by automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with NFPA 13.

jGas cylinders not exceeding 20 scf (0.57 m3) measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) are permitted in gas cabinets or fume hoods.

kConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

lStorage shall be permitted to be increased 100% if the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.

mMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that do not exceed a 1.3-gallon capacity. [30:9.1.4(4)]

[400: Table 5.2.1.5]

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in ambulatory health care occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.6. [400:5.2.1.6]

Table 60.4.2.1.6 Maximum Allowable Quantities (MAQ) of Hazardous Materials per Control Area in Ambulatory Health Care Occupanciesa

Material Class Solid Liquidk Gasa (at NTP)
Flammable and combustible liquidb,c See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid Flammable N/A 10 N/A
Oxidizing N/A 10 N/A
Explosivesd,e,f See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasc,g Gaseous N/A N/A NP
Liquefied N/A N/A N/A
Liquefied Petroleum N/A N/A (20)
Flammable solid N/A 5 N/A N/A
Oxidizers 4 NP NP NP
3 10h 1h NP
2 250 25 NP
1 4,000i 400i NP
Oxidizing gas Gaseous N/A N/A NPh
Liquefied N/A N/A NPh
Organic peroxides I NP NP N/A
II NP NP N/A
III 25 (25) N/A
IV NL NL N/A
V NL NL N/A
Pyrophoric materials N/A NP NP NP
Unstable reactives 4 NP NP NP
3 NP NP NP
2 10 (10) NPg
1 NL NL NP
Water-reactive 3 1 (1) N/A
2 10 (10) N/A
1 NL NL N/A
Corrosives N/A 1,000 100 NP
Highly toxic N/A 3 (3) NPj
Toxic N/A 125 (125) NPj

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure [70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa)]. N/A: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted. NL: Not limited.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 of NFPA 400 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aUnlimited amounts of gas are permitted to be used for personal medical or emergency medical use.

bStorage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids is permitted where stored in safety cabinets with an aggregate quantity not to exceed 180 gal (681 L).

cFuel in the tank of operating mobile equipment is permitted to exceed the specified quantity where the equipment is operated in accordance with this Code.

dThe use of explosive materials required by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties is not required to be limited. The storage of explosive materials is required to be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495.

eThe storage and use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary are not required to be limited.

fThe storage and use of propellant-actuated devices or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured, imported, or distributed for their intended purposes are required to be limited to 50 lb (23 kg) net explosive weight.

gContainers, cylinders, or tanks not exceeding 250 scf (7.1 m3) content measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) and used for maintenance purposes, patient care, or operation of equipment shall be permitted.

hA maximum quantity of 220 lb (99 kg) of solid or 22 gal (83 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

iThe permitted quantities are not limited in a building protected throughout by automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with NFPA 13.

jGas cylinders not exceeding 20 scf (0.57 m3) measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) are permitted in gas cabinets or fume hoods.

kConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

lStorage shall be permitted to be increased 100% if the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.

mMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that do exceed a 1.3-gallon capacity. [30:9.1.4.(4)]

[400: Table 5.2.1.6]

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in detention and correctional occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.7. [400:5.2.1.7]

Table 60.4.2.1.7 Maximum Allowable Quantities (MAQ) of Hazardous Materials per Control Area in Detention and Correctional Occupanciesa

Material Class Solid Liquidk Gasa (at NTP)
Flammable and combustible liquidb,c See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid Flammable N/A 10 N/A
  Oxidizing N/A 10 N/A
Explosivesd,e,f,g See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasc,h Gaseous N/A N/A NP
  Liquefied N/A N/A (20)
  Liquefied Petroleum N/A N/A (20)
Flammable solid N/A 5 N/A N/A
Oxidizers 4 NP NP N/A
  3 10i 1i N/A
  2 250 25 N/A
  1 4000 400 N/A
Oxidizing gash Gaseous N/A N/A NP
  Liquefied N/A N/A N/A
Organic peroxides I NP NP N/A
  II NP NP N/A
  III 25 (25) N/A
  IV NL NL N/A
  V NL NL N/A
Pyrophoric materials N/A 1 (1) NP
Unstable reactives 4 1/4 (1/4) NP
  3 1 (1) NP
  2 10 (10) NPh
  1 NL NL NP
Water-reactive 3 1 (1) N/A
  2 10 (10) N/A
  1 NL NL N/A
Corrosives N/A 1,000 100 NP
Highly toxic N/A 3 (3) NPj
Toxic N/A 125 (125) NPj

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure [measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa)]. N/A: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted. NL: Not limited.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by Chapter 60 or NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 of NFPA 400 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aUnlimited amounts of gas are permitted to be used for personal medical or emergency medical use.

bStorage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids is permitted where stored in safety cabinets with an aggregate quantity not to exceed 180 gal (681 L).

cFuel in the tank of operating mobile equipment is permitted to exceed the specified quantity where the equipment is operated in accordance with this Code.

dThe use of explosive materials required by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties is not required to be limited. The storage of explosive materials is required to be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495.

eThe storage and use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary are not required to be limited.

fThe storage and use of propellant-actuated devices or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured, imported, or distributed for their intended purposes are required to be limited to 50 lb (23 kg) net explosive weight.

gThe storage and use of small arms ammunition, and components thereof, are permitted where in accordance with NFPA 495.

hContainers, cylinders, or tanks not exceeding 250 scf (7.1 m3) content measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) and used for maintenance purposes, patient care, or operation of equipment shall be permitted.

iA maximum quantity of 220 lb (99 kg) of solid or 22 gal (83 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

jGas cylinders not exceeding 20 scf (0.57 m3) measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) are permitted in gas cabinets or fume hoods.

kConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

lMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that do not exceed a 1.3-gallon capacity. [30:9.1.4(4)]

[400:Table 5.2.1.7]

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in residential occupancies, including lodging and rooming houses, hotels, dormitories, apartments, and residential board and care facilities, shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.8. [400:5.2.1.8]

Table 60.4.2.1.8 Maximum Allowable Quantities of Hazardous Materials per Control Area in Residential Occupancies Consisting of Lodging and Rooming Houses, Hotels, Dormitories, Apartments, and Residential Board and Care Facilities

Material Class Solid Liquidl Gasa (at NTP)
Flammable and combustible liquidb,c See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid Flammable N/A 10 N/A
Oxidizing N/A 10 N/A
Explosivesd,e,f,g See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasc,h Gaseous N/A N/A NP
Liquefiedj N/A N/A (20)
Liquefied Petroleum N/A N/A (20)
Flammable solid N/A 5 lb N/A N/A
Oxidizers 4 NP NP N/A
3 10i 1i N/A
2 250 25 N/A
1 4000 400 N/A
Oxidizing gash Gaseous N/A N/A NPh
Liquefied N/A NL N/A
Organic peroxides I NP NP N/A
II NP NP N/A
III 25 (25) N/A
IV NL NL N/A
V NL NL N/A
Pyrophoric materials N/A 1 (1) NP
Unstable reactives 4 1/4 (1/4) NP
3 1 (1) NP
2 10 (10) NPh
1 NL NL NP
Water-reactive 3 1 (1) N/A
2 10 (10) N/A
1 NL NL N/A
Corrosives N/A 1000 100 NP
Highly toxic N/A 3 (3) NPk
Toxic N/A 125 (125) NPk

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure [measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa)]. N/A: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted. NL: Not limited.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by Chapter 60 or NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 of NFPA 400 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aUnlimited amounts of gas are permitted to be used for personal medical or emergency medical use.

bStorage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids are permitted where stored in safety cabinets with an aggregate quantity not to exceed 180 gal (681 L).

cFuel in the tank of operating mobile equipment is permitted to exceed the specified quantity where the equipment is operated in accordance with this Code.

dThe use of explosive materials required by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties is not required to be limited. The storage of explosive materials is required to be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495.

eThe storage and use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary are not required to be limited.

fThe storage and use of propellant-actuated devices or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured, imported, or distributed for their intended purposes are required to be limited to 50 lb (23 kg) net explosive weight.

gThe storage and use of small arms ammunition, and components thereof, are permitted where in accordance with NFPA 495.

hContainers, cylinders, or tanks not exceeding 250 scf (7.1 m3) content measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) and used for maintenance purposes, patient care, or operation of equipment shall be permitted.

iA maximum quantity of 220 lb (99 kg) of solid or 22 gal (83 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

jStorage containers are not permitted to exceed 0.325 ft3 (0.0092 m3) capacity.

kGas cylinders not exceeding 20 scf 0.57 m3) measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) are permitted in gas cabinets or fume hoods.

lConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

mMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that do not exceed a 1.3-gallon capacity. [30:9.1.4.(4)]

[400: Table 5.2.1.8]

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in mercantile occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.1.3, with increased quantities permitted where storage or display areas comply with 60.4.2.1.13. [400:5.2.1.9]
The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in business occupancies, other than laboratories, shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.10.1. [400:5.2.1.10.1]

Table 60.4.2.1.10.1 Maximum Allowable Quantities (MAQ) of Hazardous Materials per Control Area in Business Occupancies

Material Class Solid Liquidj Gasa,i (at NTP)
Flammable and combustible liquidb,c See note See note See note See note
Cryogenic fluid Flammable N/A 10 N/A
Oxidizing N/A 10 N/A
Explosivesd,e,f,g See note See note See note See note
Flammable gasc Gaseous N/A N/A 1000
Liquefied N/A N/A (20)
Liquefied Petroleum N/A N/A (20)
Flammable solid N/A 5 N/A N/A
Oxidizers 4 NP NP NP
3 10h 1h NP
2 250 25 NP
1 4000 400 NP
Oxidizing gas Gaseous N/A N/A 1500
Liquefied N/A 15 N/A
Organic peroxides I NP NP N/A
II NP NP N/A
III 1500 (1500) N/A
IV 100,000 (100,000) N/A
V NL NL N/A
Pyrophoric materials N/A 1 (1) 10
Unstable reactives 4 1/4 (1/4) 2
3 1 (1) 10
2 10 (10) 750
1 NL NL NL
Water-reactive 3 1 (1) N/A
2 10 (10) N/A
1 NL NL N/A
Corrosives N/A 1000 100 810
Highly toxici N/A 3 (3) 20
Toxici N/A 125 (125) 810

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 ft3 = 0.0283 m3.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure [measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa)]. N/A: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted. NL: Not limited.

Note: The hazardous material categories and MAQs that are shaded in this table are not regulated by NFPA 400 but are provided here for informational purposes. See Chapter 2 of NFPA 400 for the reference code or standard governing these materials and establishing the MAQs. In accordance with 1.1.1.2 of NFPA 400, materials having multiple hazards that fall within the scope of NFPA 400 shall comply with NFPA 400.

aUnlimited amounts of gas are permitted to be used for personal medical or emergency medical use.

bStorage in excess of 10 gal (38 L) of Class I and Class II liquids combined or 60 gal (227 L) of Class IIIA liquids is permitted where stored in safety cabinets with an aggregate quantity not to exceed 180 gal (681 L).

cFuel in the tank of operating mobile equipment is permitted to exceed the specified quantity where the equipment is operated in accordance with this Code.

dThe use of explosive materials required by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties is not required to be limited. The storage of explosive materials is required to be in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495.

eThe storage and use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary are not required to be limited.

fThe storage and use of propellant-actuated devices or propellant-actuated industrial tools manufactured, imported, or distributed for their intended purposes are required to be limited to 50 lb (23 kg) net explosive weight.

gThe storage and use of small arms ammunition, and components thereof, are permitted where in accordance with NFPA 495.

hA maximum quantity of 200 lb (91 kg) of solid or 20 gal (76 L) of liquid Class 3 oxidizer is permitted where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation, or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage are required to be approved.

iGas cylinders not exceeding 20 scf (0.57 m3) measured at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 psi (101 kPa) are permitted in gas cabinets or fume hoods.

jConversion. Where quantities are indicated in pounds and when the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the AHJ, a conversion factor of 10 lb/gal (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

kMedicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other consumer products that contain not more than 50% by volume water-miscible flammable or combustible liquids, with the remainder of the product consisting of components that do not burn, shall not be limited, where packaged in individual containers that do not exceed a 1.3-gallon capacity. [30:9.1.4(4)]

[400: Table 5.2.1.10.1]

The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in laboratories classified as business occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.1.3. [400:5.2.1.10.2]
The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in industrial occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.1.3, with increased quantities permitted where storage areas comply with 60.4.2.1.13. [400:5.2.1.11]
The MAQ of hazardous materials per control area in storage occupancies shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.1.3, with increased quantities permitted where storage areas comply with 60.4.2.1.13. [400:5.2.1.12]
Where storage in mercantile, industrial, and storage occupancies is in compliance with all of the special controls set forth in 60.4.2.1.13.2, the MAQ of selected hazardous materials shall be permitted to be increased in accordance with 60.4.2.1.13.3. [400:5.2.1.13.1]
Where quantities of hazardous materials are increased in accordance with 60.4.2.1.13.3, such materials shall be stored in accordance with the following limitations:
  1. Storage and display of solids shall not exceed 200 lb/ft2 (976.4 kg/m2) of floor area actually occupied by solid merchandise.
  2. Storage and display of liquids shall not exceed 20 gal/ft2 (76 L/m2) of floor area actually occupied by liquid merchandise.
  3. Storage and display height shall not exceed 6 ft (1.8 m) above the finished floor.
  4. Individual containers less than 5 gal (19 L) or less than 25 lb (11 kg) shall be stored or displayed on pallets, racks, or shelves.
  5. Racks and shelves used for storage or display shall be in accordance with 60.5.1.13.
  6. Containers shall be listed or approved for the intended use.
  7. Individual containers shall not exceed 100 lb (45.4 kg) capacity for solids or a 10 gal (38 L) capacity for liquids.
  8. Incompatible materials shall be separated in accordance with 60.5.1.12.
  9. Except for surfacing, floors shall be of noncombustible construction.
  10. Aisles 4 ft (1.2 m) in width shall be maintained on three sides of the storage or display area.
  11. Hazard identification signs shall be provided in accordance with 60.5.1.8.

[400:5.2.1.13.2]

The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a mercantile, storage, or industrial occupancy shall be permitted to exceed the MAQ specified in Table 60.4.2.1.1.3, without complying with Protection Level 2, Protection Level 3, or Protection Level 4, provided that the quantities comply with Table 60.4.2.1.13.3(a) and Table 60.4.2.1.13.3(b) and that materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the special limitations in 60.4.2.1.13.2. [400:5.2.1.13.3]

Table 60.4.2.1.13.3(a) Maximum Allowable Quantity (MAQ) per Indoor and Outdoor Control Area for Selected Hazard Categories in Mercantile, Storage, and Industrial Occupancies

Hazard Category Maximum Allowable Quantitya,b
Solids Liquids
lb kg gal L
Physical Hazard Materials: Nonflammable and Noncombustible Solids and Liquids
Oxidizers
Class 3 1,350 616 135 511
Class 2 2,250 1,021 225 852
Class 1 18,000c 8,165c 1,800c 6,814c

Note: Maximum quantities for hazard categories not shown are required to be in accordance with Table 60.4.2.1.1.3.

aMaximum quantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 13. Where footnote b also applies, the increase for both footnotes is permitted to be applied.

bMaximum quantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with this Code. Where footnote a also applies, the increase for both footnotes is permitted to be applied.

cQuantities are not limited in buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with NFPA 13. [5000: Table 34.1.3.3.1(a)] [400: Table 5.2.1.13.3(a)]

Table 60.4.2.1.13.3(b) Maximum Allowable Quantity (MAQ) per Indoor and Outdoor Control Area for Selected Hazard Categories in Mercantile and Storage Occupancies

Hazard Category Maximum Allowable Quantitya,b,c
Solids Liquids
lb kg gal L
Physical Hazard Materials: Nonflammable and Noncombustible Solids and Liquids
Unstable (reactive)
Class 3 550 250 55 208
Class 2 1,150 522 115 435
Water-reactive
Class 3 550 250 55 208
Class 2 1,150 522 115 435
Health Hazard Materials: Nonflammable and Noncombustible Solids and Liquids
Corrosive 10,000 4,536 1,000 3,785
Highly toxicd 20 9 2 8
Toxicd 1,000 454 100 378

aMaximum quantities for hazard categories not shown are required to be in accordance with Table 60.4.2.1.1.3.

bMaximum quantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 13. Where footnote b also applies, the increase for both footnotes can be applied.

cMaximum quantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with this Code. Where footnote a also applies, the increase for both footnotes is permitted to be applied. [5000: Table 34.1.3.3.1(b)]

dToxic or highly toxic solids or liquids displayed in original packaging in mercantile or storage occupancies and intended for maintenance, operation of equipment, or sanitation when contained in individual packaging not exceeding 100 lb (45.4 kg) shall be limited to an aggregate of 1200 lb (544.3 kg) or 120 gal (454.2 L). The increases allowed by footnotes a, b, and c shall not apply to highly toxic solids and liquids. [400: Table 5.2.1.13.3(b)]

The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 60.4.2.2.1. [400:5.2.2.1]

Table 60.4.2.2.1 Design and Number of Control Areas

Floor Level Maximum Allowable Quantity per Control Area(%)* Number of Control Areas per Floor Fire Resistance Rating for Fire Barriers† (hr)
Above grade
>9 5.0 1 2
7—9 5.0 2 2
4—6 12.5 2 2
3 50.0 2 1
2 75.0 3 1
1 100.0 4 1
Below grade
1 75. 3 1
2 50. 2 1
Lower than 2 NP NP N/A

NP: Not permitted. N/A: Not applicable.

*Percentages represent the MAQ per control area shown in Table 60.4.2.1.1.3, with all the increases permitted in the footnotes of that table.

†Fire barriers are required to include floors and walls, as necessary, to provide a complete separation from other control areas. [400: Table 5.2.2.1]

Where only one control area is present in a building, no special construction provisions shall be required. [400:5.2.2.2]
Where more than one control area is present in a building, control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers in accordance with Table 60.4.2.2.1. [400:5.2.2.3]
Where the quantity of hazardous materials in storage or use exceeds the MAQ for indoor control areas as set forth in 60.4.2, the occupancy shall comply with the requirements for Protection Level 1, Protection Level 2, Protection Level 3, or Protection Level 4, as required for the material in storage or use as defined in 6.2.2 through 6.2.5 of NFPA 400. [400:5.3.1]
Protection Level 5 shall apply to semiconductor fabrication facilities where required by the building code. [400:5.3.2]
Buildings containing quantities of hazardous materials exceeding the MAQ of high hazard Level 1 contents permitted in control areas shall comply with applicable regulations for Protection Level 1, as set forth in the applicable sections of Chapter 6 and Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400, and the building code. [400:5.3.3.1]
High hazard Level 1 contents shall include materials that present a detonation hazard as defined in 60.3.2.1.2.1. [400:5.3.3.2]
Buildings, and portions thereof, containing quantities of hazardous materials exceeding the MAQ of high-hazard level 2 contents permitted in control areas shall comply with applicable regulations for Protection Level 2, as set forth in the applicable sections of Chapter 6 and Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400, and the building code. [400:5.3.4.1]
High-hazard level 2 contents shall include materials that present a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning as defined in 60.3.2.1.2.2. [400:5.3.4.2]
Buildings, and portions thereof, containing quantities of hazardous materials exceeding the MAQ of high-hazard level 3 contents permitted in control areas shall comply with applicable regulations for Protection Level 3, as set forth in the applicable sections of Chapter 6 and Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400, and the building code. [400:5.3.5.1]
High-hazard level 3 contents shall include materials that readily support combustion or present a physical hazard as defined in 60.3.2.1.2.3. [400:5.3.5.2]
Buildings, and portions thereof, containing quantities of hazardous materials exceeding the MAQ of high-hazard level 4 contents permitted in control areas shall comply with applicable regulations for Protection Level 4, as set forth in the applicable sections of Chapter 6 and Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400, and the building code. [400:5.3.6.1]
High-hazard level 4 contents shall include materials that are acute health hazards as defined in 60.3.2.1.2.4. [400:5.3.6.2]
Buildings required to comply with Protection Level 2 or 3 and containing quantities of high hazard contents exceeding the quantity limits set forth in Table 60.4.3.7 shall be in accordance with 6.2.3.4 or 6.2.4.4 of NFPA 400, as applicable. [400:5.3.7]

Table 60.4.3.7 Detached Buildings Required Where Quantity of Material Exceeds Amount Shown

Gas Hazard Class Quantity of Material
scf Nm3*
Individual bulk hydrogen compressed gas systems N/A N/A 15,000 (425)
Oxidizers 3 1,200 N/A
2 2,000 N/A
Organic peroxides II 25 N/A
III 50 N/A
Unstable (reactive) materials 3, nondetonable 1 2,000 (57)
2 25 10,000 (283)
Water-reactive materials 3 1 N/A
2, deflagrating 25 N/A
Pyrophoric gases N/A 2,000 (57)

For SI units, 1 ton = 0.9 met ton.

N/A: Not applicable.

*See Table 21.2.5 of NFPA 400. [400: Table 5.3.7]

Hazardous materials shall be permitted to be stored or used in outdoor control areas in accordance with 60.4.4.1.2 and 60.4.4.1.3. [400:5.4.1.1.1]
Where storage or use is in an outdoor control area, compliance with the outdoor storage and use requirements in Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400 shall not be required. [400:5.4.1.1.2]
Maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials in an outdoor control area shall be as specified in Table 60.4.2.1.13.3(a) and Table 60.4.2.1.13.3(b) or Table 60.4.4.1.2. [400:5.4.1.2]

Table 60.4.4.1.2 Maximum Allowable Quantities of Hazardous Materials per Outdoor Control Area

Material Class Storage Use — Closed Systems Use — Open Systems
Solid Pounds Liquid Gallons (lb) Gas scf (lb) Solid Pounds Liquid Gallons (lb) Gas scf (lb) Solid Pounds Liquid Gallons (lb)
Physical Hazard Materials
Flammable gas
Gaseous N/A N/A 3000 N/A N/A 1500 N/A N/A
Liquefied N/A N/A (300) N/A N/A (150) N/A N/A
Flammable solid 500 N/A N/A 250 N/A N/A 50 N/A
Organic peroxide Detonable 1 (1) N/A 1/4 (1/4) N/A 1/4 (1/4)
Organic peroxide I 20 20 N/A 10 (10) N/A 2 2
II 200 200 N/A 100 (100) N/A 20 20
III 500 500 N/A 250 (250) N/A 50 50
IV NL NL N/A NL NL N/A NL NL
V NL NL N/A NL NL N/A NL NL
Oxidizer 4 2 (2) N/A 1 (1/4) N/A 1/4 (1/4)
3 40 (40) N/A 20 (2) N/A 2 (2)
2 1000 (1000) N/A 500 (250) N/A 50 (50)
1 NL NL N/A NL NL N/A NL NL
Oxidizing gas
Gaseous N/A N/A 6000 N/A N/A 6000 N/A N/A
Liquefied N/A N/A (600) N/A N/A (300) N/A N/A
Pyrophoric 8 (8) 100 4 (4) 10 0 0
Unstable (Reactive) 4 2 (2) 20 1 (1) 2 1/4 (1/4)
3 20 (20) 200 10 (10) 10 1 (1)
2 200 (200) 1000 100 (100) 250 10 (10)
1 NL NL 1500 NL NL NL NL NL
Water-reactive 3 20 (20) N/A 10 (10) N/A 1 (1)
2 200 (200) N/A 100 (100) N/A 10 (10)
1 NL NL N/A NL NL N/A NL NL
Health Hazard Materials
Corrosive 20,000 2000 N/A 10,000 1000 N/A 1000 100
Corrosive gas
Gaseous N/A N/A 1620 N/A N/A 810 N/A N/A
Liquefied N/A N/A (300) N/A N/A (150) N/A N/A
Highly toxic 20 (20) N/A 10 (10) N/A 3 (3)
Highly toxic gas
Gaseous N/A N/A 40* N/A N/A 20* N/A N/A
Liquefied N/A N/A (8)* N/A N/A (4)* N/A N/A
Toxic 1000 (1000) N/A 500 50 N/A 125 (125)
Toxic gas
Gaseous N/A N/A 1620 N/A N/A 810 N/A N/A
Liquefied N/A N/A (300) N/A N/A (150) N/A N/A

For SI units, 1 lb = 0.454 kg; 1 gal = 3.785 L; 1 scf = 0.0283Nm3.

N/A: Not applicable. NL: Not limited.

Notes:

(1) Table values in parentheses correspond to the unit name in parentheses at the top of the column.

(2) For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10.

(3) The aggregate quantities in storage and use cannot exceed the quantity listed for storage.

(4) The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is permitted to exceed the MAQ where such storage is in accordance with 60.4.2.1.13.3.

*Permitted only where stored or used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures, or fume hoods. [400: Table 5.4.1.2]

A single outdoor control area shall be permitted on any property. [400:5.4.1.3.1]
Where a property exceeds 10,000 ft2 (929 m2), a group of two outdoor control areas shall be permitted where approved and where each control area is separated by a minimum distance of 50 ft (15 m). [400:5.4.1.3.2]
Where a property exceeds 35,000 ft2 (3252 m2), additional groups of outdoor control areas shall be permitted where approved, provided that each group is separated by a minimum distance of 300 ft (91 m). [400:5.4.1.3.3]
Where the quantity of hazardous materials in outdoor storage or use exceeds the MAQ for outdoor control areas as set forth in Table 60.4.4.1.2, the outdoor area shall comply with the applicable outdoor requirements of Chapter 6 and Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400. [400:5.4.2]
Storage, use, and handling of hazardous materials in any quantity shall comply with 60.5.1. [400:6.1.1]
Storage of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity set forth in Section 60.4 and the applicable material specific requirements in Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400. [400:6.1.1.1]
The use, dispensing, and handling of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity (MAQ) set forth in Section 60.4 shall comply with Section 6.3 of NFPA 400 and the applicable material specific requirements in Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400. [400:6.1.1.2]
Safety data sheets (SDS) shall be available on the premises for hazardous materials regulated by this code. When approved, SDSs shall be permitted to be retrievable by electronic access. [400:6.1.2]
Hazardous materials shall not be released into a sewer, storm drain, ditch, drainage canal, lake, river, or tidal waterway; upon the ground, a sidewalk, a street, or a highway; or into the atmosphere, unless such release is permitted by the following:
  1. Federal, state, or local governing regulations
  2. Permits of the jurisdictional air quality management board
  3. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit
  4. Waste discharge requirements established by the jurisdictional water quality control board
  5. Sewer pretreatment requirements for publicly or privately owned treatment works

[400:6.1.3.1]

Provisions shall be made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized releases. [400:6.1.3.2]
Accurate records of the unauthorized release of hazardous materials shall be kept by the permittee. [400:6.1.3.3]
The fire department shall be notified immediately or in accordance with approved emergency procedures when an unauthorized release becomes reportable under state, federal, or local regulations. [400:6.1.3.4]
When an unauthorized release due to primary container failure is discovered, the involved primary container shall be repaired or removed from service. [400:6.1.3.5]
Overpack containers shall be permitted to be used as a means to provide protection for primary containers to be transported for repair or removal from service. [400:6.1.3.6]
The person, firm, or corporation responsible for an unauthorized release shall institute and complete all actions necessary to remedy the effects of such unauthorized release, whether sudden or gradual, at no cost to the AHJ. [400:6.1.3.7.1]
When deemed necessary by the AHJ, cleanup of an unauthorized release shall be permitted to be initiated by the fire department or by an authorized individual or firm, and costs associated with such cleanup shall be borne by the owner, operator, or other person responsible for the unauthorized release. [400:6.1.3.7.2]
Persons in areas where hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled, or used shall be trained in the hazards of the materials employed and actions required by the emergency plan. The level of training to be conducted shall be consistent with the responsibilities of the persons to be trained in accordance with 60.5.1.4.1 through 60.5.1.4.5. [400:6.1.4]
The training provided for persons designated in 60.5.1.4 shall include awareness training in accordance with 60.5.1.4.1.1 through 60.5.1.4.1.3. [400:6.1.4.1]
Initial training shall be completed prior to beginning work in the work area. [400:6.1.4.1.1]
Training shall be provided prior to beginning work in the work area to enable personnel to recognize and identify hazardous materials stored, dispensed, handled, or used on site and where to find safety information pertaining to the hazards of the materials employed. [400:6.1.4.1.2]
Training shall be provided prior to beginning work in the work area to enable personnel to implement the emergency plan. [400:6.1.4.1.3]
Persons engaged in storing, using, or handling hazardous materials shall be designated as operations personnel and shall be trained in accordance with 60.5.1.4.1 and 60.5.1.4.2.1 through 60.5.1.4.2.6. [400:6.1.4.2]
Operations personnel shall be trained in the chemical nature of the materials, including their physical hazards and the symptoms of acute or chronic exposure as provided by the safety data sheet (SDS) furnished by the manufacturer or other authoritative sources. [400:6.1.4.2.1]
Operations personnel shall be trained in the use of specific safeguards applicable to the dispensing, processing, or use of the materials and equipment employed. [400:6.1.4.2.2]
Operations personnel shall be trained in the application of storage arrangements and site-specific limitations on storage for the materials employed. [400:6.1.4.2.3]
Operations personnel involved in materials handling shall be trained in the requirements for on-site transport of the materials employed. [400:6.1.4.2.4]
Operations personnel shall be trained in the necessary actions to take in the event of an emergency, including the operation and activation of emergency controls prior to evacuation. [400:6.1.4.2.5]
Training shall be provided whenever a new hazardous material is introduced into the work area that presents a new physical or health hazard, or when new information is obtained pertaining to physical or health hazards of an existing hazardous material that has not been included in previous training, and when there are changes in any of the following:
  1. Equipment
  2. Operations
  3. Hazardous materials

[400:6.1.4.2.6]

Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be emergency response (ER) liaison personnel. [400:6.1.4.3.1]
Emergency response liaison personnel shall do the following:
  1. Aid emergency responders in pre-planning responses to emergencies
  2. Identify locations where hazardous materials are located
  3. Have access to material safety data sheets
  4. Be knowledgeable in the site emergency response procedures

[400:6.1.4.3.2]

Emergency responders shall be trained to be competent in the actions to be taken in an emergency event. [400:6.1.4.4]
Persons acting as ER team leaders shall be trained under the Incident Command System concept or equivalent. [400:6.1.4.4.1]
Responses to incidental releases of hazardous materials where the material can be absorbed, neutralized, or otherwise controlled at the time of release by employees in the immediate release area, or by maintenance personnel, shall not be considered emergency responses as defined within the scope of this Code. [400:6.1.4.4.2]
When an onsite emergency response team is provided, emergency responders shall be trained in accordance with the requirements of the specific site emergency plan or as required by federal, state, or local governmental agencies. [400:6.1.4.4.3]
Training required by federal, state, or local regulations that is required based on the quantity or type of hazardous materials stored, dispensed, handled, or used shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of and under the jurisdiction of the governing agency. [400:6.1.4.5]
Training shall be documented and the documentation made available to the AHJ upon written request. [400:6.1.4.6]
Smoking shall be prohibited in the following locations:
  1. Within 25 ft (7.6 m) of outdoor storage areas, dispensing areas, or open use areas
  2. In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are stored or dispensed or used in open systems in amounts requiring a permit in accordance with Section 1.8 of NFPA 400

[400:6.1.5.1]

Open flames and high-temperature devices shall not be used in a manner that creates a hazardous condition. [400:6.1.5.2]
Energy-consuming equipment with the potential to serve as a source of ignition shall be listed or approved for use with the hazardous materials stored or used. [400:6.1.5.3]
Powered industrial trucks shall be operated and maintained in accordance with NFPA 505. [400:6.1.5.3.1]
Processes, methods, specifications, equipment testing and maintenance, design standards, performance, installation, equipment design and construction, and other pertinent criteria shall be in accordance with this section. [400:6.1.6]
Containers, cylinders, and tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with approved standards. Containers, cylinders, tanks, and other means used for containment of hazardous materials shall be of an approved type. [400:6.1.6.1]
Piping, tubing, valves, fittings, and related components used for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the following:
  1. Piping, tubing, valves, fittings, and related components shall be designed and fabricated from materials compatible with the material to be contained and shall be of a strength and durability to withstand the pressure, structural and seismic stress, and exposure to which they are subject.
  2. Piping and tubing shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1, Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, to indicate the material conveyed.
  3. Accessible manual valves, or fail-safe emergency shutoff valves operated by a remotely located manually or automatically activated shutdown control, shall be installed on supply piping and tubing at the following locations:
    1. Point of use
    2. Tank or bulk source
  4. Manual emergency shutoff valves and remotely located manually activated shutdown controls for emergency shutoff valves shall be identified, and the location shall be clearly visible, accessible, and indicated by means of a sign.
  5. Backflow prevention or check valves shall be provided when the backflow of hazardous materials could create a hazardous condition or cause the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials.
  6. Liquids classified in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be carried in pressurized piping above a gauge pressure of 15 psi (103 kPa) having a hazard ranking as follows:
    1. Health hazard Class 3 or Class 4
    2. Flammability Class 4
    3. Instability Class 3 or Class 4
  7. The pressurized piping specified in 60.5.1.6.2(6) shall be provided with an approved means of leak detection and emergency shutoff or excess flow control in accordance with the following:
    1. Where the piping originates from within a hazardous material storage room or area, the excess flow control shall be located within the storage room or area.
    2. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located at the bulk source.
    3. Piping for inlet connections designed to prevent backflow shall not be required to be equipped with excess flow control.

    [400:6.1.6.2]

Supply piping and tubing for liquids or solids having a health hazard ranking of Class 3 or Class 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3, Process Piping, and the following:
  1. Piping and tubing utilized for the transmission of highly toxic, toxic, or highly volatile corrosive liquids shall have welded, threaded, or flanged connections throughout, except for connections located within a ventilated enclosure, or an approved method of drainage or containment.
  2. Piping and tubing shall not be located within corridors, within any portion of a means of egress required to be enclosed in fire resistance-rated construction, or in concealed spaces in areas not classified as Protection Level 1 through Protection Level 4 occupancies.

[400:6.1.6.3]

Equipment, machinery, and required detection and alarm systems associated with the use, storage, or handling of hazardous materials shall be listed or approved. [400:6.1.6.4]
Empty containers and tanks previously used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be free from residual material and vapor as defined by DOT, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), or other regulating authority or shall be maintained as specified for the storage of hazardous material. [400:6.1.7]
Signs shall be durable, and the size, color, and lettering of signs shall be in accordance with nationally recognized standards. [400:6.1.8.1.1]
Signs shall be in English as the primary language or in symbols permitted by this Code. [400:6.1.8.1.2]
Signs shall meet the following criteria:
  1. They shall not be obscured.
  2. They shall be maintained in a legible condition.
  3. They shall not be removed, unless for replacement.

[400:6.1.8.1.3]

Visible hazard identification signs in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be placed at the following locations, except where the AHJ has received a hazardous materials management plan and a hazardous materials inventory statement in accordance with 60.1.6 and 60.1.7 and has determined that omission of such signs is consistent with safety:
  1. On stationary aboveground tanks
  2. On stationary aboveground containers
  3. At entrances to locations where hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, used, or handled in quantities requiring a permit
  4. At other entrances and locations designated by the AHJ

[400:6.1.8.2.1]

Individual containers, cartons, or packages shall be conspicuously marked or labeled in accordance with nationally recognized standards. [400:6.1.8.2.2]
Where "no smoking" is not applicable to an entire site or building, signs shall be provided as follows:
  1. In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are stored or dispensed or used in open systems in amounts requiring a permit in accordance with Section 1.8 of NFPA 400
  2. Within 25 ft (7.6 m) of outdoor storage, dispensing, or open-use areas

[400:6.1.8.3]

Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect the following where subject to vehicular damage:
  1. Storage tanks and connected piping, valves, and fittings
  2. Storage areas containing tanks or portable containers except where the exposing vehicles are powered industrial trucks used for transporting the hazardous materials
  3. Use areas

[400:6.1.9.1]

Where guard posts are installed, the posts shall meet the following criteria:
  1. They shall be constructed of steel not less than 4 in. (102 mm) in diameter and concrete filled.
  2. They shall be spaced not more than 4 ft (1.2 m) between posts on center.
  3. They shall be set not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) deep in a concrete footing of not less than a 15 in. (381 mm) diameter.
  4. They shall be set with the top of the posts not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) above ground.
  5. They shall be located not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) from the tank.

[400:6.1.9.2]

Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed in accordance with Section 11.1. [400:6.1.10.1]
When processes or use conditions exist where flammable gases, dusts, or vapors can be ignited by static electricity, means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of a static charge and to dissipate the static charge to ground. [400:6.1.10.2]
Materials that are sensitive to light shall be stored in containers designed to protect them from such exposure. [400:6.1.11]
Incompatible materials in storage and storage of materials incompatible with materials in use shall be separated when the stored materials are in containers having a capacity of more than 5 lb (2.268 kg) or 1/2 gal (1.89 L). [400:6.1.12.1]
Separation shall be accomplished by one of the following methods:
  1. Segregating incompatible materials storage by a distance of not less than 20 ft (6.1 m)
  2. Isolating incompatible materials storage by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 in. (457 mm) above and to the sides of the stored material or by a noncombustible partition that interrupts the line of sight between the incompatible materials
  3. Storing liquid and solid materials in hazardous materials storage cabinets complying with 60.5.1.18
  4. Storing compressed gases in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures complying with Chapter 21 of NFPA 400

[400:6.1.12.2]

Materials that are incompatible shall not be stored within the same cabinet or enclosure. [400:6.1.12.3]
The storage arrangement of materials shall be in accordance with this chapter and the material specific requirements of Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400 as applicable. [400:6.1.13.1]
Shelving shall be constructed to carry the design loads and shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the applicable building code. [400:6.1.13.2]
Shelving shall be treated, coated, or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. [400:6.1.13.2.1.1]
Shelves shall be provided with a lip or guard where used for the storage of individual containers, except under either of the following conditions:
  1. Where storage is located in hazardous materials storage cabinets or laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use
  2. Where amounts of hazardous materials in storage do not exceed the quantity threshold for requiring a permit in accordance with Section 1.8 of NFPA 400

[400:6.1.13.2.1.2]

Shelf storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in an orderly manner. [400:6.1.13.2.2]
Machinery and equipment utilizing hazardous materials in areas subject to seismic activity shall be seismically anchored in accordance with the building code. [400:6.1.14]
Materials that are shock sensitive shall be padded, suspended, or otherwise protected against accidental dislodgement and dislodgement during seismic activity. [400:6.1.14.1]
Outdoor storage and use areas for hazardous materials shall comply with the following:
  1. Outdoor storage and use areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, and common combustible materials not necessary to the storage or use of hazardous materials.
  2. The area surrounding an outdoor storage and use area shall be kept clear of weeds, debris, and common combustible materials not necessary to the storage or use of hazardous materials for a minimum distance of 15 ft (4.5 m).
  3. Outdoor storage and use areas for hazardous materials shall be located not closer than 20 ft (6.1 m) from a property line that can be built upon, a street, an alley, or a public way, except that a 2-hour fire barrier wall, without openings and extending not less than 30 in. (762 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area, shall be permitted in lieu of such distance.

[400:6.1.15]

Equipment, machinery, and required detection and alarm systems associated with hazardous materials shall be maintained in an operable condition. [400:6.1.16.1]
Stationary tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be safeguarded or removed in an approved manner. [400:6.1.16.2]
The tanks specified in 60.5.1.16.2 shall have the fill line, gauge opening, and pump connection secured against tampering. [400:6.1.16.2.1]
Vent lines shall be maintained. [400:6.1.16.2.2]
Tanks that are to be placed back in service shall be tested in an approved manner. [400:6.1.16.2.3]
The following shall apply to defective containers, cylinders, and tanks:
  1. They shall be removed from service, repaired, or disposed of in an approved manner.
  2. Overpack containers shall be permitted to be used as a means to provide protection for primary containers that are transported for repair or removal from service.

[400:6.1.16.3]

Defective equipment or machinery shall be removed from service and repaired or replaced. [400:6.1.16.4]
Required detection and alarm systems that are defective shall be replaced or repaired. [400:6.1.16.5]
The equipment, devices, and systems listed in 60.5.1.17.2.1 shall be tested at one of the intervals listed in 60.5.1.17.2.2. Written records of the tests conducted or maintenance performed shall be maintained. [400:6.1.17.1]
Testing shall not be required under the following conditions:
  1. Where approved written documentation is provided that testing will damage the equipment, device, or system and the equipment, device, or system is maintained as specified by the manufacturer
  2. Where equipment, devices, and systems fail in a fail-safe manner
  3. Where equipment, devices, and systems self-diagnose and report trouble, with records of the self-diagnosis and trouble reporting made available to the AHJ
  4. Where system activation occurs during the required test cycle for the components activated during the test cycle
  5. Where approved maintenance in accordance with 60.5.1.16.1 is performed not less than annually or in accordance with an approved schedule, in which case the testing requirements set forth in 60.5.1.17.2.1 and 60.5.1.17.2.2 are permitted to apply.

[400:6.1.17.2]

The following equipment, devices, and systems shall be tested in accordance with 60.5.1.17 and 60.5.1.17.2.2:
  1. Limit control systems for liquid level, temperature, and pressure required by 6.2.1.7 of NFPA 400
  2. Monitoring and supervisory systems required by 6.2.1.1 of NFPA 400

[400:6.1.17.2.1]

The equipment, systems, and devices listed in 60.5.1.17.2.1 shall be tested at one of the following frequencies:
  1. Not less than annually
  2. In accordance with the approved manufacturer's requirements
  3. In accordance with approved recognized industry standards
  4. In accordance with an approved schedule

[400:6.1.17.2.2]

When storage cabinets are used to increase maximum allowable quantities per control area or to otherwise comply with a specific provision in Section 60.5, such cabinets shall be in accordance with the following:
  1. Cabinets shall be constructed of metal.
  2. The interior of cabinets shall be treated, coated, or constructed of materials that are nonreactive with the hazardous material stored, and such treatment, coating, or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet.
  3. Cabinets shall be either listed as suitable for the intended storage or constructed in accordance with the following:
    1. Cabinets shall be of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.044 in. (1.12 mm) (18 gauge).
    2. The cabinet, including the door, shall be double-walled with 11/2 in. (38.1 mm) airspace between the walls.
    3. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight-fitting.
    4. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing, and equipped with a self-latching device.
    5. The bottoms of cabinets utilized for the storage of liquids shall be liquidtight to a minimum height of 2 in. (51 mm).
    6. For requirements regarding electrical equipment and devices within cabinets used for the storage of hazardous liquids, compressed gases, or cryogenic fluids, see NFPA 70.
  4. Cabinets shall be marked in conspicuous lettering that reads as follows: HAZARDOUS — KEEP FIRE AWAY

[400:6.1.18]

Installation of tanks shall be in accordance with 60.5.1.19.1 through 60.5.1.19.2. [400:6.1.19]
Underground tanks used for the storage of liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with secondary containment. [400:6.1.19.1.1]
In lieu of providing secondary containment for an underground tank, an aboveground tank in an underground vault complying with NFPA 30 shall be permitted. [400:6.1.19.1.2]
Aboveground stationary tanks installed outdoors and used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be located and protected in accordance with the requirements for outdoor storage of the particular material involved and in accordance with the requirements of Chapters 11 through 21 of NFPA 400. [400:6.1.19.2]
Aboveground tanks that are installed in vaults complying with NFPA 30 shall not be required to comply with location and protection requirements for outdoor storage. [400:6.1.19.2.1]
Aboveground tanks that are installed inside buildings and used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be located and protected in accordance with the requirements for indoor storage of the particular material involved. [400:6.1.19.2.2]
Aboveground stationary tanks shall be marked as required by 60.5.1.8.2.1. [400:6.1.19.2.3]
When required, fire alarm systems and smoke detection systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72. [400:6.1.20]
Where permitted by Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101 alcohol-based hand-rub dispensers shall be permitted provided they meet all of the following criteria:
  1. The maximum individual dispenser fluid capacity shall be as follows:
    1. 0.32 gal (1.2 L) for dispensers in corridors and areas open to corridors
    2. 0.53 gal (2.0 L) for dispensers in rooms or suites of rooms separated from corridors
  2. Where aerosol containers are used, the maximum capacity of the aerosol dispenser shall be 18 oz. (0.51 kg) and shall be limited to Level 1 aerosols as defined in NFPA 30B.
  3. Dispensers shall be separated from each other by horizontal spacing of not less than 48 in. (1220 mm).
  4. Not more than an aggregate 10 gal (37.8 L) of alcohol-based hand-rub solution or 1135 oz (32.2 kg) of Level 1 aerosols, or a combination of liquids and Level 1 aerosols not to exceed, in total, the equivalent of 10 gal (37.8 L) or 1135 oz (32.2 kg,) shall be in use outside of a storage cabinet in a single smoke compartment or fire compartment or story, whichever is less in area. One dispenser complying with 60.5.2(1) per room and located in that room shall not be included in the aggregated quantity.
  5. Storage of quantities greater than 5 gal (18.9 L) in a single smoke compartment or fire compartment or story, whichever is less in area, shall meet the requirements of NFPA 30.
  6. Dispensers shall not be installed in the following locations:
    1. Above an ignition source for a horizontal distance of 1 in. (25 mm) to each side of the ignition source
    2. To the side of an ignition source within a 1 in. (25 mm) horizontal distance from the ignition source
    3. Beneath an ignition source within a 1 in. (25 mm) vertical distance from the ignition source
  7. Dispensers installed directly over carpeted floors shall be permitted only in sprinklered areas of the building.
  8. The alcohol-based hand-rub solution shall not exceed 95 percent alcohol content by volume.
  9. Operation of the dispenser shall comply with the following criteria:
    1. The dispenser shall not release its contents except when the dispenser is activated, either manually or automatically by touch-free activation.
    2. Any activation of the dispenser shall only occur when an object is placed within 4 in. (100 mm) of the sensing device.
    3. An object placed within the activation zone and left in place shall not cause more than one activation.
    4. The dispenser shall not dispense more solution than the amount required for hand hygiene consistent with label instructions.
    5. The dispenser shall be designed, constructed, and operated in a manner that ensures accidental or malicious activation of the dispensing device is minimized.
    6. The dispenser shall be tested in accordance with the manufacturer's care and use instructions each time a new refill is installed.

    [101:8.7.3.3]

Emergency planning, fire risk control, and chemical hazard requirements associated with industrial processes where the quantities of materials in use require compliance with Protection Level 1, Protection Level 2, Protection Level 3, or Protection Level 4 based on materials exceeding the maximum allowable quantities (MAQ) in the following categories shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 7 of NFPA 400:
  1. Unpackaged organic peroxide formulations that are capable of explosive decomposition in their unpackaged state
  2. Oxidizer Class 3 and Class 4: solids and liquids
  3. Pyrophoric solids, liquids, and gases
  4. Unstable reactive Class 3 and Class 4: solids, liquids, and gases
  5. Highly toxic solids, liquids, and gases
  6. Water-reactive liquids, Class 3
In lieu of complying with Chapter 60 in its entirety, occupancies containing high hazard Level 1 to high hazard Level 5 contents shall be permitted to comply with Chapter 10 of NFPA 400.
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