ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 1, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The design, construction, operation, and maintenance of soundstages and approved production facilities used in motion picture and television industry productions shall comply with NFPA 140 and Chapter 32.
Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 1.12.
Soundstages and approved production facilities shall maintain housekeeping in accordance with Chapters 10 and 19 where applicable.
Section 32.4 shall apply to new and existing motion picture and television soundstages and approved production facilities. [140:4.1]
Where required by the AHJ, a permit shall be obtained for any of the activities that follow:
  1. Use of pyrotechnic special effects
  2. Use of open flames
  3. Welding
  4. Use of flammable or combustible liquids or gases
  5. Use of aircraft
  6. Presence of motor vehicles within a building
  7. Productions with live audiences
  8. * Change of use or change of occupancy classification

[140:4.2]

The use of pyrotechnic special effects and open flames shall be subject to the approval of the AHJ. [140:4.3.1]
When an audience is present, NFPA 1126 shall be used to regulate any pyrotechnic use. [140:4.3.2]
When an audience is present, NFPA 160 shall be used to regulate any flame effects use. [140:4.3.3]
Where required by the AHJ, standby fire personnel shall be provided for soundstages and approved production facilities where pyrotechnic special effects are used. [140:4.4.1]
Where required by the AHJ, standby fire personnel shall be provided for hazardous operations, other than pyrotechnic special effects. [140:4.4.2]
Foamed plastic materials used for decorative purposes, scenery, sets, or props shall have a heat release rate not exceeding 100 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes, or where tested in accordance with NFPA 289, Standard Method of Fire Test for Individual Fuel Packages, using the 20 kW ignition source. [140:4.5.1]
Combustible drapes, drops, and any other similar combustible hangings or vertically placed materials shall comply with one of the following options:
  1. The materials meet the requirements of NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films.
  2. The materials exhibit a heat release rate not exceeding 100 kW when tested in accordance with NFPA 289, Standard Method of Fire Test for Individual Fuel Packages, using the 20 kW ignition source.
  3. The materials are present in such limited quantity that a hazard of fire development or spread is minimal.
  4. * The materials are considered by the AHJ to exhibit acceptable fire performance.
  5. * Approved interim measures are provided for the period during which the combustible materials are present.

[140:4.5.2]

Cut greens shall be treated with an approved or listed fire retardant, and the process shall be repeated as often as necessary to maintain its effectiveness. [140:4.5.3]
Smoking shall be prohibited on soundstages and in approved production facilities unless otherwise provided in 32.4.6.2 or 32.4.6.3. [140:4.6.1]
Smoking shall be permitted when it is a necessary part of a performance, and only when the smoker is a member of the cast. [140:4.6.2]
Except where prohibited by the AHJ, smoking shall be permitted where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The smoking area is outdoors.
  2. Hazardous materials are not present.
  3. Approved ash trays or receivers are provided.

[140:4.6.3]

Approved production facilities and soundstages shall be designed, constructed, or altered to sustain all structural load combinations in accordance with the local building code. [140:4.7.1]
Where the anticipated loads exceed those specified in the local building code for the purpose of suspending sets, ceilings, backings, and other heavy production set pieces, the building shall be designed and constructed for the additional loads. [140:4.7.2]
Electrical equipment shall be in accordance with Section 11.1. [140:4.8.1]
Soundstages and approved production facilities shall be provided with a minimum of 35 W/ft2 (377 W/m2) dedicated for production lighting and power. [140:4.8.2]
The electrical distribution equipment used shall comply with UL 1640, Standard for Portable Power-Distribution Equipment, and the provisions of Article 530 of NFPA 70. [140:4.8.3]
The wiring method to electrical distribution equipment shall comply with the provisions of Article 530 of NFPA 70. [140:4.8.4]
The location of portable, mobile, or stationary power-generating equipment shall be subject to the approval of the AHJ. [140:4.8.5]
Exterior penetrations shall be located near the predesignated location for portable and mobile power-generating equipment. [140:4.8.6]
Auxiliary power cables supplied from mobile generators or adjacent buildings shall not be routed through fire-rated windows and doors. [140:4.8.7]
Portable feeder cables shall be permitted to temporarily penetrate fire-rated walls, floors, or ceilings, provided that all of the following apply:
  1. The opening is of noncombustible material.
  2. When in use, the penetration is sealed with a temporary seal of a listed firestop material.
  3. When not in use, the opening shall be capped with a material of equivalent fire rating.

[140:4.8.8]

Where the penetration utilizes a conduit, metal-threaded caps shall be attached to the pipe by means of chain or cable and shall effectively cap the conduit when not in use. [140:4.8.9]
The lighting equipment used shall comply with UL 1573, Standard for Stage and Studio Luminaires and Connector Strips, and the provisions of Article 530 of NFPA 70. [140:4.8.10]
Fire department access shall be maintained as required by the AHJ. [140:4.9]
Means of egress shall be in accordance with NFPA 101 unless otherwise modified by 32.4.10.2 through 32.4.10.6. [140:4.10.1]
The maximum travel distance to an exit within the soundstage shall be 150 ft (45 m). [140:4.10.2]
Soundstages and approved production facilities shall have an aisle along the perimeter of the soundstage or facility as approved by the AHJ unless otherwise provided in 32.4.10.3.2. [140:4.10.3]
A clear unobstructed aisle height of 7 ft (2.1 m) shall be maintained. [140:4.10.3.1]
A soundstage or approved production facility with a gross area not exceeding 1500 ft2 (139 m2) shall be exempt from the perimeter aisle requirement of 32.4.10.3 provided there is a minimum of two means of egress. [140:4.10.3.2]
Emergency lighting shall be provided for the means of egress in accordance with NFPA 101. [140:4.10.4]
Any door in a required means of egress from an area having an occupant load of 100 or more persons shall be permitted to be provided with a latch or lock only if it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware. [140:4.10.5]
Means of egress shall be kept clear of obstructions and tripping hazards. [140:4.10.6]
When an audience is present, an announcement shall be made notifying the audience of the following:
  1. The location of exits to be used in case of fire or other emergency
  2. The means that will be used to notify the audience of fire or other emergency

[140:4.10.7]

Existing soundstages and existing approved production facilities equipped with automatic sprinkler systems shall maintain those systems in accordance with 13.3.3. [140:4.11.1.1]
A new soundstage or new approved production facility shall be equipped with an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system. [140:4.11.1.2]
The automatic sprinkler system required by 32.4.11.1.2 shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.3, unless otherwise provided in 32.4.11.1.3.1 or 32.4.11.1.3.2. [140:4.11.1.3]
The requirements of NFPA 13 prohibiting obstructions to sprinkler discharge shall not be applicable if approved mitigation is employed. [140:4.11.1.3.1]
The requirements of NFPA 13 prohibiting obstructions to sprinkler discharge shall not be applicable if the building sprinkler system meets the design criteria for Extra Hazard, Group 2. [140:4.11.1.3.2]
The automatic sprinkler system required by 32.4.11.1.2 shall be maintained in accordance with 13.3.3. [140:4.11.1.4]
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 13.6. [140:4.11.1.5]
Fire alarm system notification appliances within soundstages and approved production facilities shall be permitted to be deactivated with the approval of the AHJ during videotaping, filming, or broadcasting of programs provided the following conditions exist:
  1. In the event of alarm system activation, notification appliances shall activate at a location that is constantly attended during the videotaping, filming, or broadcasting of programs.
  2. The attendants of the location identified in 32.4.11.2(1) shall be provided with a means of communicating with the fire command center for the building, where one is provided, and with the occupants of the soundstage to initiate emergency action.
  3. Deactivation of notification appliances shall cause activation of a visual signal at an approved location, which shall remain illuminated while notification appliances on the soundstage are deactivated.
  4. The visual signal shall be identified by a sign that shall read, "When Illuminated, Soundstage Fire Alarm System Notification Appliances Are Deactivated."

[140:4.11.2]

Air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating ductwork and related equipment shall be in good working order and in compliance with the requirements of the AHJ. [140:4.12]
Section 32.5 shall apply to production locations. [140:5.1]
A permit shall be obtained, unless waived by the AHJ, for any of the following activities:
  1. * Use of the site as a production location
  2. Use of pyrotechnic special effects
  3. Use of open flames
  4. Welding
  5. Use of flammable or combustible liquids or gases
  6. Use of aircraft
  7. Presence of motor vehicles within a building

[140:5.2]

The use of pyrotechnic special effects and open flames shall be subject to the approval of the AHJ. [140:5.3.1]
When an audience is present, NFPA 1126 shall be used to regulate any pyrotechnic use. [140:5.3.2]
When an audience is present, NFPA 160 shall be used to regulate any flame effects use. [140:5.3.3]
Standby fire personnel shall be required for production locations where pyrotechnic special effects are used, unless otherwise waived by the AHJ. [140:5.4.1]
Where required by the AHJ, standby fire personnel shall be provided for hazardous operations, other than pyrotechnic special effects. [140:5.4.2]
Foamed plastic materials used for decorative purposes, scenery, sets, or props shall have a heat release rate not exceeding 100 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975, Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes, or where tested in accordance with NFPA 289, Standard Method of Fire Test for Individual Fuel Packages, using the 20 kW ignition source. [140:5.5]
Smoking shall be prohibited in production location buildings unless otherwise provided in 32.5.6.2 or 32.5.6.3. [140:5.6.1]
Smoking shall be permitted when it is a necessary part of a performance, and only when the smoker is a member of the cast. [140:5.6.2]
Except where prohibited by the AHJ, smoking shall be permitted where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The smoking area is outdoors.
  2. Hazardous materials are not present.
  3. Approved ash trays or receivers are provided.

[140:5.6.3]

Sets, scenery, and other equipment shall not impact the structural integrity of existing buildings. [140:5.7.1]
Additional loads applied onto the building shall require the approval of the AHJ. [140:5.7.2]
Electrical power connections made to the site electrical service shall be made by an approved electrician under permit from the AHJ. [140:5.8.1]
Portable cables shall be positioned to allow for emergency egress as approved by the AHJ. [140:5.8.2]
Auxiliary power cables supplied from mobile generators or adjacent buildings shall be permitted to be routed through fire-rated windows and doors with the approval of the AHJ. [140:5.8.3]
Where power from both mobile generators and site electrical services are used to energize equipment in the same proximate location at production locations, grounds for the two systems shall be bonded in accordance with NFPA 70. [140:5.8.4]
Fire department access shall be maintained as required by the AHJ. [140:5.9]
The production location shall be provided with means of egress appropriate for the intended use as approved by the AHJ. [140:5.10]
Building areas used as production locations shall be designed, constructed, and maintained to protect the occupants not intimate with the initial fire development for the time needed to evacuate, relocate, or defend in place. [140:5.11.1]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is provided for compliance with 32.5.11.1, the automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.3, unless otherwise provided in 32.5.11.4 or 32.5.11.5. [140:5.11.2]
In any production location building protected by an existing automatic sprinkler system, where solid- or hard-ceiling sets or platforms are introduced to create an obstruction to sprinkler discharge, the provisions of 32.5.11.4 or 32.5.11.5 shall be met. [140:5.11.3]
The requirements of NFPA 13 prohibiting obstructions to sprinkler discharge shall not be applicable if approved mitigation is employed. [140:5.11.4]
The requirements of NFPA 13 prohibiting obstructions to sprinkler discharge shall not be applicable if the building sprinkler system meets the design criteria for Extra Hazard, Group 2. [140:5.11.5]
Automatic sprinkler systems, where provided, shall be maintained in accordance with 13.3.3. [140:5.11.6]
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as required by the AHJ. [140:5.11.7]
Hydrants, standpipes, and fire department connections (FDCs) shall not be obstructed, blocked, or rendered inoperable unless approved by the AHJ. [140:5.11.8]
Waste or refuse shall not be allowed to accumulate in any area or in any manner that creates a fire hazard. [140:6.1]
The use, mixing, dispensing, and storage of flammable or combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this Code and the following codes, as applicable, unless otherwise permitted by 32.6.2.2:
  1. NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code (See Chapter 66.)
  2. NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code (See Chapter 69.)

[140:6.2.1]

Approved flammable or combustible liquids and liquefied petroleum gases used for special effects shall be permitted. [140:6.2.2]
Welding shall be in accordance with NFPA 51 and NFPA 51B. (See Chapter 41.) [140:6.3]
When an audience is present during productions, provisions for life safety and means of egress shall be subject to the approval of the AHJ. [140:6.4]
The production company shall provide a procedure acceptable to the AHJ for notifying the public emergency services of emergency incidents. [140:6.5]
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