Motor fuel dispensing facilities, marine/motor fuel dispensing facilities, motor fuel dispensing facilities located inside buildings, and fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 30.1 and 30.3 and NFPA 30A. Hydrogen fueling facilities shall comply with NFPA 2.
This chapter shall not apply to refueling operations. (For refueling operations, see Chapter 42.)
The occupancy classification of a motor fuel dispensing facility that is located inside a building or structure shall be a special purpose industrial occupancy as defined in NFPA 101 or as determined in accordance with the adopted building code. [30A:7.3.1]
In a motor fuel dispensing facility that is located inside a building or structure, the required number, location, and construction of means of egress shall meet all applicable requirements for special purpose industrial occupancies, as set forth in NFPA 101 or as determined in accordance with the adopted building code. [30A:7.3.3]
For an unattended, self-serve, motor fuel dispensing facility, additional fire protection shall be provided where required by the AHJ. [30A:188.8.131.52]
The fuel dispensing area shall be separated from all other portions of the building by walls, partitions, floors, and floor-ceiling assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. [30A:184.108.40.206]
Interior finish shall be of noncombustible materials or of approved limited-combustible materials, as defined in this Code and NFPA 220. [30A:220.127.116.11]
Door and window openings in fire-rated interior walls shall be provided with listed fire doors having a fire protection rating of not less than 11/2 hours. Doors shall be self-closing. They shall be permitted to remain open during normal operations if they are designed to close automatically in a fire emergency by means of listed closure devices. Fire doors shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80. They shall be kept unobstructed at all times. [30A:18.104.22.168]
Openings for ducts in fire-rated interior partitions and walls shall be protected by listed fire dampers. Openings for ducts in fire-rated floor or floor-ceiling assemblies shall be protected with enclosed shafts. Enclosure of shafts shall be with wall or partition assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Openings for ducts into enclosed shafts shall be protected with listed fire dampers. [30A:22.214.171.124]
The fuel dispensing area shall be located at street level, with no dispenser located more than 50 ft (15 m) from the vehicle exit to, or entrance from, the outside of the building. [30A:126.96.36.199]
The fuel dispensing area shall be limited to that required to serve not more than four vehicles at one time.
Exception: At a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility inside a building, where only Class II and Class III liquids are dispensed, the number of vehicles serviced at any one time shall be permitted to be increased to 12. [30A:188.8.131.52]
A mechanical exhaust system that serves only the fuel dispensing area shall be provided. This system shall meet all of the following requirements:
- The system shall be interlocked with the dispensing system so that airflow is established before any dispensing device can operate. Failure of airflow shall automatically shut down the dispensing system.
- The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air movement across all portions of the floor of the fuel dispensing area and to prevent the flowing of ignitible vapors beyond the dispensing area.
- Exhaust inlet ducts shall not be less than 3 in. (76 mm) or more than 12 in. (305 mm) above the floor. Exhaust ducts shall not be located in floors or penetrate the floor of the dispensing area. Exhaust ducts shall discharge to a safe location outside the building.
- The exhaust system shall provide ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 ft3/min/ft2 (0.3 m3/min/m2) of floor area, based on the fuel dispensing area.
- The exhaust system shall meet all applicable requirements of NFPA 91.
Exception: The provisions of 184.108.40.206 shall not apply to a fuel dispensing area located inside a building if two or more sides of the dispensing area are open to the building exterior. [30A:220.127.116.11]
The floor of the dispensing area shall be liquidtight. Where Class I liquids are dispensed, provisions shall be made to prevent spilled liquids from flowing out of the fuel dispensing area and into other areas of the building by means of curbs, scuppers, special drainage systems, or other means acceptable to the AHJ. [30A:18.104.22.168]
The construction and protection of, as well as the control of hazards in, garages used for major repair and maintenance of motorized vehicles and any sales and servicing facilities associated therewith shall comply with Sections 30.2 and 30.3 and NFPA 30A.
Repair garages servicing self-propelled vehicles powered by GH2 or LH2 shall comply with NFPA 2.
The occupancy classification of a repair garage shall be a special purpose industrial occupancy as defined in NFPA 101, or as determined in accordance with the adopted building code. [30A:7.4.1]
In major repair garages, where CNG-fueled vehicles, hydrogen-fueled vehicles, LNG-fueled vehicles, or LP-Gas-fueled vehicles are repaired, all applicable requirements of NFPA 2, NFPA 52, or NFPA 58, whichever is applicable, shall be met. [30A:7.4.2]
In a repair garage, the required number, location, and construction of means of egress shall meet all applicable requirements for special purpose industrial occupancies, as set forth in NFPA 101, or as determined in accordance with the adopted building code. [30A:7.4.3]
In areas of repair garages used for repair or servicing of vehicles, floor assemblies shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or, if combustible materials are used in the assembly, they shall be surfaced with approved, nonabsorbent, noncombustible material, except as indicated in 22.214.171.124. [30A:7.4.4]
Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 9.87 Btu/in.2 (0.45 W/cm2), as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted. [30A:126.96.36.199]
In areas of repair garages where vehicles are serviced, any floor drains shall be properly trapped and shall discharge through an oil/water separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump. [30A:188.8.131.52]
Pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work areas used for lubrication, inspection, and minor automotive maintenance work shall comply with the provisions of this chapter, in addition to other applicable requirements of NFPA 30A. [30A:184.108.40.206]
Walls, floors, and structural supports shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, steel, or other approved noncombustible materials. [30A:220.127.116.11]
In pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work areas, the required number, location, and construction of means of egress shall meet the requirements for special purpose industrial occupancies in Chapter 40 of NFPA 101, or in accordance with the adopted building code. [30A:18.104.22.168]
Pits, belowgrade work areas, and subfloor work areas shall be provided with exhaust ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 ft3/min/ft2 (0.3 m3/min/m2) of floor area at all times that the building is occupied or when vehicles are parked in or over these areas. Exhaust air shall be taken from a point within 12 in. (0.3 m) of the floor. [30A:22.214.171.124]
Automatic sprinkler protection installed in accordance with the requirements of Section 13.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings containing major repair garages, as herein defined, when any one of the following conditions exist:
- The building housing the major repair garage is two or more stories, including basements, and the aggregate area of the major repair garage exceeds 10,000 ft2 (930 m2).
- The major repair garage is one story and exceeds 12,000 ft2 (1115 m2).
- The major repair garage is servicing vehicles parked in the basement of the building.
Repair garages used for repair of vehicle engine fuel systems fueled by nonodorized gases shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system. Gas detection systems in repair garages for hydrogen vehicles shall be in accordance with NFPA 2. [30A:7.4.7]
The flammable gas detection system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication or chassis repair pits of repair garages used for repairing non-odorized LNG/CNG-fueled vehicles. [30A:126.96.36.199]
Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:
- Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage
- Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage
- Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, when the system is interlocked with gas detection
Forced air heating, air-conditioning, and ventilating systems serving a fuel dispensing area inside a building or a repair garage shall not be interconnected with any such systems serving other occupancies in the building. Such systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 90A. [30A:7.5.1]
Return air openings in areas of repair garages used for the repair or servicing of vehicles or in a fuel dispensing area shall be not less than 18 in. (455 mm) above floor level measured to the bottom of the openings. [30A:7.5.2]
Combined ventilation and heating systems shall not recirculate air from areas that are below grade level. [30A:7.5.3]
Exhaust duct openings shall be located so that they effectively remove vapor accumulations at floor level from all parts of the floor area. Where lighter-than-air gaseous fuel vehicles are repaired, exhaust duct openings shall be located so that they effectively remove vapor accumulations at the ceiling level. [30A:7.5.4]
Heat-producing appliances shall be of an approved type. Solid fuel stoves, improvised furnaces, salamanders, or space heaters shall not be permitted in areas of repair garages used for repairing or servicing of vehicles or in a fuel dispensing area.
Exception No. 1: Unit heaters, when installed in accordance with Chapter 7 of NFPA 30A, need not meet this requirement.
Exception No. 2: Heat-producing equipment for any lubrication room or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I or Class II liquids or LP-Gas, when installed in accordance with Chapter 7 of NFPA 30A, need not meet this requirement. [30A:7.6.2]
Heat-producing appliances shall be permitted to be installed in a special room that is separated from areas that are classified as Division 1 or Division 2, in accordance with Chapter 8 of NFPA 30A, by walls that are constructed to prevent the transmission of vapors, that have a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour, and that have no openings in the walls that lead to a classified area within 8 ft (2.4 m) of the floor. Specific small openings through the wall, such as for piping and electrical conduit, shall be permitted, provided the gaps and voids are filled with a fire-resistant material to resist transmission of vapors. All air for combustion purposes shall be taken from outside the building. This room shall not be used for storage of combustible materials, except for fuel storage as permitted by the standards referenced in 188.8.131.52. [30A:7.6.3]
Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel shall be permitted to be installed in a lubrication or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Class I liquids, including the open draining of automotive gasoline tanks, provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at least 18 in. (455 mm) above the floor and the appliances are protected from physical damage. [30A:7.6.4]
Heat-producing appliances using gas or oil fuel listed for use in garages shall be permitted to be installed in lubrication rooms, service rooms, or fuel dispensing areas where Class I liquids are dispensed or transferred, provided the equipment is installed at least 8 ft (2.4 m) above the floor. [30A:7.6.5]
Where major repairs are conducted on lighter-than-air-fueled vehicles, open flame heaters or heating equipment with exposed surfaces having a temperature in excess of 750°F (399°C) shall not be permitted in areas subject to ignitible concentrations of gas. [30A:7.6.6]
Electrical heat-producing appliances shall meet the requirements of Chapter 8 of NFPA 30A. [30A:7.6.7]
Fuels used shall be of the type and quality specified by the manufacturer of the heating appliance. Crankcase drainings shall not be used in oil-fired appliances, unless the appliances are specifically approved for such use. [30A:7.6.8]
Heat-producing appliances shall be installed to meet the requirements of NFPA 31, NFPA 54, NFPA 82, NFPA 90A, and NFPA 211 as applicable, except as hereinafter specifically provided. [30A:7.6.9]
Operations conducted in motor fuel dispensing facilities and repair garages shall comply with Section 42.7.