Chapter 42 shall apply to refueling of automotive vehicles, marine vessels, and aircraft.
Fueling processes at automotive service stations, service stations located inside buildings, and fleet vehicle service stations shall comply with NFPA 30A and Sections 42.2 through 42.8.
Sections 42.2 through 42.8 shall not apply to those motor fuel dispensing facilities where only liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas), liquefied natural gas (LNG), or compressed natural gas (CNG) is dispensed as motor fuel. [30A:1.1.3]
Plans and specifications shall be submitted for review and approval prior to the installation or construction of a motor vehicle fuel dispensing station.
A site plan shall be submitted that illustrates the location of flammable and combustible liquids, LP-Gas or CNG storage vessels, and their spatial relation to each other, property lines, and building openings.
Aboveground and underground storage vessels shall be shown on plans.
For each type of fuel dispensing facility, plans and specifications shall also include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Type and design of underground and aboveground liquid storage tanks
- Quantity and types of liquids to be stored
- Location and design of the fuel dispensers and dispenser nozzles
- Distances from dispensers to tanks, property lines, and buildings
- Vehicle access
- Fire appliances
- Vehicle impact protection
- Method of storage and dispensing
- Overfill prevention
- Spill containment
- Vapor recovery
- Other equipment and accessories
- Seismic design in accordance with the building code
- Secondary containment
- Design and specifications for related piping, valves, and fittings
- Location and classification of electrical equipment, including emergency fuel shutdown devices
- Specifications for fuel storage and venting components
- Other information as required by the AHJ
Section 42.3 shall apply to the storage of liquid fuels and to the storage of related materials, such as lubricating oils and greases, cleaning solvents, and windshield washer solvents. [30A:4.1]
Liquids shall be stored in the following:
- Approved closed containers that do not exceed 60 gal (227 L) capacity and are located outside buildings
- Tanks or approved closed containers located inside motor fuel dispensing facilities or repair garages
- Aboveground tanks, underground tanks, and containers in accordance with the requirements of 42.3.3
- Tanks supplying marine service stations in accordance with 42.9.2.
A motor fuel dispensing facility located at a bulk plant shall be separated from areas in which bulk plant operations are conducted by a fence or other approved barrier. Dispensing devices at the motor fuel dispensing facility shall not be supplied by aboveground tanks located in the bulk plant. Storage tanks at motor fuel dispensing facilities shall not be connected by piping to aboveground tanks located in the bulk plant. [30A:4.2.2]
Class I liquids shall not be stored or handled in a building that has a basement or pit into which ignitible vapors can travel, unless the basement or pit is provided with ventilation that will prevent the accumulation of vapors. The ventilation system shall be capable of providing at least 1 ft3/min of exhaust per ft2 of floor area (0.3 m3/min/m2), but not less than 150 ft3/min (4 m3/min). [30A:4.2.3]
Where tanks are at an elevation that produces a gravity head on the dispensing device, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a device, such as a normally closed solenoid valve, positioned adjacent to and downstream from the valve specified in 22.13.1 of NFPA 30 that is installed and adjusted so that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank if the piping or hose fails when the dispenser is not in use. [30A:4.2.4]
Underground storage tanks shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapters 21 and 23 of NFPA 30. [30A:4.3.1]
Except as modified by the provisions of this subsection, aboveground storage tanks shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapters 21 and 22 of NFPA 30. [30A:4.3.2]
The use of aboveground storage tanks at motor fuel dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facilities, and marine motor fuel dispensing facilities shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the requirements of this subsection and with all applicable requirements of Chapters 21, 22, and 27 of NFPA 30 and, for tanks other than tanks in vaults, when the specific installation has been approved by the AHJ. [30A:126.96.36.199]
Tanks storing liquid motor fuels at an individual site shall be limited to a maximum individual capacity of 12,000 gal (45,400 L) and aggregate capacity of 48,000 gal (181,700 L) unless such tanks are installed in vaults complying with 188.8.131.52, in which case the maximum individual capacity shall be permitted to be 15,000 gal (57,000 L). [30A:184.108.40.206]
Tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 220.127.116.11.4. [30A:18.104.22.168]
The maximum individual tank capacity of 12,000 gal (45,400 L), where indicated in Table 22.214.171.124.4, shall be permitted to be increased to 20,000 gal (75,700 L) for Class II and Class III liquids at a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility and an aggregate capacity of 80,000 gal (304,000 L). [30A:126.96.36.199]
At fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facilities, no minimum separation shall be required between the dispensing device and a tank in a vault, a protected aboveground tank, or a fire-resistant tank. [30A:188.8.131.52]
The provisions of this subsection shall not prohibit the dispensing of liquid motor fuels in the open from a fuel dispensing system supplied by an existing aboveground tank, not to exceed 6000 gal (22,710 L), located at commercial, industrial, government, or manufacturing establishments, and intended for fueling vehicles used in connection with their business. Such dispensing shall be permitted provided the following conditions are met:
- An inspection of the premises and operations has been made and approval has been granted by the AHJ.
- The tank is safeguarded against collision, spillage, and overfill to the satisfaction of the AHJ.
- The tank system is listed or approved for such aboveground use.
- The tank complies with requirements for emergency relief venting, the tank and dispensing system meet the electrical classification requirements of NFPA 30A, and the tank complies with the provisions of 184.108.40.206.
- The tank storage complies with Chapter 22 of NFPA 30.
Aboveground tanks shall be provided with spill control that meets the requirements of 220.127.116.11 and 66.22.11. Tank fill connections shall be provided with a noncombustible spill containment device.
Paragraph 18.104.22.168 shall apply to installation of aboveground tanks in vaults and design and installation of such vaults. [30A:22.214.171.124]
Aboveground tanks shall be permitted to be installed in vaults that meet the requirements of 126.96.36.199. Except as modified by the provisions of 188.8.131.52, vaults shall meet all other applicable provisions of NFPA 30A. Vaults shall be constructed and listed in accordance with UL 2245, Standard for Below-Grade Vaults for Flammable Liquid Storage Tanks. Vaults shall be permitted to be either above or below grade. [30A:184.108.40.206]
Vaults shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 220.127.116.11.3.1.1 through 18.104.22.168.3.1.4. [30:25.5.1]
The top of an abovegrade vault that contains a tank storing Class I liquid or Class II or Class III liquid stored at a temperature above its flash point shall be constructed of noncombustible material and shall be designed to be weaker than the walls of the vault to ensure that the thrust of any explosion occurring inside the vault is directed upward before destructive internal pressure develops within the vault. [30A:22.214.171.124.1.1]
Adjacent vaults shall be permitted to share a common wall. [30:126.96.36.199]
Storage tank vaults shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of 188.8.131.52.3.2.1 and 184.108.40.206.3.2.2. [30:25.5.2]
Vaults that are not resistant to damage from the impact of a motor vehicle shall be protected by collision barriers. [30:220.127.116.11]
Table 18.104.22.168.4 Minimum Separation Requirements for Aboveground Tanks
|Tank Type||Individual Tank Capacity (gal)a||Minimum Distance (ft)|
|From the Nearest Important Building on the Same Property||From Nearest Fuel Dispensing Deviceb||From Lot Line That Is or Can Be Built Uponc||From the Nearest Side of Any Public Way||Between Tanks|
|Tanks in vaultsd||0—15,000||0||0||0||0||Separate compartments required for each tank|
|Protected aboveground tanks||Less than or equal to 6,000||5||0||15||5||3|
|Other tanks meeting the requirements of NFPA 30||0—12,000||50||50||100||50||3|
For SI units, 1 ft = 0.30 m; 1 gal = 3.8 L.
aSee 22.214.171.124.3 and 126.96.36.199.5.
cIncluding the opposite side of a public way.
dThe separation distances given for vaults are measured from the outer perimeter of the vault.
Tanks installed in storage tank vaults shall be listed for aboveground use. [30:188.8.131.52]
Backfill shall not be permitted around the tank. [30:184.108.40.206]
Emergency vents shall be vaportight and shall be permitted to discharge inside the vault. Long-bolt manhole covers shall not be permitted for this purpose. [30A:220.127.116.11.2]
Fill connections for vaults installed inside buildings shall comply with 18.104.22.168. [30A:22.214.171.124.4]
Vaults that contain tanks storing Class I liquids shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 1 cfm/ft2 of floor area (0.3 m3/min/m2), but not less than 150 cfm (4 m3/min). [30:25.10.1]
Failure of the exhaust airflow shall automatically shut down the dispensing system. [30:25.10.3]
The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air movement across all parts of the vault floor. [30:25.10.4]
Supply and exhaust ducts shall extend to within 3 in. (75 mm), but not more than 12 in. (300 mm) of the floor. [30:25.10.5]
The exhaust system shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 91. [30:25.10.6]
Vapor detectors shall be located no higher than 12 in. (300 mm) above the lowest point in the vault. [30:25.15.3]
In lieu of the separation distance requirements given in 66.22.4, separation distances between the vault and any of the following shall be permitted to be reduced to 0 ft (0 m), as measured from the outer perimeter of the vault wall:
- Any property line that is or can be built upon
- The near and far sides of a public way
- The nearest important building on the same property
Vaults and their required equipment shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of 126.96.36.199. [30:25.16]
Fire-resistant tanks shall be tested and listed in accordance with UL 2080, Standard for Fire Resistant Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids. [30:22.9.1]
Fire-resistant tanks shall also meet both of the following requirements:
- The construction that provides the required fire-resistive protection shall reduce the heat transferred to the primary tank in order to limit the temperature of the primary tank to an average maximum rise of 800°F (430°C) and a single point maximum rise of 1000°F (540°C) and to prevent release of liquid, failure of the primary tank, failure of the supporting structure, and impairment of venting for a period of not less than 2 hours when tested using the fire exposure specified in UL 2080.
- Reduction in sizing of the emergency vents in accordance with 188.8.131.52 of NFPA 30 shall not be permitted.
Protected aboveground tanks shall be tested and listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 2085, Standard for Protected Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids. [30:22.10.1]
Protected tanks shall also meet both of the following requirements:
- The construction that provides the required fire-resistive protection shall reduce the heat transferred to the primary tank in order to limit the temperature of the primary tank to an average maximum rise of 260°F (144°C) and a single point maximum rise of 400°F (204°C) and to prevent release of liquid, failure of the primary tank, failure of the supporting structure, and impairment of venting for a period of not less than 2 hours when tested using the fire exposure specified in ANSI/UL 2085.
- Reduction in sizing of the emergency vents in accordance with 184.108.40.206 of NFPA 30 shall not be permitted.
All openings shall be located above the maximum liquid level. [30A:220.127.116.11]
Means shall be provided to sound an audible alarm when the liquid level in the tank reaches 90 percent of capacity. Means shall also be provided either to automatically stop the flow of liquid into the tank when the liquid level in the tank reaches 98 percent capacity or to restrict the flow of liquid into the tank to a maximum flow rate of 2.5 gpm (9.5 L/min) when the liquid in the tank reaches 95 percent capacity. These provisions shall not restrict or interfere with the operation of either the normal vent or the emergency vent. [30A:18.104.22.168]
Means shall be provided to prevent the release of liquid by siphon flow. [30A:22.214.171.124]
Storage tank appurtenances shall be installed and calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, published industry practices, or equivalent methods approved by the AHJ. [30A:126.96.36.199]
Tanks that are not enclosed in vaults shall be enclosed with a chain link fence at least 6 ft (1.8 m) high. The fence shall be separated from the tanks by at least 10 ft (3 m) and shall have a gate that is secured against unauthorized entry.
Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect tanks that are subject to vehicular damage. When guard posts are installed, the following design shall be acceptable:
- They shall be constructed of steel not less than 4 in. (100 mm) in diameter and shall be filled with concrete.
- They shall be spaced not more than 4 ft (1.2 m) on center.
- They shall be set not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) deep in a concrete footing of not less than 15 in. (380 mm) diameter.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in motor fuel dispensing facility buildings and in repair garage buildings shall meet the requirements of this subsection. [30A:4.3.9]
The aggregate quantity of Class I liquids stored in a tank that does not exceed 120 gal (454 L) capacity and in containers shall not exceed 120 gal (454 L). Liquids in storage shall be maintained in tanks or in approved containers that are closed or are fitted with an approved dispensing device that meets the requirements of 188.8.131.52.1. [30A:184.108.40.206.1]
Except as permitted under 220.127.116.11.1.3, the aggregate quantity of Class II and Class IIIA liquids stored in a tank that does not exceed 120 gal (454 L) capacity and in containers shall not exceed 240 gal (908 L). The quantity for each class shall not exceed 120 gal (454 L). Liquids in storage shall be maintained in tanks or in approved containers that are closed or are fitted with an approved dispensing device that meets the requirements of 18.104.22.168.1. [30A:22.214.171.124.2]
Where installation of a tank that exceeds 120 gal (454 L) capacity in accordance with 126.96.36.199 is not practical because of building or property limitations, the tank shall be permitted to be installed in a building if it is enclosed as described in 188.8.131.52 and if the installation is specifically approved by the AHJ. [30A:184.108.40.206]
The quantity of Class IIIB liquids in storage shall not be limited. Class IIIB liquids shall be permitted to be stored in and dispensed from tanks and containers that meet the requirements of Chapter 9 and Chapters 21 through 23 of NFPA 30 as applicable. Tanks storing Class IIIB liquids inside buildings shall be permitted to be located at, below, or above grade. Adequate drainage shall be provided. Tanks and containers that contain only crankcase drainings shall be considered as containing Class IIIB liquids. [30A:220.127.116.11]
Aboveground tanks used for dispensing of motor fuels shall not be required to be permanently installed when located on premises not normally accessible to the public provided that all of the following requirements are met:
- Approval of the AHJ shall be required prior to bringing the tank to a site in the jurisdiction. In reviewing a proposed installation, the condition of the tank, the site where the tank will be located, installation and testing procedures, and operational procedures shall be evaluated prior to approval.
- The approval shall include a definite time limit after which the tank shall be removed from the site and relocated to an approved location.
- The tank shall comply with 42.3.3 and all other applicable provisions of NFPA 30A and NFPA 30.
- A tank containing liquid shall not be moved unless it has been specifically investigated and approved for movement while full or partially full.
Section 42.4 shall apply to piping systems consisting of pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, flexible connectors, the pressure-containing parts of other components such as expansion joints and strainers, and devices that serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, controlling flow, or secondary containment of liquids and associated vapors. [30A:5.1]
The design, fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of the piping system shall meet the requirements of Section 66.27.
Exception No. 1: Where dispensing is from a floating structure or pier, approved oil-resistant flexible hose shall be permitted to be used between shore piping and the piping on the floating structure or pier and between separate sections of the floating structure to accommodate changes in water level or shoreline, provided that the hose is either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire.
Exception No. 2: Low melting point rigid piping shall be permitted to be used between underground shore piping and a floating structure or pier and on the floating structure or pier itself, provided that the piping is protected from physical damage and stresses arising from impact, settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction, or tidal action and provided that the hose is either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire exposure. [30A:5.2.1]
Piping shall be located so that it is protected from physical damage. Piping that passes through a dike wall shall be designed to prevent excessive stresses that could result from settlement or fire exposure. [30A:5.2.2]
Any portion of a piping system that is in contact with the soil shall be protected from corrosion in accordance with good engineering practice. [30A:5.2.3]
All piping inside buildings but outside the motor fuel dispensing area shall be enclosed within a horizontal chase or a vertical shaft used only for this piping. Vertical shafts and horizontal chases shall be constructed of materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. [30A:5.2.4]
Each fill pipe shall be identified by color code or other marking to identify the product for which it is used. The color code or marking shall be maintained in legible condition throughout the life of the installation. [30A:5.2.5]
Shutoff and check valves shall be equipped with a pressure-relieving device that will relieve any pressure generated by thermal expansion of the contained liquid back to the storage tank. [30A:5.2.6]
Piping components made of low melting point materials shall be permitted to be used without backfill with the following sumps:
- Belowgrade underground tank sumps that are fitted with a cover
- Belowgrade piping connection sumps that are fitted with a cover
- Containment sumps, under the following conditions:
- The sump is monitored to detect any leaks.
- Any leaks can be controlled.
- The components are either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire exposure.
- Containment sumps, provided the piping components can successfully pass the test procedures described in API 607, Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves
Section 42.5 shall apply to the system and components that dispense fuel into the tanks of motor vehicles and marine craft. [30A:6.1]
Dispensing devices installed outside at motor fuel dispensing stations shall be located as follows:
- 10 ft (3 m) or more from property lines
- 10 ft (3 m) or more from buildings, other than canopies, having combustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not a part of a 1 hr fire-resistive assembly
- Such that all parts of the vehicle being served will be on the premises of the service station
- Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 ft (1.5 m) of building openings
Liquids shall not be dispensed by applying pressure to drums, barrels, and similar containers. Listed pumps taking suction through the top of the container or listed self-closing faucets shall be used. [30A:6.2.2]
Fuel dispensing systems, including dispensers, hoses, nozzles, breakaway fittings, swivels, flexible connectors, dispenser emergency shutoff valves, vapor recovery systems, and pumps that are used for alcohol-blended motor fuels shall be listed or approved for the specific purpose. [30A:6.2.3]
Dispensing devices for Class I and II liquids shall be listed. [30A:6.3.2]
Existing listed or labeled dispensing devices shall be permitted to be modified provided that the modifications made are "Listed by Report" by an approved testing laboratory or as otherwise approved by the AHJ. Modification proposals shall contain a description of the component parts used in the modification and the recommended methods of installation on specific dispensing devices. Modification proposals shall be made available to the AHJ upon request. [30A:18.104.22.168]
A control shall be provided that will permit the pump to operate only when a dispensing nozzle is removed from its bracket or normal position with respect to the dispensing device and the switch on this dispensing device is manually actuated. This control shall also stop the pump when all nozzles have been returned to their brackets or to their normal nondispensing position. [30A:6.3.3]
Dispensing devices shall be mounted on a concrete island or shall otherwise be protected against collision damage by means acceptable to the AHJ. Dispensing devices shall be securely bolted in place. If located indoors, dispensing devices shall also be located in a position where they cannot be struck by a vehicle that is out of control descending a ramp or other slope. Dispensing devices shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. [30A:6.3.4]
Dispensing devices used to fill portable containers with home heating fuels shall be located at least 20 ft (6 m) from any dispensing devices for motor fuels. [30A:6.3.5]
Dispensing equipment shall be periodically inspected by a person who is knowledgeable in the operation of the equipment to verify that it is in proper working order and is not leaking. [30A:6.3.6]
An inspection of the fuel dispensing equipment that is located inside the dispenser cabinet shall be conducted. The interior of the fuel dispenser cabinet shall be inspected for signs of leaks, damage, corrosion, or weathering, with particular attention to the sump area and joints and castings of fluid handling components. The inspection shall be conducted at least monthly and shall be documented. Documentation shall be available for review by the AHJ upon request. [30A:22.214.171.124]
When maintenance to dispensing devices is necessary and such maintenance is capable of causing accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions shall be taken before such maintenance is begun:
- Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required maintenance shall perform the work.
- All electrical power to the dispensing devices, to the pump serving the dispensing devices, and to all associated control circuits shall be shut off at the main electrical disconnect panel.
- The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, if installed, shall be closed.
- All vehicular traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 20 ft (6 m) of the dispensing device.
Motor vehicle traffic patterns at motor fuel dispensing facilities shall be designed to inhibit movement of vehicles that are not being fueled from passing through the dispensing area. [30A:6.3.7]
At unattended self-serve motor fuel dispensing facilities, coin- and currency-type devices shall be permitted only with the approval of the AHJ. [30A:6.3.8]
Where liquid is supplied to the dispensing device under pressure, a listed, rigidly anchored, double-poppet type emergency shutoff valve incorporating a fusible link or other thermally actuated device, designed to close automatically in the event of severe impact or fire exposure, shall be installed in the supply line at the base of each individual island-type dispenser or at the inlet of each overhead dispensing device. The emergency shutoff valve shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The emergency shutoff valve shall not incorporate a slip-joint feature.
Exception: As provided for in 126.96.36.199. [30A:6.3.9]
The automatic-closing feature of this valve shall be tested at the time of installation and at least once a year thereafter by manually tripping the hold-open linkage. Records of such tests shall be kept at the premises or shall be made available for inspection by the AHJ within 24 hours of a verbal or written request. [30A:188.8.131.52]
Where a suction-type dispensing system includes a booster pump or where a suction-type dispensing system is supplied by a tank in a manner that produces a gravity head on the dispensing device, a vacuum-actuated shutoff valve with a shear section or equivalent-type valve listed and labeled in accordance with UL 842, Standard for Valves for Flammable Fluids, shall be installed directly under the dispensing device. [30A:6.3.10]
Subsection 42.5.4 shall apply to systems for dispensing Class I and Class II liquids where the liquids are transferred from storage to individual or multiple dispensing devices by pumps located other than at the dispensing devices. [30A:6.4]
Pumps shall be listed and shall be designed or equipped so that no part of the system will be subjected to pressures above its allowable working pressure. [30A:6.4.1]
Each pump shall have installed on the discharge side a listed leak detection device that restricts or shuts off the flow of product if the piping or a dispenser is leaking. Each leak-detecting device shall be checked and tested at least annually according to the manufacturers' specifications to ensure proper installation and operation.
Exception: A leak detection device shall not be required if all piping is visible. [30A:6.4.2]
Pumps installed above grade outside of buildings shall be located not less than 10 ft (3 m) from lines of adjoining property that can be built upon and not less than 5 ft (1.5 m) from any building opening. Where an outside pump location is impractical, pumps shall be permitted to be installed inside buildings as provided for dispensers in 184.108.40.206 or in sumps as provided in 220.127.116.11. Pumps shall be anchored and protected against physical damage. [30A:6.4.3]
Sumps for subsurface pumps or piping manifolds of submersible pumps shall withstand the external forces to which they can be subjected without damage to the pump, tank, or piping. The sump shall be no larger than necessary for inspection and maintenance and shall be provided with a fitted cover. [30A:6.4.4]
Listed hose assemblies shall be used to dispense fuel. Hose length at automotive motor fuel dispensing facilities shall not exceed 18 ft (5.5 m). Where hose length at marine motor fuel dispensing facilities exceeds 18 ft (5.5 m), the hose shall be secured so as to protect it from damage. [30A:6.5.1]
A listed emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid on both sides of the breakaway point shall be installed on each hose dispensing Class I and II liquids. Such devices shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [30A:6.5.2]
Where hose are attached to a hose-retrieving mechanism, the listed emergency breakaway device shall be installed between the point of attachment of the hose-retrieving mechanism to the hose and the hose nozzle valve.
Exception: Such devices shall not be required at marine motor fuel dispensing facilities. [30A:6.5.3]
An automatic closing-type hose nozzle valve, with a latch-open device and listed and labeled in accordance with ANSI/UL 842, Standard for Valves for Flammable Fluids, or ANSI/UL 2586, Standard for Hose Nozzle Valves, shall be provided on island-type dispensing devices used to dispense Class I or Class II liquids. [30A:6.6.1]
Any modification of the dispensing nozzle shall be listed or approved by the manufacturer of the nozzle. [30A:18.104.22.168]
At any installation where an automatic closing-type dispensing nozzle is used, the nozzle valve shall include a feature that causes or requires the closing of the hose nozzle valve before product flow can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser. [30A:6.6.2]
Overhead-type dispensing devices shall be provided with a listed, automatic closing-type hose nozzle valve without a latch-open device.
Dispensing nozzles used at marine motor fuel dispensing facilities shall be of the listed automatic closing-type hose nozzle valve without a latch-open device. [30A:6.6.4]
Fuel dispensing systems shall be provided with one or more clearly identified emergency shutoff devices or electrical disconnects. Such devices or disconnects shall be installed in approved locations but not less than 20 ft (6 m) or more than 100 ft (30 m) from the fuel dispensing devices that they serve. Emergency shutoff devices or electrical disconnects shall disconnect power to all dispensing devices; to all remote pumps serving the dispensing devices; to all associated power, control, and signal circuits; and to all other electrical equipment in the hazardous (classified) locations surrounding the fuel dispensing devices and shall mechanically or electrically isolate other fluid transfer systems serving the fuel dispensing area. When more than one emergency shutoff device or electrical disconnect is provided, all devices shall be interconnected. Resetting from an emergency shutoff condition shall require manual intervention and the manner of resetting shall be approved by the AHJ.
Exception: Intrinsically safe electrical equipment need not meet this requirement. [30A:6.7]
At attended motor fuel dispensing facilities, the devices or disconnects shall be readily accessible to the attendant and labeled with an approved sign stating "EMERGENCY FUEL SHUTOFF" or equivalent language. [30A:6.7.1]
At unattended motor fuel dispensing facilities, the devices or disconnects shall be readily accessible to patrons and at least one additional device or disconnect shall be readily accessible to each group of dispensing devices on an individual island. The device(s) or disconnect(s) shall be labeled with an approved sign stating "EMERGENCY FUEL SHUTOFF" or equivalent language. [30A:6.7.2]
Dispensing devices that incorporate vapor recovery shall be listed. [30A:6.8.1]
Hose nozzle valves used on vapor recovery systems shall be listed for the purpose. [30A:6.8.2]
Means shall be provided in the vapor return path from each dispensing outlet to prevent the discharge of vapors when the hose nozzle valve is in its normal nondispensing position. [30A:6.8.3]
The construction of buildings and portions of buildings that are motor fuel dispensing facilities or repair garages shall comply with Chapter 30.
Section 42.7 shall apply to those requirements that relate to the operation of motor fuel dispensing facilities and fuel dispensing systems. [30A:9.1]
Accurate daily inventory records shall be maintained and reconciled for all liquid fuel storage tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks or piping. The records shall be kept on the premises or shall be made available to the AHJ for inspection within 24 hours of a written or verbal request. The records shall include, as a minimum and by product, daily reconciliation between sales, use, receipts, and inventory on hand. If there is more than one storage system serving an individual pump or dispensing device for any product, the reconciliation shall be maintained separately for each system. [30A:9.2.1]
Delivery operations shall meet all applicable requirements of NFPA 385 and the requirements of 22.214.171.124.3 through 126.96.36.199.6. [30A:188.8.131.52]
No separation shall be required between the delivery vehicle and the fill connection of an underground storage tank. [30A:184.108.40.206]
The delivery vehicle shall be separated from any aboveground tank in accordance with Table 220.127.116.11.3. [30A:18.104.22.168]
Table 22.214.171.124.3 Minimum Separation Distances Between Delivery Vehicles and Aboveground Tanks
|Aboveground Tank Type||Separation Distance Between Delivery Vehicle and Aboveground Tank (ft)|
|Protected aboveground tanks||0|
|Tanks in abovegrade vaults (measured from vault wall)||0|
|Tanks filled by gravity||0|
|Other tanks meeting the requirements of NFPA 30 storing Class II or Class III liquids||15|
|Other tanks meeting the requirements of NFPA 30 storing Class I liquids||25|
Separation distances shall be imposed by the use of curbing, guard posts, or other approved methods. [30A:126.96.36.199.1]
Means shall be provided to prevent an accidental release originating from the delivery vehicle from flowing under the aboveground tank. [30A:188.8.131.52.2]
The delivery vehicle shall be located so that all parts of the vehicle are on the premises when delivery is made.
Exception: This requirement shall not apply to existing fuel dispensing facilities and fuel dispensing facilities inside buildings. [30A:184.108.40.206]
Tanks shall be filled through a liquidtight connection. [30A:220.127.116.11]
Where an aboveground tank is filled by means of fixed piping, either a check valve and shutoff valve with a quick-connect coupling or a check valve with a dry-break coupling shall be installed in the piping at a point where connection and disconnection is made between the tank and the delivery vehicle. This device shall be protected from tampering and physical damage. [30A:18.104.22.168.1]
Class I or Class II liquids shall not be dispensed into portable containers unless the container is constructed of metal or is approved by the AHJ, has a tight closure, and is fitted with a spout or so designed that the contents can be poured without spilling. The hose nozzle valve shall be manually held open during the dispensing operation. [30A:22.214.171.124]
No sale or purchase of any Class I, Class II, or Class III liquids shall be made in containers unless such containers are clearly marked with the name of the product contained therein. [30A:126.96.36.199]
Portable containers of 12 gal (45 L) capacity or less shall not be filled while they are in or on a motor vehicle or marine craft. [30A:188.8.131.52]
184.108.40.206 Dispensing From a Tank That Does Not Exceed 120 Gal (454 L) and From Containers Inside Buildings
Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids from a tank not exceeding 120 gal (454 L) capacity and from containers in a motor fuel dispensing facility or in a repair garage building shall meet the requirements of 220.127.116.11.1 and 18.104.22.168.2. (See 22.214.171.124 for storage quantity limitations.) [30A:9.2.4]
Not more than one container of Class I liquid shall be permitted to be provided with a dispensing pump inside a building at any one time. The number of tanks or containers of Class II or Class IIIA liquids fitted for dispensing at any one time shall not be limited, except as provided for in 126.96.36.199.2. The number of tanks or containers of Class IIIB liquids fitted for dispensing at any one time shall not be limited. [30A:188.8.131.52]
Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids shall not be dispensed by applying pressure to tanks or containers. Listed pumps that take suction through the top of the tank or container or listed self-closing faucets shall be used. [30A:184.108.40.206]
The storage or placement for display or sale of products shall be prohibited within 20 ft of any fuel dispenser. [30A:220.127.116.11]
Smoking materials, including matches and lighters, shall not be used within 20 ft (6 m) of areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems of internal combustion engines, or receiving or dispensing of Class I and Class II liquids. The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operation except for emergency generators, pumps, and so forth, where continuing operation is essential. [30A:18.104.22.168]
Each motor fuel dispensing facility or repair garage shall be provided with fire extinguishers installed, inspected, and maintained as required by Section 13.6. Extinguishers for outside motor fuel dispensing areas shall be provided according to the extra (high) hazard requirements for Class B hazards, except that the maximum travel distance to an 80 B:C extinguisher shall be permitted to be 100 ft (30.48 m). [30A:22.214.171.124]
Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted in the dispensing area and shall incorporate the following or equivalent wording:
WARNING: It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unapproved containers.
No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle.
Place container on ground before filling.
Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a metal surface away from the nozzle.
Do not re-enter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping.
If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle — back away immediately.
Do not allow individuals under licensed age to use the pump.
Crankcase drainings and waste liquids shall not be dumped into sewers, into streams, or on the ground. They shall be stored in approved tanks or containers outside any building, or in tanks installed in accordance with Chapters 4 and 5 of NFPA 30A, until removed from the premises.
Exception: As provided for in 126.96.36.199.3. [30A:188.8.131.52]
The contents of oil separators and traps of floor drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent intervals to prevent oil from being carried into sewers. [30A:184.108.40.206]
The dispensing area and the area within any dike shall be kept free of vegetation, debris, and any other material that is not necessary to the proper operation of the motor fuel dispensing facility. [30A:9.2.7]
Fire doors shall be kept unobstructed at all times. Appropriate signs and markings shall be used. [30A:9.2.8]
Storage tank appurtenances shall be maintained and operated in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, published industry practices, or equivalent methods approved by the AHJ. [30A:9.2.9]
Each motor fuel dispensing facility shall have an attendant or supervisor on duty whenever the facility is open for business. The attendant or supervisor shall dispense liquids into fuel tanks or into containers, except as covered in 42.7.4 and 42.7.5. [30A:9.3]
"Self-service motor fuel dispensing facility" shall mean that portion of a property where liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed, approved dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons other than the facility attendant and shall also include, where provided, facilities for the sale of other retail products. [30A:9.4.1]
There shall be at least one attendant on duty while the self-service facility is open for business. The attendant's primary function shall be to supervise, observe, and control the dispensing of motor fuels. [30A:9.4.2]
The responsibility of the attendant shall be as follows:
- Prevent the dispensing of Class I liquids into portable containers not in compliance with 220.127.116.11.1
- Prevent the use of hose nozzle valve latch-open devices that do not comply with 18.104.22.168
- Control sources of ignition
- Immediately activate emergency controls and notify the fire department of any fire or other emergency
- Handle accidental spills and fire extinguishers if needed
The attendant or supervisor on duty shall be mentally and physically capable of performing the functions and assuming the responsibility prescribed in 42.7.4. [30A:22.214.171.124]
Operating instructions shall be conspicuously posted in the dispensing area. [30A:9.4.4]
Unattended self-service facilities shall be permitted, where approved by the AHJ. [30A:9.5.1]
Operating instructions shall be conspicuously posted in the dispensing area. The instructions shall include location of emergency controls and a requirement that the user stay outside of his/her vehicle and in view of the fueling nozzle during dispensing. [30A:9.5.2]
In addition to the warning signs specified in 126.96.36.199.4, emergency instructions shall be conspicuously posted in the dispenser area. The instructions shall incorporate the following or equivalent wording:
In case of fire or spill
(1) Use emergency stop button.
(2) Report accident by calling (specify local fire number). Report location.
The dispensing of Class I and Class II liquids in the open from a tank vehicle to a motor vehicle located at commercial, industrial, governmental, or manufacturing establishments and intended for fueling vehicles used in connection with their businesses shall be permitted only if all of the requirements of 188.8.131.52 through 184.108.40.206 have been met. [30A:9.6]
An inspection of the premises and operations shall be made and operations shall not be conducted unless approved by the AHJ. [30A:9.6.1]
The dispensing hose shall not exceed 50 ft (15 m) in length. [30A:9.6.3]
The dispensing nozzle shall be a listed, automatic closing-type without a latch-open device. [30A:9.6.4]
Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in areas deemed adequately lighted by the AHJ. [30A:9.6.5]
The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while dispensing operations are in progress. [30A:9.6.6]
Expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase. [30A:9.6.7]
A means for bonding the tank vehicle to the motor vehicle shall be provided. Such bonding means shall be employed during fueling operations. [30A:9.6.8]
Section 42.8 shall apply where CNG, LNG, compressed or liquefied hydrogen, or LP-Gas, or combinations of these, are dispensed as motor vehicle fuels along with Class I or Class II liquids that are also dispensed as motor vehicle fuels. [30A:12.1]
The installation and use of CNG and LNG systems shall meet the requirements of NFPA 52 except as modified by Section 42.8. The installation and use of hydrogen systems shall meet the requirements of NFPA 2 except as modified by Section 42.8. The installation and use of LP-Gas systems shall meet the requirements of NFPA 58 except as modified by Section 42.8. [30A:12.2.1]
A means shall be provided that connects to the dispenser supply piping and that prevents flow in the event that the dispenser is displaced from its mounting. [30A:12.2.2]
Dispensing devices for CNG, LNG, hydrogen, and LP-Gas shall be listed or approved. [30A:12.2.3]
Listed or approved hose assemblies shall be used to dispense fuel. Hose length at automotive motor fuel dispensing facilities shall not exceed 18 ft (5.5 m). [30A:12.2.4]
Aboveground tanks storing CNG or LNG shall be separated from any adjacent property line that is or can be built upon, any public way, and the nearest important building on the same property by not less than the distances given in Section 8.4 of NFPA 52. [30A:12.3.1]
Aboveground tanks storing hydrogen shall be separated from any adjacent property line that is or can be built upon, any public way, and the nearest important building on the same property by not less than the distances given in NFPA 2. [30A:12.3.2]
Aboveground tanks storing LP-Gas shall be separated from any adjacent property line that is or can be built upon, any public way, and the nearest important building on the same property by not less than the distances given in Section 6.3 of NFPA 58. [30A:12.3.3]
Aboveground tanks storing CNG, LNG, or LP-Gas shall be separated from each other by at least 20 ft (6 m) and from dispensing devices that dispense liquid or gaseous motor vehicle fuels by at least 20 ft (6 m).
Exception No. 1: This required separation shall not apply to tanks storing or handling fuels of the same chemical composition.
Exception No. 2: When both the gaseous fuel storage and dispensing equipment are at least 50 ft (15 m) from any other aboveground motor fuel storage or dispensing equipment, the requirements of NFPA 52 or NFPA 58, whichever is applicable, shall apply. [30A:12.3.4]
Aboveground storage tanks for the storage of CNG, LNG, or LP-Gas shall be provided with physical protection in accordance with 220.127.116.11. [30A:12.3.5]
Where CNG or LNG dispensers are installed beneath a canopy or enclosure, either the canopy or enclosure shall be designed to prevent accumulation or entrapment of ignitable vapors or all electrical equipment installed beneath the canopy or enclosure shall be suitable for Class I, Division 2 hazardous (classified) locations. [30A:12.4]
Dispensing devices for LP-Gas shall meet all applicable requirements of Chapter 69 and NFPA 58. [30A:12.5.1]
Dispensing devices for LP-Gas shall be located as follows:
- At least 10 ft (3 m) from any dispensing device for Class I liquids
- At least 5 ft (1.5 m) from any dispensing device for Class I liquids where the following conditions exist:
All electrical wiring and electrical utilization equipment shall be of a type specified by, and shall be installed in accordance with, Section 11.1. [30A:12.6.1]
Table 18.104.22.168 shall be used to delineate and classify areas for the purpose of installation of electrical wiring and electrical utilization equipment. [30A:12.6.2]
Table 22.214.171.124 Electrical Equipment Classified Areas for Dispensing Devices
|Dispensing Device||Extent of Classified Area|
|Class I, Division 1||Class I, Division 2|
|Compressed natural gas (CNG)||Entire space within the dispenser enclosure||5 ft (1.5 m) in all directions from dispenser enclosure|
|Liquefied natural gas (LNG)||Entire space within the dispenser enclosure and 5 ft (1.5 m) in all directions from the dispenser enclosure||10 ft (3 m) in all directions from the dispenser enclosure|
|Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas)||Entire space within the dispenser enclosure; 18 in. (46 cm) from the exterior surface of the dispenser enclosure to an elevation of 4 ft (1.22 m) above the base of the dispenser; the entire pit or open space beneath the dispenser and within 20 ft (6 m) horizontally from any edge of the dispenser when the pit or trench is not mechanically ventilated||Up to 18 in. (46 cm) above ground and within 20 ft (6 m) horizontally from any edge of the dispenser enclosure, including pits or trenches within this area when provided with adequate mechanical ventilation|
Section 42.9 shall apply to that portion of a property where liquids used as fuels are stored, handled, and dispensed from equipment located on shore or from equipment located on piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks of marine craft, including incidental activity, except as covered elsewhere in NFPA 30A or in other NFPA standards. [30A:11.1.1]
Section 42.9 shall not apply to the following:
- Bulk plant or terminal loading and unloading facilities
- Transfer of liquids utilizing a flange-to-flange closed transfer piping system
- Marine motor fuel dispensing facilities where liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of marine craft of 300 gross tons (272 metric tons) or more
For the purpose of Section 42.9, the word pier shall also mean dock, floating dock, and wharf. [30A:11.1.3]
Tanks that supply marine motor fuel dispensing facilities shall be located on shore or on a pier of the solid-fill type. Pumps that are not integral with the dispensing device shall also be located on shore or on a pier of the solid-fill type.
Where a tank is at an elevation that produces a gravity head on the dispensing device, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a device, such as a normally closed solenoid valve, that will prevent gravity flow from the tank to the dispenser. This device shall be located adjacent to and downstream of the outlet valve specified by 126.96.36.199. The device shall be installed and adjusted so that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank to the dispenser if the piping or hose fails when the dispenser is not in use. [30A:11.2.3]
Piping shall be installed in accordance with all applicable requirements of Chapter 5 of NFPA 30A. [30A:11.3.1]
Where dispensing is from a floating structure or pier, approved oil-resistant flexible hose shall be permitted to be used between shore piping and the piping on a floating structure or pier and between separate sections of the floating structure to accommodate changes in water level or shoreline, provided that the hose is either resistant to or shielded from damage by fire. [30A:11.3.4]
All hose shall be listed. Where hose length exceeds 18 ft (5.5 m), the hose shall be secured so as to protect it from damage. [30A:11.4.1]
Dispensing nozzles shall be of the automatic-closing type without a latch-open device. [30A:11.4.2]
Dispensing devices shall be permitted to be located on open piers, on shore, or on piers of the solid-fill type and shall be located apart from other structures so as to provide room for safe ingress to and egress from marine craft. [30A:11.4.3]
Dispensing devices shall be located so that exposure to all other operational marina or pleasure boat berthing area facilities is minimized. Where tide and weather conditions permit, liquid fuel handling shall be outside the main berthing areas. Where located inside marina or pleasure craft berthing areas, fueling facilities shall be located so that, in case of fire aboard a marine craft alongside, the danger to other craft near the facility is minimized. [30A:11.4.4]
No vessel or marine craft shall be made fast to any other vessel or marine craft occupying a berth at a fuel dispensing location during fueling operations. [30A:11.4.5]
A marine motor fuel dispensing facility located at a bulk plant shall be separated by a fence or other approved barrier from areas in which bulk plant operations are conducted. Dispensing devices shall not be supplied by aboveground tanks located in the bulk plant. Marine motor fuel dispensing facility storage tanks shall not be connected by piping to aboveground tanks located in the bulk plant. [30A:11.4.6]
Each marine motor fuel dispensing facility shall have an attendant or supervisor on duty whenever the facility is open for business. The attendant's primary function shall be to supervise, observe, and control the dispensing of liquids. [30A:11.4.7]
All electrical components for dispensing liquids shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 8 of NFPA 30A. [30A:11.5.1]
All electrical equipment shall be installed and used in accordance with the requirements of Section 11.1 as it applies to wet, damp, and hazardous locations. [30A:11.5.2]
Clearly identified emergency electrical disconnects that are readily accessible in case of fire or physical damage at any dispensing unit shall be provided on each marine wharf. The disconnects shall be interlocked to shut off power to all pump motors from any individual location and shall be manually reset only from a master switch. Each such disconnect shall be identified by an approved sign stating EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF in 2 in. (50 mm) red capital letters. [30A:11.5.3]
Smoking materials, including matches and lighters, shall not be used within 20 ft (6 m) of areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, or receiving or dispensing of Class I liquids. Conspicuous NO SMOKING signs shall be posted within sight of the customer being served. [30A:11.5.5]
The fuel delivery nozzle shall be put into contact with the vessel fill pipe before the flow of fuel commences, and this bonding contact shall be continuously maintained until fuel flow has stopped, to avoid the possibility of electrostatic discharge. [30A:8.5.3]
The fuel delivery nozzle shall be put into contact with the vessel fill pipe before the flow of fuel commences and this bonding contact shall be continuously maintained until fuel flow has stopped to avoid possibility of electrostatic discharge. [30A:11.6.2]
Each marine motor fuel dispensing facility shall be provided with fire extinguishers installed, inspected, and maintained as required by Section 13.6. Extinguishers for marine motor fuel dispensing areas shall be provided according to the extra (high) hazard requirements for Class B hazards, except that the maximum travel distance to an 80 B:C extinguisher shall be permitted to be 100 ft (31 m). [30A:11.7.1]
Piers that extend more than 500 ft (152 m) in travel distance from shore shall be provided with a Class III standpipe that is installed in accordance with Section 13.2. [30A:11.7.2]
Materials shall not be placed on a pier in such a manner that they obstruct access to fire-fighting equipment or important piping system control valves. Where the pier is accessible to vehicular traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained for access by fire-fighting apparatus. [30A:11.7.3]
Portable containers of 12 gal (45 L) capacity or less shall not be filled while they are in or on a marine craft. [30A:11.8.3]
The provisions of 42.9.2 shall not prohibit the dispensing of Class II liquids in the open from a tank vehicle to a marine craft located at commercial, industrial, governmental, or manufacturing establishments when the liquid is intended for fueling marine craft used in connection with those establishments' businesses if the requirements of 188.8.131.52 through 184.108.40.206 are met. [30A:11.9]
An inspection of the premises and operations shall be made and approval granted by the AHJ. [30A:11.9.1]
The dispensing hose shall not exceed 50 ft (15 m) in length. [30A:11.9.3]
The dispensing nozzle shall be a listed, automatic-closing type without a latch-open device. [30A:11.9.4]
The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while dispensing. [30A:11.9.6]
The following shall be the responsibilities of the attendant:
- Prevent the dispensing of Class I liquids into portable containers that do not comply with 220.127.116.11
- Be familiar with the dispensing system and emergency shutoff controls
- Ensure that the vessel is properly moored and that all connections are made
- Be within 15 ft (4.6 m) of the dispensing controls during the fueling operation and maintain a direct, clear, unobstructed view of both the vessel fuel filler neck and the emergency fuel shutoff control
Fueling shall not be undertaken at night except under well-lighted conditions. [30A:11.10.2]
During fueling operations, smoking shall be forbidden on board the vessel or marine craft and in the dispensing area. [30A:11.10.3]
Before opening the tanks of the vessel to be fueled, the following precautions shall be taken:
- All engines, motors, fans, and bilge blowers shall be shut down.
- All open flames and smoking material shall be extinguished and all exposed heating elements shall be turned off.
- Galley stoves shall be extinguished.
- All ports, windows, doors, and hatches shall be closed.
After the flow of fuel has stopped, the following shall occur:
- The fill cap shall be tightly secured.
- Any spillage shall be wiped up immediately.
- If Class I liquid has been delivered, the entire vessel or marine craft shall remain open.
- Bilge blowers shall be turned on and allowed to run for at least 5 minutes before starting any engines or lighting galley fires. If bilge blowers are not available, 10 minutes of ventilation shall be required.
No Class I liquids shall be delivered to any vessel having its tanks located below deck unless each tank is equipped with a separate fill pipe, the receiving end of which shall be securely connected to a deck plate and fitted with a screw cap. Such pipe shall extend into the tank. Vessels receiving Class II or Class IIIA liquids shall have the receiving end of the fill pipe securely connected to a deck plate and fitted with a screw cap. Such pipe shall be permitted to connect to a manifold system that extends into each separate tank. Each tank shall be provided with a suitable vent pipe that shall extend from the tank to the outside of the coaming or enclosed rails so that the vapors will dissipate away from the vessel. [30A:11.10.6]
Owners or operators shall not offer their vessel or marine craft for fueling unless the following conditions exist:
- The tanks being filled are properly vented to dissipate vapors to the outside atmosphere, and the fuel systems are liquidtight and vaportight with respect to all interiors.
- All fuel systems are designed, installed, and maintained in compliance with the specifications of the manufacturer of the vessel or marine craft.
- Communication has been established between the fueling attendant and the person in control of the vessel or craft receiving the fuel so as to determine the vessel's fuel capacity, the amount of fuel on board, and the amount of fuel to be taken on board.
- The electrical bonding and grounding systems of the vessel or craft have been maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.
A sign with the following legends printed in 2 in. (50 mm) red capital letters on a white background shall be conspicuously posted at the dispensing area:
(1) Stop all engines and auxiliaries.
(2) Shut off all electricity, open flames, and heat sources.
(3) Check all bilges for fuel vapors.
(5) Close access fittings and openings that could allow fuel vapors to enter enclosed spaces of the vessel.
(1) Maintain nozzle contact with fill pipe.
(2) Wipe up spills immediately.
(3) Avoid overfilling.
(4) Fuel filling nozzle must be attended at all times.
(1) Inspect bilges for leakage and fuel odors.
(2) Ventilate until odors are removed.
Section 42.10 applies to the fuel servicing of all types of aircraft using liquid petroleum fuel in accordance with NFPA 407.
Section 42.10 does not apply to any of the following:
- In-flight fueling
- Fuel servicing of flying boats or amphibious aircraft on water
- Draining or filling of aircraft fuel tanks incidental to aircraft fuel system maintenance operations or manufacturing
The requirements of 42.10.2 shall apply to all aviation fueling facilities, aircraft fueling vehicles, rooftop heliport fueling facilities, and self-service aviation fueling facilities. [407:18.104.22.168]
Aviation fueling facilities shall also comply with the requirements of 42.10.3. [407:22.214.171.124]
Aircraft fueling vehicles and carts shall also comply with the requirements of 42.10.4. [407:126.96.36.199]
Rooftop heliport fueling facilities shall also comply with the requirements of 42.10.3 and 42.10.5. [407:188.8.131.52]
Self-service aviation fueling facilities shall also comply with the requirements of 42.10.3 and 42.10.6. [407:184.108.40.206]
The deadman flow control in the nozzle shall be permitted for overwing fueling. [407:220.127.116.11]
Nozzles for underwing fueling shall be designed to be attached securely to the aircraft adapter before the nozzle can be opened. [407:18.104.22.168]
Disengaging the nozzle from the aircraft adapter shall not be possible until the nozzle is fully closed. [407:22.214.171.124]
Fuel servicing pump mechanisms shall be designed and arranged so that failure or seizure does not cause rupture of the pump housing, of a tank, or of any component containing fuel. [407:126.96.36.199]
The working pressure of any system component shall equal or exceed any pressure to which it could be subjected. [407:188.8.131.52]
Hose and couplings shall comply with the requirements of EI 1529. [407:184.108.40.206]
Each coupled length of hose shall be tested at the same minimum proof pressure rating for that grade of hose as defined in EI 1529. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
A test certificate shall be provided for each coupled length of hose and shall state the following:
- Manufacturer's name of hose
- Manufacturer's name of couplings
- Hose type
- Hose grade
- Size and length of hose
- Serial number or reference number of hose
- Quarter and year of manufacture of hose
- Model number of couplings
- Sizes of coupling ferrules
- Hydrostatic test pressures
- Coupled length serial number
- Identification of individual responsible for coupling the hose
- Name and address of company responsible for coupling the hose
- Date of certification
The coupling tests as specified in EI 1529 shall be performed for each hose grade, type, and manufacturer. [407:18.104.22.168.3]
Each coupling of a coupled length of hose shall be permanently marked with a serial number corresponding to its hydrostatic test certificate. [407:22.214.171.124.4]
The hose at the end of each coupling ferrule shall be permanently marked prior to hydrostatic testing to serve as a reference to determine whether a coupling has slipped during testing or while in service. [407:126.96.36.199.5]
Lengths of hose shall not be spliced together. [407:188.8.131.52.6]
Hydrostatic testing shall be in accordance with ASTM D380. [407:184.108.40.206.7]
Following a hydrostatic test, all the water shall be drained and the hose shall be dried internally. [407:220.127.116.11.7.1]
Following a hydrostatic test, the open ends of the hose, including the threads of the couplings, shall be suitably covered to protect the threads and to prevent contamination. [407:18.104.22.168.7.2]
A hose that is recoupled for any reason shall be hydrostatically tested and recertified to the same criteria as a newly coupled hose. [407:22.214.171.124.7.3]
Hose shall be connected to rigid piping or coupled to a hose reel in a manner that prevents kinks or undue bending action or mechanical stress on the hose or hose couplings. [407:126.96.36.199.8]
Bonding cables shall be constructed of conductive, durable, and flexible material. [407:188.8.131.52]
Bonding connections shall be electrically and mechanically firm. [407:184.108.40.206]
Jacks, plugs, clamps, and connecting points shall be clean, unpainted metal to provide a positive electrical connection. [407:220.127.116.11]
EI 1529 Type C hose (semiconductive) shall be used to prevent electrostatic discharges but shall not be used to accomplish required bonding. [407:18.104.22.168]
EI 1529 Type A hose that does not have a semiconductive cover shall not be used. [407:22.214.171.124]
EI 1529 Type F hose (hard wall) and EI 1529 Type CT hose (cold temperature) shall be permitted because they have semiconductive covers. [407:126.96.36.199]
The relaxation period required by 188.8.131.52.5.9 shall not apply to the actual refueling of an aircraft. [407:184.108.40.206.1]
The relaxation period required by 220.127.116.11.5.9 shall not apply to fuels with static dissipater additives. [407:18.104.22.168.2]
Filter vessels used in aviation fuel service shall have a functional automatic air vent (AAV) or automatic air eliminator (AAE). [407:22.214.171.124]
The AAV or AAE shall discharge to a closed system. [407:126.96.36.199]
During fueling operations, fire extinguishers shall be available on aircraft servicing ramps or aprons, in accordance with NFPA 410. [407:188.8.131.52]
All fire extinguishers shall conform to the requirements of NFPA 10. [407:184.108.40.206]
ABC multipurpose dry chemical fire extinguishers (ammonium phosphate) shall not be placed on aircraft fueling vehicles, airport fuel servicing ramps or aprons, or at airport fuel facilities that are located within 150 m (500 ft) of aircraft operating areas. [407:220.127.116.11]
The method of operation shall be indicated by an arrow or by the word PUSH or PULL, as appropriate. [407:18.104.22.168]
Any action necessary to gain access to the shutoff device (e.g., BREAK GLASS) shall be shown clearly. [407:22.214.171.124]
Lettering shall be of a color contrasting sharply with the placard background for visibility. [407:126.96.36.199]
Placards shall be weather resistant. [407:188.8.131.52]
Surveillance radar equipment in aircraft shall not be operated within 90 m (300 ft) of any fueling, servicing, or other operation in which flammable liquids, vapors, or mist could be present. [407:184.108.40.206.1]
Weather-mapping radar equipment in aircraft shall not be operated while the aircraft in which it is mounted is undergoing fuel servicing. [407:220.127.116.11.2]
Aircraft fuel servicing shall not be conducted within the 90 m (300 ft) distance established by 18.104.22.168.12.2.1. [407:22.214.171.124.2]
Aircraft fuel servicing or any other operations involving flammable liquids or vapors shall not be conducted within 30 m (100 ft) of antennas of airport ground traffic surveillance radar equipment. [407:126.96.36.199.4]
Accessibility to aircraft by emergency fire equipment shall be considered in establishing aircraft fuel servicing positions. [407:188.8.131.52]
Aircraft servicing ramps or aprons shall be sloped and drained in accordance with NFPA 415. [407:184.108.40.206]
The ramp or apron shall slope away from the rim or edge of fueling hydrants or fueling pits to prevent flooding. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
Fuel servicing personnel shall be trained in the use of the available fire-extinguishing equipment they could be expected to use. [407:18.104.22.168]
Following fueling of an aircraft or fuel servicing vehicle, all hoses shall be removed, including those from hydrant systems if applicable. [407:22.214.171.124]
All hoses shall also be properly stowed. [407:126.96.36.199]
Fuel nozzles shall not be dragged along the ground. [407:188.8.131.52]
Approved pumps, either hand operated or power operated, shall be used where aircraft are fueled from drums. [407:184.108.40.206]
Pouring or gravity flow shall not be permitted from a container with a capacity of more than 19 L (5 gal). [407:220.127.116.11.1]
Where a spill is observed, the fuel servicing shall be stopped immediately by release of the deadman controls. [407:18.104.22.168.1]
In the event that a spill continues, the equipment emergency fuel shutoff shall be actuated. [407:22.214.171.124.2]
The supervisor shall be notified immediately. [407:126.96.36.199.4]
Cleaning operations shall be performed by personnel trained in accordance with 188.8.131.52.2.1. [407:184.108.40.206.5]
Operation shall not be resumed until the spill has been cleared and conditions are determined to be safe. [407:220.127.116.11.6]
The spill shall be investigated to determine the cause, to determine whether emergency procedures were properly carried out, and to determine the necessary corrective measures. [407:18.104.22.168.8]
Corrective measures identified by the spill investigation shall be implemented as required by the authority having jurisdiction. [407:22.214.171.124.9]
Emergency fuel shutoff control stations shall be accessible at all times. [407:126.96.36.199]
A procedure shall be established to notify the fire department serving the airport in the event of a control station activation. [407:188.8.131.52]
The cause of the shutoff shall be identified and corrected before fuel flow is resumed. [407:184.108.40.206]
Each individual device shall be checked at least once during every 12-month period. [407:220.127.116.11]
Suitable records shall be kept of tests required by this section. [407:18.104.22.168]
Prior to making any fueling connection to an aircraft or fuel servicing vehicle, the fueling equipment shall be bonded to the aircraft or fuel servicing vehicle by use of a cable, thus providing a conductive path to equalize the potential between the fueling equipment and the aircraft. [407:22.214.171.124]
The electrical bond shall be maintained until fueling connections have been removed, thus allowing separated charges that could be generated during the fueling operation to reunite. [407:126.96.36.199.1]
Grounding for the sole purpose of aircraft fueling shall not be permitted. [407:188.8.131.52.2]
In addition to the requirements in 184.108.40.206.5.1, where fueling overwing, the nozzle shall be bonded to a metallic component of the aircraft that is metallically connected to the tank filler port. [407:220.127.116.11]
The bond connection shall be made before the filler cap is removed. [407:18.104.22.168.1]
If a nozzle bond cable and plug receptacle or means for attaching a clip is available, the operator shall attach the nozzle bond cable before removing the cap in order to equalize the potential between the nozzle and the filler port. [407:22.214.171.124.2]
If no plug receptacle or means for attaching a clip is available, the operator shall touch the filler cap with the nozzle spout before removing the cap in order to equalize the potential between the nozzle and the filler port. [407:126.96.36.199.3]
The nozzle spout shall be kept in contact with the filler neck until the fueling is completed. [407:188.8.131.52.4]
Where a funnel is used in aircraft fueling, it shall be kept in contact with the filler neck as well as the fueling nozzle spout or the supply container to avoid the possibility of a spark at the fill opening. [407:184.108.40.206]
Only metal funnels shall be used. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
Where a hydrant servicer or cart is used for fueling, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant system prior to bonding the fuel equipment to the aircraft. [407:18.104.22.168]
Bonding and fueling connections shall be disconnected in the reverse order of connection. [407:22.214.171.124]
Conductive hose shall be used to prevent electrostatic discharge but shall not be used to accomplish required bonding. [407:126.96.36.199]
Fuel flow shall be controlled by use of a dead-man control device. [407:188.8.131.52]
The use of any means that defeats the dead-man control shall be prohibited. [407:184.108.40.206]
During fueling operations, fire extinguishers shall be available on aircraft servicing ramps or aprons, in accordance with NFPA 410. [407:220.127.116.11]
Extinguishers shall be kept clear of elements such as ice and snow. [407:18.104.22.168]
Extinguishers located in enclosed compartments shall be readily accessible, and their location shall be marked clearly in letters at least 50 mm (2 in.) high. [407:22.214.171.124]
Fuel servicing personnel shall be trained in the use of the available fire-extinguishing equipment they could be expected to use. (See A.126.96.36.199.2.2.) [407:188.8.131.52]
Fuel servicing equipment shall be maintained in safe operating condition. [407:184.108.40.206]
Malfunctioning equipment shall be removed from service. [407:220.127.116.11]
The tag/lock shall not be removed until the operation is completed. [407:18.104.22.168]
All inspection and maintenance activities shall be recorded. [407:22.214.171.124]
Inspection and maintenance records shall be retained for a minimum of 12 months. [407:126.96.36.199]
Any hose found to be defective, in accordance with 188.8.131.52.9.1 through 184.108.40.206.9.4, shall be removed from service. [407:4.2.9]
Suitable records shall be kept of required inspections and hydrostatic tests. [407:220.127.116.11]
Aircraft fueling hose shall be removed from service after 10 years from the date of manufacture. [407:18.104.22.168]
Aircraft fueling hose not placed into service within 2 years of the date of manufacture shall not be used. [407:22.214.171.124]
Aircraft fueling hose shall be inspected before use each day. [407:126.96.36.199]
The hose shall be extended as it normally would be for fueling. [407:188.8.131.52.1]
The hose shall be checked for evidence of any of the following defects:
- Carcass saturation or separation
- Exposure of the reinforcement material
- Slippage, misalignment, or leaks at couplings
At least once each month the hose shall be completely extended and inspected as required in 184.108.40.206.9.4 and 220.127.116.11.9.5. [407:18.104.22.168]
The hose couplings and the hose shall be examined for structural weakness or soft spots. [407:22.214.171.124.1]
With the hose completely extended, it shall be pressurized to the working pressure of the fueling equipment to which it is attached and checked for defects, such as abnormal twisting or blistering. [407:126.96.36.199.2]
The nozzle screens shall be examined for evidence of hose deterioration. [407:188.8.131.52.1]
Kinks or short loops in fueling hose shall be avoided. [407:184.108.40.206]
A written procedure shall be established to set the criteria for when and where fueling operations are to be suspended at each airport as approved by the fueling agent and the airport authority. [407:4.2.10]
Aircraft fuel servicing shall be performed outdoors. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
Aircraft fuel servicing incidental to aircraft fuel system maintenance operations shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 410. [407:18.104.22.168.2]
Aircraft being fueled shall be positioned so that the vent or tank openings are not closer than 15 m (50 ft) of any combustion and ventilation air intake to any boiler, heater, or incinerator room. [407:22.214.171.124.4]
Accessibility to aircraft by emergency fire equipment shall be maintained for aircraft fuel servicing positions. [407:126.96.36.199.5]
If passengers remain on board an aircraft during fuel servicing, at least one qualified person trained in emergency evacuation procedures shall be in the aircraft at or near a door at which there is a passenger loading walkway, integral stairs that lead downward, or a passenger loading stair or stand. [407:188.8.131.52.1]
Where fueling operations take place with passengers on board away from the terminal building, and stairways are not provided, such as during inclement weather (diversions), all slides shall be armed and the aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) services shall be notified to respond in standby position in the vicinity of the fueling activity with at least one vehicle. [407:184.108.40.206.1.2]
Aircraft operators shall establish specific procedures covering emergency evacuation under such conditions for each type of aircraft they operate. [407:220.127.116.11.1.3]
For each aircraft type, aircraft operators shall determine the areas through which it could be hazardous for boarding or deplaning passengers to pass while the aircraft is being fueled. [407:18.104.22.168.2]
Controls shall be established so that passengers avoid such areas. [407:22.214.171.124.2.1]
Battery chargers on any fueling equipment shall not be connected or disconnected while fuel servicing is performed on an aircraft. [407:126.96.36.199.1]
Aircraft ground-power generators or other electrical ground-power supplies shall not be connected or disconnected while fuel servicing is performed on the aircraft. [407:188.8.131.52.2]
Electric tools or similar tools likely to produce sparks or arcs shall not be used while fuel servicing is performed on an aircraft. [407:184.108.40.206.3]
Other than aircraft fuel servicing vehicles, battery-powered vehicles that do not comply with the provisions of this standard shall not be operated within 3 m (10 ft) of fueling equipment or spills. [407:220.127.116.11.4]
Communication equipment located outside of the cab of fuel servicing vehicles and used during aircraft fuel servicing operations within 3 m (10 ft) of the fill or vent points of aircraft fuel systems shall be listed as intrinsically safe for Class I, Division 1, Group D hazardous (classified) locations in accordance with ANSI/UL 913. [407:18.104.22.168.5]
Entrances to fueling areas shall be posted with "no smoking" signs. [407:22.214.171.124.1]
Open flames on aircraft fuel servicing ramps or aprons within 15 m (50 ft) of any aircraft fuel servicing operation or fueling equipment shall be prohibited. [407:126.96.36.199.2]
The category of open flames and lighted open flame devices shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following:
- Lighted cigarettes, cigars, or pipes
- Electronic cigarettes (e.g., personal vaporizers or electronic nicotine delivery systems)
- Exposed flame heaters, liquid, solid, or gaseous devices, including portable and wheeled gasoline or kerosene heaters
- Heat-producing welding or cutting devices and blowtorches
- Flare pots or other open-flame lights
The authority having jurisdiction can establish other locations where open flames and open-flame devices shall not be permitted. [407:188.8.131.52.4]
Personnel shall not carry lighters, matches, or electronic cigarettes on their person while engaged in fuel servicing operations. [407:184.108.40.206.5]
Lighters, matches, or electronic cigarettes shall not be permitted on or in fueling equipment. [407:220.127.116.11.6]
Equipment performing aircraft servicing functions shall not be positioned within a 3 m (10 ft) radius of aircraft fuel system vent openings. [407:18.104.22.168.7]
Fuel servicing shall not be performed on a fixed wing aircraft while an onboard engine is operating, except as permitted by 22.214.171.124.12.3.2 or 126.96.36.199.14. [407:188.8.131.52.1]
Aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) that direct exhaust away from the fueling operation shall be permitted to operate during fuel servicing. [407:184.108.40.206.2]
Combustion heaters on aircraft (e.g., wing and tail surface heaters, integral cabin heaters) shall not be operated during fueling operations. [407:220.127.116.11.3]
All requirements of this standard shall apply to defueling operations. [407:18.104.22.168]
Each operator shall establish procedures to prevent the overfilling of the tank vehicle, which is a special hazard when defueling. [407:22.214.171.124]
Rapid refueling of aircraft shall be limited to the following aircraft types:
- Agricultural aircraft actively engaged in aerial application duties
- Medical aircraft actively engaged in the transport of medical patients
- Fire-fighting and search-and-rescue aircraft actively engaged in emergency operations
Only turbine engine aircraft fueled with JET A or JET A-1 fuels shall be permitted to be fueled while an onboard engine is operating. [407:126.96.36.199]
Aircraft permitted to be fueled while an onboard engine is operating shall have all sources of ignition of potential fuel spills located above the fuel inlet port(s) and above the vents or tank openings, including but not limited to the following:
- Auxiliary power units (APUs)
- Combustion-type cabin heater
Aircraft fueling while onboard engines are operating shall be permitted only under the following conditions:
- A pilot licensed by the appropriate governmental body shall be at the aircraft controls during the entire fueling operation.
- All passengers shall be deboarded to a safe location prior to rapid refueling operations, except as permitted in 188.8.131.52.14.3(3).
- Patients on board medical transport aircraft shall be permitted to remain on board the aircraft with medical personnel during rapid refueling operations if, in the opinion of the medical provider, removal from the aircraft would be detrimental to the patient's condition.
- Passengers shall not board or deboard during rapid refueling operations.
- Only designated personnel, properly trained in rapid refueling operations, shall operate the equipment. Written procedures shall include the safe handling of the fuel and equipment.
- All doors, windows, and access points allowing entry to the interior of the aircraft that are adjacent to, or in the immediate vicinity of, the fuel inlet ports shall be closed and shall remain closed during refueling operations.
- Fuel shall be permitted to be dispensed by one of the following methods:
- Into an open port from approved deadman-type nozzles with a flow rate not to exceed 227 L/min (60 gpm)
- Through close-coupled pressure fueling ports
- Where fuel is dispensed from fixed piping systems, the hose cabinet shall not extend into the rotor space.
- Clearance between aircraft fuel servicing vehicles and rotating components shall be maintained by one of the following methods:
- A curb or other approved barrier shall be provided to restrict the fuel servicing vehicle from coming within 3 m (10 ft) of any aircraft rotating components.
- Fuel servicing vehicles shall be kept 6 m (20 ft) away from any aircraft rotating components, and a trained person shall direct fuel servicing vehicle approach and departure.
Each installation shall be designed and installed in conformity with the requirements of this standard and with any additional fire safety measures deemed necessary by the authority having jurisdiction. [407:184.108.40.206]
In establishing each aircraft fuel dispensing location, consideration shall be given to the accessibility of the location in an emergency by fire-fighting personnel and equipment. [407:220.127.116.11]
Work shall not be started on the construction or alteration of an airport fuel system until the design, plans, and specifications have been approved by the authority having jurisdiction. [407:18.104.22.168.1]
The authority having jurisdiction shall inspect and approve the completed system before it is put into service. [407:22.214.171.124.2]
After completion of the installation (including fill and paving), new airport fuel piping systems shall be subjected to a temperature-compensated hydrostatic test pressure equal to 150 percent of the system working pressure for at least 4 hours and shall be proven tight before the system is placed into service. [407:126.96.36.199.3.1]
Fuel storage tanks shall conform to the applicable requirements of NFPA 30. [407:188.8.131.52]
The authority having jurisdiction shall determine the clearances required from runways, taxiways, and other aircraft movement and servicing areas to any aboveground fuel storage structure or fuel transfer equipment, with due recognition given to national and international standards establishing clearances from obstructions. [407:184.108.40.206]
Underground piping or impact-protected aboveground piping shall be used in the vicinity of aircraft operating areas. [407:220.127.116.11]
Piping shall be laid on firm supports using clean, noncorrosive backfill. [407:18.104.22.168]
Transfer piping located within buildings not specifically designed for the purpose of fuel transfer shall be located within a steel casing of a pressure rating equal to that of the carrier pipe. [407:22.214.171.124]
The casing shall extend beyond the building. [407:126.96.36.199.1]
The casing shall terminate at a low point(s) with an automatic leak detection system. [407:188.8.131.52.2]
The casing shall be capable of being drained to a safe location. [407:184.108.40.206.3]
Cast-iron, copper, copper alloy, and galvanized steel piping, valves, and fittings shall not be permitted. [407:220.127.116.11]
Ductile iron valves shall be permitted. [407:18.104.22.168]
Aluminum piping, valves, and fittings shall be used only where specifically approved by the authority having jurisdiction. [407:22.214.171.124]
In the selection of pipe, valves, and fittings, the following shall be considered:
- Working pressure
- Bending and mechanical strength requirements (including settlement)
- Internal and external corrosion
- Impact stresses
- Method of system fabrication and assembly
- Location of piping and accessibility for repair or replacement
- Exposure to mechanical, atmospheric, or fire damage
- Expected period of service and effect of future operations
Gaskets in flanged connections shall resist fire temperatures for a duration comparable to the temperature resistance of the flange and bolts. [407:126.96.36.199]
Flanges and their associated bolts shall be steel or stainless steel. [407:188.8.131.52]
Flanges shall be rated to the ANSI pressure class suitable to the fuel system working pressures but in no cases shall be less than Class 150. [407:184.108.40.206.1]
Joints [and flanges] shall be installed so that the mechanical strength of the joint will not be impaired if exposed to fire. [30:220.127.116.11]
Allowances shall be made for thermal expansion and contraction by the use of pipe bends, welded elbows, or other flexible design. [407:18.104.22.168]
Pressure relief valves shall be provided in lines that can be isolated. [407:22.214.171.124]
Isolation valves shall be capable of being locked closed. [407:126.96.36.199]
Buried flanges and valves shall not be permitted. [407:188.8.131.52]
All fueling systems with underground piping shall have cathodic protection to mitigate corrosion. [407:184.108.40.206]
A heat-actuated shutoff valve shall be provided in the piping immediately upstream of loading hoses or swing arm connections. [407:220.127.116.11]
All electrical equipment and wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70, Article 515, utilizing the Class I liquids requirements for all applications. [407:18.104.22.168]
The valve that controls the flow of fuel to an aircraft or fueling vehicle shall have a deadman control. [407:22.214.171.124.1]
Deadman controls shall be designed to preclude defeating their intended purpose. [407:126.96.36.199.3]
The system shall be designed to minimize surge pressure. [407:188.8.131.52.1]
The overshoot shall not exceed 5 percent of actual flow rate in L/min (gal/min) at the time the deadman is released. [407:184.108.40.206.2]
The control valve shall be located and designed so that it will not be rendered inoperative by a surface accident, power failure, or spill. [407:220.127.116.11.3]
Hydrant valves shall be designed so that the flow of fuel shall shut off when the hydrant coupler is closed. [407:18.104.22.168]
Hydrant valves shall be of the self-closing, dry-break type. [407:22.214.171.124.1]
The fuel control valve shall be arranged so that it is not rendered inoperative by a surface accident, spill, or malfunction and shall shut off the flow of fuel if the operating energy fails. [407:126.96.36.199.1]
The fuel control system shall be designed to minimize overshoot. [407:188.8.131.52.2]
The hydrant valve that allows the flow of fuel to the aircraft shall have a deadman control. [407:184.108.40.206.5]
The use of any means that allows fuel to flow without the operator activating the deadman shall not be permitted. [407:220.127.116.11.6]
The deadman control shall be arranged so that the fueling operator can observe the operation while activating the control. [407:18.104.22.168.7]
Wireless deadman controls shall be permitted. [407:22.214.171.124.8]
The pressure of the fuel delivered to the aircraft shall be automatically controlled so that it is not higher than that specified by the manufacturer of the aircraft being serviced. [407:126.96.36.199]
All sections of the filtering system shall have electrical continuity with adjoining piping and equipment. [407:188.8.131.52]
In freezing climates, filter separator sumps and associated piping that could contain water shall be protected to prevent freezing and bursting. [407:184.108.40.206]
Heaters shall be constructed of noncorrosive materials. [407:220.127.116.11]
Each tank vehicle loading station shall be provided with an emergency fuel shutoff system, in addition to the deadman control required by 18.104.22.168.7.4. [407:22.214.171.124]
At least one emergency shutoff control station shall be accessible to each fueling vehicle loading position or aircraft fueling position. [407:126.96.36.199]
Emergency fuel shutoffs shall not be located beneath piping, pumps, vents, or other components containing fuel or fuel vapors. [407:188.8.131.52]
Emergency fuel shutoff signs shall be located at least 2.1 m (7 ft) above grade, measured to the bottom of the placard. [407:184.108.40.206]
Emergency fuel shutoff signs shall be positioned so that they can be seen readily from a distance of at least 15.2 m (50 ft). [407:220.127.116.11]
Systems provided with impressed current cathodic protection shall have appropriate signs, located at points of entry, warning against separation of units without prior de-energization or without proper jumpers across the sections to be disconnected. [407:18.104.22.168]
Fuel storage tanks shall be labelled in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 704. [407:22.214.171.124]
Fuel transfer piping shall be marked in accordance with EI 1542 as to the product type conveyed through the pipe and the proper direction of flow of the product. [407:126.96.36.199]
The automatic secondary shutoff control shall not be used for normal filling control. [407:188.8.131.52]
New and existing loading systems shall comply with 184.108.40.206.12.1 through 220.127.116.11.12.3 within 5 years of the effective date of this edition. [407:18.104.22.168]
Fueling hydrants and fueling pits that are recessed below a ramp or apron surface and are subject to vehicle or aircraft traffic shall be fitted with a cover designed to sustain the load of vehicles or aircraft that taxi over all or part of them. [407:22.214.171.124]
Fueling hydrants, cabinets, and pits shall be located at least 15.2 m (50 ft) from any terminal building, hangar, service building, or enclosed passenger concourse (other than loading bridges). [407:126.96.36.199]
If a wireless deadman control is used, the operator shall be located at the fueling point during the fueling operation. [407:5.2.6]
During fueling operations, fire extinguishers shall be available on aircraft servicing ramps or aprons, in accordance with NFPA 410. [407:5.2.7]
Magnesium shall not be used in the construction of any portion of an aircraft fuel servicing vehicle or cart. [407:188.8.131.52]
Trailer connections shall be designed to secure the trailer firmly and to prevent the towed vehicle from swerving from side to side at the speeds anticipated so that the trailer essentially remains in the path of the towing vehicle. [407:184.108.40.206]
Aluminum alloys for high-strength welded construction shall be joined by an inert gas arc welding process using filler metals R-GR40A, E-GR40A (5154 alloy), R-GM50A, and EGM50A (5356 alloy) in accordance with AWS A5.10. [407:220.127.116.11]
Tank outlets shall be of substantial construction. [407:18.104.22.168]
Every cargo tank or compartment over 2.3 m (7.5 ft) long shall be provided with baffles, the total number of which shall be such that the distance between any two adjacent baffles, or between any tank head or bulkhead and the baffle closest to it, shall in no case exceed 1.5 m (5 ft). [407:22.214.171.124]
The cross-sectional area of each baffle shall be not less than 80 percent of the cross-sectional area of the tank. [407:126.96.36.199.1]
The thickness of a baffle shall be not less than that required for the heads and bulkheads of the cargo tank in which it is installed. [407:188.8.131.52.2]
Venting shall be in accordance with 49 CFR, DOT 406. [407:184.108.40.206]
Dome covers shall be provided with a forward mounted hinge and self-latching catches and shall be fitted with watertight fuel-resistant seals or gaskets designed to prevent spillage or leakage from overturn and to prevent water entry. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
Dome covers shall automatically close and latch with the forward motion of the vehicle. [407:18.104.22.168.2]
Drains from top flashing shall divert spilled fuel from possible sources of ignition, including the engine, the engine exhaust system, the electrical equipment, or an auxiliary equipment enclosure. [407:22.214.171.124.3]
Overturn protection shall be braced adequately to prevent collapse. [407:126.96.36.199.5]
Overturn protection shall be designed to channel rainwater, snow, or fuel to the exterior of the cargo tank and away from vehicle exhaust components. [407:188.8.131.52.6]
Vehicle or cart fuel tanks and containers for other flammable liquids shall be made of metal and shall be designed, constructed, and located in a manner that precludes hazardous arrangements. [407:184.108.40.206]
Tanks shall be substantially protected by their location. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
Fill pipes shall not project beyond the vehicle profile. [407:18.104.22.168.2]
Tanks and containers shall vent away from sources of ignition during filling. [407:22.214.171.124.3]
Any arrangement not protected by location shall be listed for such use. [407:126.96.36.199.4]
Cargo tanks, at the time of manufacture, shall be tested by a minimum air or hydrostatic pressure of 24.4 kg/m2 (5 psi) applied to the whole tank (or each compartment thereof if the tanks are compartmented) for a period of at least 5 minutes. [407:188.8.131.52]
If the test is by air pressure, the entire exterior surface of all joints shall be coated with a solution of soap and water, heavy oil, or other substance that causes foaming or bubbling that indicates the presence of leaks. [407:184.108.40.206.1]
Any leakage discovered by either of the methods described in 220.127.116.11.2.11.1 and 18.104.22.168.2.11.2, or by any other method, shall be considered evidence of failure to meet these requirements. [407:22.214.171.124.3]
All portions of the flammable liquid feed system shall be constructed and located to minimize the fire hazard. [407:126.96.36.199]
Piping and plumbing shall be of adequate strength for the purpose. [407:188.8.131.52]
Piping and plumbing shall be secured to avoid chafing or undue vibration. [407:184.108.40.206]
Piping and plumbing shall be supported adequately. [407:220.127.116.11]
Product piping shall be metal and rated for the system working pressure or at least 1030 kPa (150 psi), whichever is greater. [407:18.104.22.168]
Except as provided in 22.214.171.124.3.8, all joints shall be welded. [407:126.96.36.199]
Flanged connections or approved couplings shall be provided to avoid the need for cutting and welding where components are serviced or replaced. [407:188.8.131.52]
Gaskets in flanged connections shall be of a material and design that resist fire exposure for a time comparable to the flange and bolts. [407:184.108.40.206]
Gravity feed systems shall not be used. [407:220.127.116.11]
At the time of manufacture, the section of the fuel dispensing system that is under pressure during service shall be subjected to a hydrostatic test pressure equal to 150 percent of the working pressure of the system for at least 30 minutes and shall be proven tight before it is placed in service. [407:18.104.22.168]
Hose connections shall be permitted to be plugged during this test. [407:22.214.171.124.1]
Drop tubes shall be used. [407:126.96.36.199.1.1]
Splash filling shall be prohibited. [407:188.8.131.52.1.2]
Drop tubes used in top loading or overhead loading of tank vehicles shall be designed to minimize turbulence. [407:184.108.40.206.1.3]
Drop tubes shall be metallic. [407:220.127.116.11.1.4]
Drop tubes shall extend to the bottom of the tank or to the inside of the sump to maintain submerged loading and to avoid splashing of the fuel. [407:18.104.22.168.1.5]
The automatic secondary shutoff control shall not be used for normal filling control. [407:22.214.171.124.2.9]
Openings in cargo tank compartments that are connected to pipe or tubing shall be fitted with a spring-loaded check valve, a self-closing valve, or a similar device to prevent the accidental discharge of fuel in case of equipment malfunction or line breakage. [407:126.96.36.199]
Unless the valves required in 188.8.131.52.3.15 are located inside the tank, they shall be equipped with a shear section as described in 184.108.40.206.3.14. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
A means shall be provided to assure proper operation. [407:18.104.22.168.2]
All metallic components and vehicle or cart chassis shall be electrically bonded to prevent a difference in their electrostatic potential. [407:22.214.171.124]
Such bonding shall be inherent to the installation or by physical application of a suitable bonding mechanism. [407:126.96.36.199]
A provision shall be provided on the vehicle to bond the tank to a fill pipe or loading rack as specified in 188.8.131.52.11.10.1. [407:184.108.40.206]
Cables shall be provided on the vehicle or cart to allow the bonding operations specified in 220.127.116.11.5. [407:18.104.22.168]
Batteries that are not in engine compartments shall be securely mounted in compartments to prevent accidental arcing. [407:22.214.171.124]
The compartment shall be separate from fueling equipment. [407:126.96.36.199.1]
Suitable shielding shall be provided to drain possible fuel spillage or leakage away from the compartment. [407:188.8.131.52.2]
The compartment shall be provided with a vent at the top of the compartment. [407:184.108.40.206.3]
Wiring shall be of adequate size to provide the required current-carrying capacity and mechanical strength. [407:220.127.116.11]
Wiring shall be installed to provide protection from physical damage and from contact with spilled fuel either by its location or by enclosing it in metal conduit or other oil-resistant protective covering. [407:18.104.22.168.1]
All circuits shall have overcurrent protection. [407:22.214.171.124.2]
Junction boxes shall be weatherproofed. [407:126.96.36.199.3]
The vehicle shall be equipped with a battery disconnect switch. [407:188.8.131.52.4]
Spark plugs and other exposed terminal connections shall be insulated to prevent sparking in the event of contact with conductive materials. [407:184.108.40.206]
Motors, alternators, generators, and their associated control equipment located outside of the engine compartment or vehicle cab shall be of a type listed for use in accordance with NFPA 70, Class I, Division 1, Group D locations. [407:220.127.116.11]
Electrical equipment and wiring located within a closed compartment shall be of a type listed for use in accordance with NFPA 70, Class I, Division 1, Group D locations. [407:18.104.22.168]
Lamps, switching devices, and electronic controls, other than those covered in 22.214.171.124.6.4 and 126.96.36.199.6.5, shall be of the enclosed, gasketed, weatherproof type. [407:188.8.131.52]
Electronic equipment shall not be installed in compartments with other equipment that can produce flammable vapors, unless permitted by NFPA 70. [407:184.108.40.206]
Electrical service wiring between a tractor and trailer shall be designed for heavy-duty service. [407:220.127.116.11]
The connector shall be of the positive-engaging type. [407:18.104.22.168.1]
The trailer receptacle shall be mounted securely. [407:22.214.171.124.2]
Deadman controls shall be designed to preclude defeating their intended purpose. [407:126.96.36.199]
The system shall be designed to minimize surge pressure. [407:188.8.131.52.1]
The overshoot shall not exceed 5 percent of actual flow rate in L/min (gal/min) at the time the deadman is released. [407:184.108.40.206.2]
The control valve shall be located and designed so that it will not be rendered inoperative by a surface accident, power failure, or spill. [407:220.127.116.11.3]
On tank full trailer or tank semitrailer vehicles, the use of a pump in the tractor unit with flexible connections to the trailer shall be prohibited unless one of the following conditions exists:
- Flexible connections are arranged above the liquid level of the tank in order to prevent gravity or siphon discharge in case of a break in the connection or piping.
- The cargo tank discharge valves required by 18.104.22.168.7.1 are arranged to be normally closed and to open only when the brakes are set and the pump is engaged.
All cabinets, other than those housing electronic equipment, shall be vented to prevent the accumulation of fuel vapors. (See 22.214.171.124.6.) [407:126.96.36.199.1]
All cabinets, other than those housing electronic equipment, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. (See 188.8.131.52.6.) [407:184.108.40.206.2]
The emergency fuel shutoff controls shall be remote from the fill openings and discharge outlets and shall be operable from a ground level standing position. [407:220.127.116.11]
All vehicles or carts equipped with a top deck or elevating platform shall have an additional emergency shutoff control operable from the deck or platform. [407:18.104.22.168]
One listed fire extinguisher having a rating of at least 80-B:C shall be installed on each hydrant fuel servicing vehicle or cart. [407:22.214.171.124]
Extinguishers shall be readily accessible from the ground. [407:126.96.36.199]
The area of the paneling or tank adjacent to or immediately behind the extinguisher(s) on fueling vehicles or carts shall be painted a color contrasting with that of the extinguisher. [407:188.8.131.52]
Extinguishers shall be kept clear of elements such as ice and snow. [407:184.108.40.206]
Extinguishers located in enclosed compartments shall be readily accessible. [407:220.127.116.11]
The locations of extinguishers in enclosed compartments shall be marked clearly in letters of a contrasting color at least 50 mm (2 in.) high. [407:18.104.22.168]
Smoking equipment, such as cigarette lighter elements and ashtrays, shall not be provided. [407:22.214.171.124.1]
If a vehicle includes smoking equipment, it shall be removed or rendered inoperable. [407:126.96.36.199.2]
Subsection 188.8.131.52.10.8.2 shall be retroactive to existing vehicles. [407:184.108.40.206.3]
Aircraft fueling vehicles shall be marked with the name of the operator or the responsible organization. [407:220.127.116.11]
Each aircraft fuel servicing vehicle or cart shall have a signage viewable from all sides of the vehicle. [407:18.104.22.168]
Signs shall have letters at least 75 mm (3 in.) high. [407:22.214.171.124.1]
Signs shall be of a color contrasting sharply with the sign background for visibility. [407:126.96.36.199.2]
The words "FLAMMABLE," "NO SMOKING," and the name of the product carried, such as JET A, JET B, GASOLINE, or AVGAS, shall appear on each sign. [407:188.8.131.52.3]
The method of operation shall be indicated by an arrow or by the word PUSH or PULL, as appropriate. [407:184.108.40.206.2]
Any action necessary to gain access to the shutoff device (e.g., BREAK GLASS) shall be shown clearly. [407:220.127.116.11.3]
Lettering shall be of a color contrasting sharply with the placard background for visibility. [407:18.104.22.168.4]
Placards shall be weather resistant. [407:22.214.171.124.5]
A "NO SMOKING" sign shall be posted prominently in the cab of every aircraft fuel servicing vehicle. [407:126.96.36.199]
Hazardous material placards meeting the requirements of 49 CFR 172.504 or equivalent shall be displayed on all four sides of fuel servicing tank vehicles. [407:188.8.131.52]
Propulsion or power engine equipment shall be in a compartment housing that shall minimize the hazard of fire in the event of leakage or spillage of fuel during the servicing of an aircraft. [407:184.108.40.206]
The engine air intake shall retain the manufacturer's configuration to prevent the emission of flame in case of backfiring. [407:220.127.116.11]
Where provided, the sediment bowl in the fuel supply line shall be of steel or material of equivalent fire resistance. [407:18.104.22.168]
Full trailers and semitrailers, except tow carts with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) under 1360 kg (3000 lb), shall be equipped with service brakes on all wheels. [407:22.214.171.124]
All full trailers and semitrailers, including tow carts with a GVWR under 1360 kg (3000 lb), shall be equipped with parking brakes. [407:126.96.36.199]
Self-propelled aircraft fuel servicing vehicles shall have an integral system or device that prevents the vehicle from being moved unless all of the following conditions are met:
- All fueling nozzles and hydrant couplers are properly stowed.
- All mechanical lifts are lowered to their stowed position.
- Bottom-loading couplers have been disconnected from the vehicle.
The vehicle shall have a means to override the system or device required by 188.8.131.52.12.6 so that the vehicle can be moved during an emergency. [407:184.108.40.206]
The override control shall be clearly marked and accessible. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
A light to indicate activation of the override shall be located in the cabin and visible outside. [407:18.104.22.168.2]
The override control shall be secured in the normal position with a breakaway seal. [407:22.214.171.124.3]
The override control shall deactivate the fueling system. [407:126.96.36.199.4]
The engine exhaust system shall be designed, located, and installed to minimize the hazard of fire in the event of any of the following:
- Leakage of fuel from the vehicle or cart (where applicable) fuel tank or fuel system
- Leakage from the fuel dispensing system of the vehicle or cart
- Spillage or overflow of fuel from the vehicle or cart (if applicable) fuel tank or the cargo tank
- Spillage of fuel during the servicing of an aircraft
Exhaust system components shall be secured and located clear of components carrying flammable liquids and separated from any combustible materials used in the construction of the vehicle. [407:188.8.131.52]
Suitable shielding shall be provided to drain possible fuel spillage or leakage away from exhaust system components safely. [407:184.108.40.206]
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration system piping shall be shielded from the engine discharge manifold to the outlet at the tailpipe. [407:220.127.116.11.1]
DPF regeneration-equipped vehicles shall have a listed diffuser installed at the outlet of the exhaust tailpipe. [407:18.104.22.168.2]
Exhaust gases shall not be discharged where they could ignite fuel vapors that could be released during normal operations or by accidental spillage or by leakage of fuel. [407:22.214.171.124]
DPF regeneration-equipped vehicles shall have a lockout mode that will prevent automatic regeneration when these vehicles are operated within 30 m (100 ft) of aircraft parking areas. [407:126.96.36.199.1]
A muffler (or silencer) cutout shall not be provided. [407:188.8.131.52]
Carbureted gasoline-powered engines on fuel servicing vehicles shall be provided with flame- and spark-arresting exhaust systems. [407:184.108.40.206]
Non-turbo-charged diesel engines on fuel servicing vehicles shall be equipped with flame- and spark-arresting exhaust systems. [407:220.127.116.11]
Parking areas for unattended aircraft fuel servicing tank vehicles shall be arranged to provide the following:
- Dispersal of the vehicles in the event of an emergency
- A minimum of 3 m (10 ft) of clear space between parked vehicles for accessibility for fire control purposes
- Prevention of any leakage from draining to an adjacent building or storm drain that is not suitably designed to handle fuel
- A minimum of 15 m (50 ft) from any parked aircraft and buildings other than maintenance facilities and garages for fuel servicing tank vehicles
Parking areas for unattended aircraft fuel servicing hydrant vehicles or carts shall be arranged to provide the following:
- Dispersal of the vehicles in the event of an emergency
- Prevention of any leakage from draining to an adjacent building or storm drain that is not suitably designed to handle fuel
The authority having jurisdiction shall determine the suitability of tunnels, enclosed roadways, or other limited access areas for use by fuel servicing vehicles. [407:18.104.22.168]
The fueling operator shall monitor the fueling operation. [407:22.214.171.124]
During overwing fueling, the operator shall monitor the fill port. [407:126.96.36.199]
Aircraft fuel servicing vehicles or carts shall not be operated unless they are in proper repair and free of accumulations of grease, oil, or other combustibles. [407:188.8.131.52]
Leaking vehicles or carts shall be removed from service, defueled, and parked in a safe area until repaired. [407:184.108.40.206]
Maintenance and servicing of aircraft fuel servicing vehicles and carts shall be performed outdoors or in a building approved for the purpose. [407:220.127.116.11]
All vehicles that have engines equipped with an exhaust after-treatment device, such as a DPF, that requires the filter to be cleaned at high temperature (regenerated) while installed on the vehicle shall meet the requirements of 18.104.22.168.10.2 through 22.214.171.124.10.10. [407:126.96.36.199]
DPF regeneration shall be performed only in area(s) designated by the authority having jurisdiction. [407:188.8.131.52]
DPF regeneration shall not be performed within 30 m (100 ft) of any aircraft refueling operations. [407:184.108.40.206]
The area shall be clearly marked with a minimum 61 cm by 30 cm (2 ft by 1 ft) sign reading "Vehicle DPF Regeneration Area," which shall have letters at least 75 mm (3 in.) high and shall be of a color contrasting sharply with the sign background for visibility. [407:220.127.116.11.3]
The regeneration cycle shall be performed only by trained personnel, who shall remain with the vehicle until the regeneration cycle is complete. [407:18.104.22.168]
The vehicle shall be visually inspected for any signs of fluid leaks under or around the vehicle before regeneration is initiated. [407:22.214.171.124]
DPF regeneration shall not be initiated if there are any signs of any fluid leaks on or beneath the vehicle. [407:126.96.36.199]
Once a regeneration cycle is started, it shall be completed without interruption. [407:188.8.131.52]
After the regeneration process is successfully completed, the vehicle shall be permitted to return to normal service. [407:184.108.40.206]
Problems occurring during the regeneration cycle shall be corrected prior to the vehicle returning to normal service. [407:220.127.116.11]
Aircraft refueling operations shall not be initiated if the regenerative system indicates regeneration is required. [407:18.104.22.168]
Aircraft fuel servicing tank vehicles shall not be loaded from a hydrant pit, unless permitted by the authority having jurisdiction under emergency circumstances. [407:22.214.171.124]
Filling of the vehicle cargo tank shall be under the observation and control of a qualified and authorized operator at all times. [407:126.96.36.199]
The required deadman and automatic overfill controls shall be in normal operating condition during the filling operation. [407:188.8.131.52]
The controls shall not be blocked open or otherwise bypassed. [407:184.108.40.206]
To prevent leakage or overflow from expansion of the contents due to a rise in atmospheric temperature or direct exposure to the sun, no cargo tank or compartment shall be loaded to the point where it is liquid full. [407:220.127.116.11]
No cargo tank or compartment shall be loaded above the rated net capacity, as specified by the manufacturer's data plate. [407:18.104.22.168.1]
Space for thermal expansion, in no case less than 3 percent of the tank volume, shall be provided to prevent leakage. [407:22.214.171.124.2]
No fuel shall be transferred to or from any tank vehicle until the parking brake and wheel chocks have been set to prevent motion of the vehicle. [407:126.96.36.199]
The bond connection shall be made before the dome is opened and shall be removed only after the dome is closed. [407:188.8.131.52.2]
Splash filling shall be prohibited. [407:184.108.40.206.4]
The flow rate into the tanks shall not exceed 25 percent of the maximum flow until the outlet is fully covered. [407:220.127.116.11.5]
The level in the tank shall be visually monitored at all times during top loading. [407:18.104.22.168.7]