ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 1, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The construction and protection of aircraft hangars from fire shall comply with this section; NFPA 409, NFPA 410, and Sections 40.6 and 42.6 of NFPA 101.
Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 1.12.
Fire department access roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Section 18.2 for all aircraft hangars.
Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft hangars.
Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.9.
The requirements of Sections 40.1 through 40.5 of NFPA 101 shall be met, except as modified by 21.1.4.2 through 21.1.4.4. [101:40.6.1]
The requirements for exits from aircraft servicing areas shall comply with 21.1.4.2.1 through 21.1.4.2.4. [101:40.6.2]
There shall be not less than two means of egress from each aircraft servicing area. [101:40.6.2.1]
Exits from aircraft servicing areas shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 150 ft (46 m) on all exterior walls. [101:40.6.2.2]
Where horizontal exits are provided, doors shall be provided in the horizontal exit fire barrier at intervals not exceeding 100 ft (30 m). [101:40.6.2.3]
Where dwarf, or "smash," doors are provided in doors that accommodate aircraft, such doors shall be permitted for compliance with 21.1.4.2.1 through 21.1.4.2.3. [101:40.6.2.4]
Means of egress from mezzanine floors in aircraft servicing areas shall be arranged so that the travel distance to the nearest exit from any point on the mezzanine does not exceed 75 ft (23 m), and such means of egress shall lead directly to a properly enclosed stair discharging directly to the exterior, to a suitable cutoff area, or to outside stairs. [101:40.6.3]
Dead ends shall not exceed 50 ft (15 m) for other than high hazard contents areas and shall not be permitted for high hazard contents areas. [101:40.6.4]
The requirements of Sections 42.1 through 42.5 of NFPA 101 shall be met, except as modified by 21.1.5.1.1 through 21.1.5.1.3. [101:42.6.1]
There shall be not less than two means of egress from each aircraft storage area. [101:42.6.1.1]
Exits from aircraft storage areas shall be provided at intervals not exceeding 150 ft (46 m) on all exterior walls. [101:42.6.1.2]
Where horizontal exits are provided, doors shall be provided in the horizontal exit fire barrier at intervals not exceeding 100 ft (30 m). [101:42.6.1.3]
Where dwarf, or "smash," doors are provided in doors that accommodate aircraft, such doors shall be permitted for compliance with 21.1.5.1.1, 21.1.5.1.2, and 21.1.5.1.3. [101:42.6.1.4]
Means of egress from mezzanine floors in aircraft storage areas shall be arranged so that the travel distance to the nearest exit from any point on the mezzanine does not exceed 75 ft (23 m), and such means of egress shall lead directly to a properly enclosed stair discharging directly to the exterior, to a suitable cutoff area, or to outside stairs. [101:42.6.2]
Dead ends shall not exceed 50 ft (15 m) for other than high hazard contents areas and shall not be permitted for high hazard contents areas. [101:42.6.3]
Airport terminal buildings shall comply with the requirements of Section 21.2 and NFPA 415.
Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 1.12.
Fire department access roads for all airport terminal buildings shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Section 18.2.
Smoking shall be prohibited in fuel ramp areas and loading walkways.
Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.9.
Airport terminal buildings shall be of Type I, Type II, or Type IV construction, as defined in NFPA 220.
Interior finish materials shall be limited to Class A or Class B regardless of the occupant load. [415:4.1.2]
Aircraft fueling facilities and ramps shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 407, and Chapter 5 of NFPA 415. [415:4.1.3]
Belowgrade areas and blind spaces in airport terminal buildings shall be protected against flammable fuel and vapor penetration or shall be mechanically ventilated to provide at least four complete air changes per hour. The mechanical ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 91. [415:4.1.4]
Openings covered with glazing material that have the lowest part of the glazing material not less than 7 ft (2.1 m) above each finished floor level shall not be required to comply with 21.2.4.5.3. [415:4.1.5.1]
Openings covered with glazing material listed for use in a fire barrier and installed in accordance with the listing shall not be required to comply with 21.2.4.5.3. [415:4.1.5.2]
Where potential fuel spill points are located less than 100 ft (30.5 m) horizontally from glazing material-covered openings in airport terminal building walls facing the airport ramp, they shall be provided with an automatically activated water spray system in accordance with 21.2.4.5.3.1 or an automatically activated, listed fire shutter system in accordance with 21.2.4.5.3.2. (See Annex C of NFPA 415.) [415:4.1.5.3]
Where an automatically activated water spray system(s) is provided, it shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 15. [415:4.1.5.3.1]
The system shall be designed to provide a density of at least 0.25 gpm/ft2 [10.2 (L/min)/m2] over the exterior surface area of the glazing material. [415:4.1.5.3.1.1]
Where multiple water spray systems are used, the water supply shall be capable of supplying all systems that could be expected to operate as a result of one fire incident. [415:4.1.5.3.1.2]
The detection system design analysis for the water spray system shall include consideration of false alarms and detector response time. [415:4.1.5.3.1.3]
Where an automatically activated, listed fire shutter is provided, it shall be installed in accordance with its listing. [415:4.1.5.3.2]
Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 11.2 and Section 11.5, as applicable.
Air supply intake and exhaust openings for air-conditioning or ventilating equipment serving the terminal building, if located on the ramp side, shall be not less than 10 ft (3 m) above the grade level of the ramp and shall be at least 50 ft (15 m) from any point of flammable vapor release. [415:4.2.2]
Openings to rooms that contain coal-, gas-, or oil-fired equipment or any other open-flame device and that face the ramp side of the terminal shall be above ramp grade and 50 ft (15 m) from any point of flammable vapor release. [415:4.2.3]
Stacks or chimneys from a boiler, heater, or incinerator shall terminate at least 20 ft (6.1 m) above ramp grade and above the roof of the building. Stacks or chimneys from boilers or heaters that use solid fuel or from any incinerator shall be fitted with double screening to control fly ash and sparks. Such stacks or chimneys shall be located so the outlet is at least 100 ft (30.5 m) horizontally from any aircraft position or point of flammable vapor release. [415:4.2.4]
Incinerators shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 4 of NFPA 82. [415:4.2.5]
Exhaust hood ventilation systems for restaurant and flight kitchens shall conform to the applicable portions of Chapter 50. [415:4.2.6]
Airport terminal building means of egress shall conform to the requirements of NFPA 101. [415:4.3.1]
In addition to the exit signage requirements specified in NFPA 101, doors serving as exits that discharge onto an airport ramp and are provided solely for the purpose of meeting emergency egress requirements from public areas shall be placarded "Emergency Exit Only" in letters at least 2 in. (50 mm) high. [415:4.3.2]
An airport terminal building with more than 12,000 ft2 (1115 m2) total floor area for the assembly portion of the occupancy shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 13.3. [415:4.5.1.1]
Terminal buildings with less than 12,000 ft2 (1115 m2) total floor area for the assembly portion of the occupancy shall not be required to be provided with an automatic sprinkler system. [415:4.5.1.2]
Passenger-handling areas shall be classified as Ordinary Hazard Group 1 Occupancy, as defined in NFPA 13, for the purpose of sprinkler system design. [415:4.5.1.3]
Baggage, package, and mail-handling areas shall be classified as Ordinary Hazard Group 2 Occupancy, as defined in NFPA 13, for the purpose of sprinkler system design. [415:4.5.1.4]
Other areas of the airport terminal building shall be classified in accordance with Chapter 5 of NFPA 13, based on the occupancy of the area. [415:4.5.1.5]
Airport terminal buildings having canopy areas or roofed-over recesses at aircraft loading positions that, in effect, place the aircraft totally or substantially under such canopies or roofs shall have the canopies or roofs protected by automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with NFPA 409. [415:4.5.1.6]
A fire alarm and communications system shall be installed as required by 13.7.2.1. [415:4.5.2]
Means to alert the public fire department or the airport fire station shall be available through manual fire alarm pull stations. Manual fire alarm services shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72. [415:4.5.2.1]
Annunciation for all building fire alarm signals shall be provided near the front entrance of the building. [415:4.5.2.2]
If the public fire department has two-way voice communication with a constantly attended location, 21.2.8.2 shall not apply. [415:4.5.2.3]
Fire hydrants shall be provided on both the ramp and the street sides of airport terminal buildings. Such hydrants shall be located so that no portion of the terminal building is more than 500 ft (152.4 m) from a hydrant. [415:4.5.3]
Standpipe and hose systems shall be provided for all airport terminal buildings in excess of two stories [35 ft (10.7 m)] in height or 100 ft (30.5 m) in shortest horizontal dimension. Standpipe and hose systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.2. [415:4.5.4]
Class I standpipe systems shall be provided in buildings protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Each 21/2 in. (63.5 mm) hose connection shall be equipped with a 21/2 in. × 11/2 in. (63.5 mm × 38 mm) reducer and cap. [415:4.5.4.1]
Class III standpipe systems shall be provided in nonsprinklered buildings. Paragraphs 5.3.3.1 and 5.3.3.2 of NFPA 14 for Class III systems shall be applicable to this requirement. [415:4.5.4.2]
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided throughout the airport terminal building in accordance with Section 13.6. [415:4.5.6]
Rooftop heliport construction and protection shall comply with Section 21.3 and NFPA 418.
Section 21.3 shall not apply to ground level helicopter hangars. All hangars not covered by this section shall comply with NFPA 409.
Temporary landing sites and emergency evacuation facilities shall not be required to comply with Section 21.3.
Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 1.12.
Fire department access roads for all buildings with a rooftop heliport shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Section 18.2.
Smoking shall be prohibited at rooftop heliports.
Smoking shall be in accordance with Section 10.9.
The design drawings for the construction and protection of the heliport shall be approved by the AHJ. [418:4.2.1]
The design of the heliport, including all the aeronautical components, shall be in accordance with FAA AC 150/5390-2C, Heliport Design Advisory Circular. [418:4.2.2]
The final approach and takeoff (FATO) area, the approach/departure path, and the touchdown and liftoff (TLOF) area shall be designated on the design drawings. [418:4.2.3]
Storage, handling, and use of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 66. [418:4.3.1]
Oxygen and other medical gases shall be stored and used in accordance with NFPA 99. [418:4.3.2]
Aboveground flammable liquid storage tanks, compressed gas storage tanks, fuel storage tanks, and liquefied gas storage tanks shall be laterally located at least 50 ft (15.2 m) from the edge of the final approach and takeoff (FATO) area as defined in FAA AC 150/5390-2C, Heliport Design Advisory Circular. [418:4.3.3]
The heliport shall have at least two access points for fire-fighting/rescue personnel. The access points shall be located at least 90 degrees from each other as measured from the center of the landing pad (TLOF). [418:4.4.1]
Fences shall not prevent access by fire-fighting/rescue personnel. [418:4.4.2]
The landing pad shall be designed so that fuel spills are directed away from access/egress points and passenger holding areas. [418:4.5]
No smoking shall be permitted within 50 ft (15.2 m) of the landing pad edge. [418:4.6.1]
NO SMOKING signs shall be erected at access/egress points to the heliport. [418:4.6.2]
Fueling systems shall be designed in accordance with Section 42.10. [418:4.7]
Fueling equipment shall not hinder or obstruct access to exits or fire-fighting equipment. [418:4.7.1]
Fueling equipment shall be located a minimum of 25 ft (7.6 m) from hangars and fixed fire protection equipment. [418:4.7.2]
Fuel servicing equipment shall be designed to not penetrate the FATO and safety area obstruction clearance requirements in FAA AC 150/5390-2C, Heliport Design Advisory Circular. [418:4.7.3]
At least two means of egress that lead to a public way shall be provided from the landing pad. [418:4.8]
The egress points shall be located at least 90 degrees from each other as measured from the center of the landing pad (TLOF). [418:4.8.1]
The egress points shall be located remotely from each other, not less than 30 ft (9.1 m) apart. [418:4.8.2]
No two egress points shall be located on the same side of the landing pad. [418:4.8.3]
Main structural support members that could be exposed to a fuel spill shall be made fire resistant using listed materials and methods to provide a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. [418:5.2]
The rooftop landing pad shall be pitched to provide drainage at a slope of 0.5 percent to 2 percent. [418:5.3]
The pitch of the pad shall be designed to protect, at a minimum, the primary egress path, passenger holding area, rooftop hangar, and fire protection activation systems. [418:5.3.1]
Drainage flow shall not penetrate alternate egress points, stairways, ramps, hatches, and other openings not designed for drainage. [418:5.3.2]
The pitch of the pad shall not be required where the pad consists of a passive fire protection grid surface designed and listed for fuel catchment and containment. [418:5.3.3]
The rooftop landing pad surface shall be constructed of approved noncombustible, nonporous materials. [418:5.4.1]
The contiguous building roof covering within 50 ft (15.2 m) of the landing pad edge shall have a Class A fire resistance rating for exterior fire exposure, and shall be tested according to FM 4470, Approval for Class 1 Roof Covers; ANSI/UL 790, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Covering, or ASTM E108, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings. [418:5.4.2]
Two means of egress from the rooftop landing pad to the building's egress system shall be provided. [418:5.5]
The egress points shall be located at least 90 degrees from each other as measured from the center of the landing pad (TLOF). [418:5.5.1]
The egress points shall be remotely located from each other, not less than 30 ft (9.1 m) apart. [418:5.5.2]
No two egress points shall be located on the same side of the rooftop landing pad. [418:5.5.3]
Means of egress from the landing pad shall not obstruct flight operations. [418:5.5.4]
A foam fire-extinguishing system with either a fixed discharge outlet(s) in accordance with 21.3.4.6.2.1 or a hose line(s) in accordance with 21.3.4.6.3.1 shall be designed and installed to protect the rooftop landing pad, unless otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. A foam fire-extinguishing system shall not be required for heliports located on open parking structures or buildings that are not normally occupied.
  2. For H-1 heliports, two portable foam extinguishers, each having a rating of 20-A:160-B, shall be permitted to be used to satisfy the requirement of 21.3.4.6.

[418:5.7.1]

Where trained personnel are not available, fixed fire protection outlet(s) shall be provided. [418:5.7.1.1]
The foam discharge rate for the fire-extinguishing system shall be 0.10 gpm/ft2 (4.1 L/min•m2) for aqueous film forming foam (AFFF). [418:5.7.1.2]
Where freezing is possible, freeze protection shall be provided. [418:5.7.1.3]
The foam components shall be installed in an area of the heliport and shall not penetrate the approach takeoff surface, transitional surfaces, and safety area as defined in FAA AC 150/5390-2C, Heliport Design Advisory Circular. [418:5.7.1.4]
Fixed foam fire-extinguishing systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 11, NFPA 16, or an equivalent standard, as appropriate, except as modified by Chapter 5 of NFPA 418. [418:5.7.2.1]
The area of application of foam discharge for fixed discharge outlet systems shall be the entire rooftop landing pad. [418:5.7.2.2]
The duration of foam discharge for the fixed discharge outlet system shall be 10 minutes. [418:5.7.2.3]
A fixed nozzle discharge outlet system shall be one of the following: fixed stationary nozzles around the perimeter, two or more oscillating monitors/nozzles, or in-deck nozzles within the perimeter of the deck. [418: 5.7.2.4]
Where fixed foam systems utilizing fixed deck nozzles or oscillating foam turrets, or both, are installed, system components shall be listed or approved. [418:5.7.2.5]
The fixed discharge outlet system shall be activated manually. [418:5.7.2.6.1]
Manual actuation stations shall be located at each egress point from the rooftop landing pad and at an approved location inside the building from which the rooftop landing pad can be viewed. [418:5.7.2.6.2]
Manual foam activation stations shall be clearly labeled or identified as to the purpose and hazard protected. [418:5.7.2.6.3]
Where buildings are provided with a fire alarm system, the activation of the foam system shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72. [418:5.7.2.6.4]
An approved manual control for foam system shutdown shall be accessible at all times, including the time of fire and system operation. [418:5.7.2.6.5]
The area of application of foam discharge for hose line systems shall be the practical critical fire area for the category of the helicopter landing facility in accordance with Table 21.3.4.6.3.1. [418:5.7.3.1]

Table 21.3.4.6.3.1 Practical Critical Fire Areas for Hose Line Systems Only

Heliport Category Helicopter Overall Length* Practical Critical Fire Area
ft2 m2
H-1 Less than 50 ft (15.2 m) 375 34.8
H-2 50 ft (15.2 m) up to but not including 80 ft (24.4 m) 840 78.0
H-3 80 ft (24.4 m) up to but not including 120 ft (36.6 m) 1440 133.8

*Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors.
[418: Table 5.7.3.1]

The duration of foam discharge for the hose line systems shall be 2 minutes. [418:5.7.3.2]
Standpipes and hose stations, if used, shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.4. [418:5.7.4]
The water supply for the foam system shall be from a source approved by the AHJ. [418:5.7.5.1]
Fire pumps, if used, shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.4. [418:5.7.5.2]
The supply of foam concentrate shall be sufficient to supply the largest system. [418:5.7.6.1]
The foam concentrate for the fixed system or manual fire-fighting equipment shall be listed in accordance with UL 162, Standard for Foam Equipment and Liquid Concentrates, and shall be on the qualified products list for MIL-F-24385, or equivalent. [418:5.7.6.2]
A means of communication shall be provided from the roof area to notify the fire department of emergencies. [418:5.7.7.1]
Where buildings are provided with a fire alarm system, a manual pull station shall be provided for each designated means of egress from the roof. (See 21.3.4.4.) [418:5.7.7.2]
The fixed foam discharge outlet system shall be tested with foam to determine the coverage of the rooftop landing pad. [418:5.7.8.1]
The system shall cover 95 percent of the rooftop landing pad during the test. [418:5.7.8.1.1]
The access points for fire-fighting and for egress shall be covered. [418:5.7.8.1.2]
The hose handlines shall be flow tested to demonstrate that the design objectives are met. [418:5.7.8.2]
Fire protection systems installed in accordance with NFPA 14 or NFPA 16 shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. [418:5.7.9.1]
Foam systems installed in accordance with NFPA 11 shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 11. [418:5.7.9.2]
At least one portable fire extinguisher as specified in Table 21.3.5.1 shall be provided for each takeoff and landing area, parking area, and fuel storage area. [418:9.2]

Table 21.3.5.1 Minimum Ratings of Portable Fire Extinguishers for Heliport Categories

Heliport Category Helicopter Overall Length* Minimum Rating
H-1 Less than 50 ft (15.2 m) 4-A:80-B
H-2 50 ft (15.2 m) up to but not including 80 ft (24.4 m) 10-A:120-B
H-3 80 ft (24.4 m) up to but not including 120 ft (36.6 m) 30-A:240-B

*Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors.
[418: Table 9.2]

Where the portable extinguisher cannot be maintained and safeguarded against damage, theft, or tampering, the portable fire extinguisher shall be omitted with the approval of the AHJ. [418:9.3]
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