ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 1, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Section 11.1 shall apply to permanent and temporary electrical appliances, equipment, fixtures, and wiring.
All new electrical wiring, fixtures, appliances and equipment shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70.
Unless determined to present an imminent danger, existing electrical wiring, fixtures, appliances, and equipment shall be permitted to be maintained in accordance with the edition of NFPA 70 in effect at the time of the installation.
Permanent wiring abandoned in place shall be tagged or otherwise identified at its termination and junction points as "Abandoned in Place" or removed from all accessible areas and insulated from contact with other live electrical wiring or devices.
Multiplug adapters, such as multiplug extension cords, cube adapters, strip plugs, and other devices, shall be listed and used in accordance with their listing.
Multiplug adapters shall not be used as a substitute for permanent wiring or receptacles.
Relocatable power taps shall be listed to UL 1363, Standard for Relocatable Power Taps, or UL 1363A, Outline of Investigation for Special Purpose Relocatable Power Taps, where applicable.
The relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle.
Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings, or floors; under doors or floor coverings; or be subject to environmental or physical damage.
Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap, or multiplug adapter and shall, except for approved multiplug extension cords, serve only one portable appliance.
The ampacity of the extension cords shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.
The extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration, or damage.
Extension cords shall be grounded when servicing grounded portable appliances.
Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures; extend through walls, ceilings, or floors, or under doors or floor coverings; or be subject to environmental or physical damage.
Extension cords shall not be used as a substitute for permanent wiring.
The provisions of 11.1.6 shall apply to temporary electric power and lighting installations. [70:590.1]
Except as specifically modified in Article 590 of NFPA 70, all other requirements of NFPA 70 for permanent wiring shall apply to temporary wiring installations. [70:590.2(A)]
Temporary wiring methods shall be acceptable only if approved based on the conditions of use and any special requirements of the temporary installation. [70:590.2(B)]
Temporary electric power and lighting installations shall be permitted during the period of construction, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment, or similar activities. [70:590.3(A)]
Temporary electric power and lighting installations shall be permitted for a period not to exceed 90 days for holiday decorative lighting and similar purposes. [70:590.3(B)]
Temporary electric power and lighting installations shall be permitted during emergencies and for tests, experiments, and developmental work. [70:590.3(C)]
Temporary wiring shall be removed immediately upon completion of construction or purpose for which the wiring was installed. [70:590.3(D)]
Means shall be provided for the fire department to disconnect the electrical service to a building, structure, or facility when the electrical installation is covered under the scope of NFPA 70.
The disconnecting means shall be maintained accessible to the fire department.
Each disconnecting means shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. The marking shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved. [70:110.22(A)]
All panelboard and switchboards, pull boxes, junction boxes, switches, receptacles, and conduit bodies shall be provided with covers compatible with the box or conduit body construction and suitable for the conditions of use.
Air-conditioning, heating, ventilating ductwork, and related equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 90A or NFPA 90B as applicable, unless such installations are approved existing installations, which shall be permitted to be continued in service. [101:9.2.1]
Ventilating or heat-producing equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 91, NFPA 211, NFPA 31, NFPA 54, or NFPA 70, as applicable, unless such installations are approved existing installations, which shall be permitted to be continued in service. [101:9.2.2]
All new elevators shall conform to the fire fighters' emergency operations requirements of ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. [101:9.4.3.1]
All existing elevators having a travel distance of 25 ft (7620 mm) or more above or below the level that best serves the needs of emergency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall conform to the fire fighters' emergency operations requirements of ASME A17.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators and Escalators. [101:9.4.3.2]
The number of elevator cars permitted in a hoistway shall be in accordance with 8.6.9.4 of NFPA 101. [101:9.4.4]
Elevator machine rooms that contain solid-state equipment for elevators, other than existing elevators, having a travel distance exceeding 50 ft (15 m) above the level of exit discharge or exceeding 30 ft (9.1 m) below the level of exit discharge shall be provided with independent ventilation or air-conditioning systems to maintain temperature during fire fighters' emergency operations for elevator operation (see 11.3.1). The operating temperature shall be established by the elevator equipment manufacturer's specifications. When standby power is connected to the elevator, the machine room ventilation or air-conditioning shall be connected to standby power. [101:9.4.5]
Elevators shall be subject to periodic inspections and tests as specified in ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. [101:9.4.6.1]
All elevators equipped with fire fighters' emergency operations in accordance with 11.3.1 shall be subject to a monthly operation with a written record of the findings made and kept on the premises as required by ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. [101:9.4.6.2]
The elevator inspections and tests required by 11.3.4.1 shall be performed at frequencies complying with one of the following:
  1. Inspection and test frequencies specified in Appendix N of ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators
  2. Inspection and test frequencies specified by the AHJ

[101:9.4.6.3]

Conveyors, elevators, dumbwaiters, and pneumatic conveyors serving various stories of a building shall not open to an exit enclosure. [101: 9.4.7]
Buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access elevator shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire service key complying with ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, except as otherwise permitted by 11.3.6.
Existing buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall or Phase II emergency in-car operation shall be permitted to comply with 11.3.6.3.
Existing buildings shall be in compliance with the provisions of 11.3.6.3.1 one year after adoption by the AHJ.
Where a standardized key cylinder cannot be installed in an existing elevator key switch assembly, the building's nonstandardized fire service elevator keys shall be provided in an access box in accordance with 11.3.6.3.1.1 through 11.3.6.3.1.6.
The access box shall be compatible with an existing rapid-entry access box system in use in the jurisdiction and approved by the AHJ.
The front cover shall be permanently labeled with the words "Fire Department Use Only — Elevator Keys."
The access box shall be mounted at each elevator bank at the lobby nearest to the lowest level of fire department access.
The access box shall be mounted at a location approved by the AHJ.
Contents of the access box shall be limited to the fire service elevator key. Additional elevator access tools, keys, and information pertinent to emergency planning or elevator access shall be permitted when authorized by the AHJ.
In buildings with two or more elevator banks, a single access box shall be permitted to be used where such elevator banks are separated by not more than 30 ft (9140 mm). Additional access boxes shall be provided for each individual elevator or elevator bank separated by more than 30 ft (9140 mm).
A single access box shall be permitted to be located adjacent to a fire command center, or the nonstandard fire service elevator key shall be secured in an access box used for other purposes and located in accordance with 18.2.2.1 when approved by the AHJ.
An approved method to prevent automatic sprinkler water from infiltrating into the hoistway enclosure from the operation of the automatic sprinkler system outside the enclosed occupant evacuation elevator lobby shall be provided where the hoistway serves elevators in accordance with any of the following:
  1. Occupant-controlled evacuation elevators in accordance with Section 7.14 of NFPA 101
  2. Occupant-controlled evacuation elevators in accordance with the building code
  3. Fire service access elevators in accordance with the building code
Equipment using fuel gas and related gas piping shall be in accordance with NFPA 54 or NFPA 58. (See Chapter 69 for LP-Gas fuel supply and storage installations.)
Existing installations shall be permitted to be continued in service, subject to approval by the AHJ.
Aboveground gas meters, regulators, and piping exposed to vehicular damage shall be protected in accordance with 60.5.1.9.
The installation of stationary liquid fuel-burning appliances, including but not limited to industrial-, commercial-, and residential-type steam, hot water, or warm air heating appliances; domestic-type range burners; space heaters; and portable liquid fuel-burning equipment shall comply with Section 11.5 and NFPA 31.
Section 11.5 shall also apply to all accessories and control systems, whether electric, thermostatic, or mechanical, and all electrical wiring connected to liquid fuel-burning appliances. [31:1.1.2]
Section 11.5 shall also apply to the installation of liquid fuel storage and supply systems connected to liquid fuel-burning appliances. [31:1.1.3]
Section 11.5 shall also apply to those multifueled appliances in which a liquid fuel is one of the standard or optional fuels. [31:1.1.4]
Section 11.5 shall not apply to internal combustion engines, oil lamps, or portable devices not specifically covered in NFPA 31. (See Chapter 11 of NFPA 31 for portable devices that are covered in NFPA 31.) [31:1.1.5]
The installation of gas-fired heating appliances shall comply with Section 11.5 and NFPA 54. (See Chapter 69 for LP-Gas fuel supply and storage installations.)
All heating appliances shall be approved or listed.
Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 1.12.
Electrical wiring and utilization equipment used in connection with oil-burning appliances or equipment shall be installed in accordance with Section 11.1. [31:4.4.1]
The type and grade of liquid fuel used in a liquid fuel-burning appliance shall be that liquid fuel for which the appliance is listed and approved or is stipulated by the manufacturer. Liquid fuels shall meet one of the following specifications and shall not contain gasoline or any other flammable liquid:
  1. ASTM D396, Standard Specification for Fuel Oils
  2. ASTM D3699, Standard Specification for Kerosene
  3. ASTM D6448, Industrial Burner Fuels from Used Lube Oils
  4. ASTM D6751, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuel
  5. ASTM D6823, Commercial Burner Fuels from Used Lube Oils

[31:4.5.1]

Appliances that burn crankcase oil or used oil shall not be used in a residential occupancy. Such appliances shall only be used if all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The installation is in a commercial or industrial occupancy.
  2. The oil-burning appliance is designed to burn crankcase oil or used oil and is listed for such use.
  3. The appliance is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and with the terms of its listing.
  4. The installation meets the applicable requirements of Section 4.6 and Chapter 12 of NFPA 31.

[31:4.5.2]

Where heavy oils are used, the following shall be required:
  1. The oil-burning appliance shall be designed to burn such fuels.
  2. Means shall be provided to maintain the oil at its proper atomizing temperature.
  3. Automatically operated burners that require preheating of oil shall be arranged so that no oil can be delivered for combustion until the oil is at the proper atomizing temperature.
  4. * Use of an oil-fired appliance that is listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 296A, Standard for Waste Oil-Burning Air-Heating Appliances, shall be deemed as meeting the intent of 11.5.1.10.3(1) through 11.5.1.10.3(3).

[31:4.5.3]

A properly sized and rated oil filter or strainer shall be installed in the oil supply line to an oil burner. [31:4.5.4]
Clothes dryers shall be cleaned to maintain the lint trap and keep the mechanical and heating components free from excessive accumulations of lint.
The requirements of 11.5.1.11.1 shall not apply to clothes dryers in individual dwelling units of residential occupancies.
Kerosene burners and oil stoves shall be equipped with a primary safety control furnished as an integral part of the appliance by the manufacturer to stop the flow of oil in the event of flame failure. Barometric oil feed shall not be considered a primary safety control.
A conversion range oil burner shall be equipped with a thermal (heat-actuated) valve in the oil supply line, located in the burner compartment of the stove.
Kerosene heaters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 647, Standard for Unvented Kerosene-Fired Room Heaters and Portable Heaters, and their use shall meet all of the following:
  1. Adequate ventilation shall be provided.
  2. Kerosene heaters shall not be placed on carpeting.
  3. Kerosene heaters shall be located not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) from combustible furnishings and drapes.
  4. Only approved Type 1-K water clear kerosene shall be used.
  5. Kerosene heaters shall be allowed to cool before refueling.
The AHJ shall be permitted to prohibit use of portable electric heaters in occupancies or situations where such use or operation would present an undue danger to life or property.
Portable electric heaters shall be designed and located so that they cannot be easily overturned.
All portable electric heaters shall be listed.
All chimneys, smokestacks, or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, incinerators, boilers, or any other heat-producing devices or appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 54 and NFPA 211.
Waste chutes and laundry chutes shall be separately enclosed by walls or partitions in accordance with the provisions of Section 12.7. [101:9.5.1.1]
Chute intake openings shall be protected in accordance with Section 12.7. [101: 9.5.1.2]
The doors of chutes specified in 11.6.1.2 shall open only to a room that is designed and used exclusively for accessing the chute opening. [101:9.5.1.3]
Chute service opening rooms shall be separated from other spaces in accordance with Section 8.7 of NFPA 101. [101:9.5.1.4]
The requirements of 11.6.1.1 through 11.6.1.4 shall not apply where otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. Existing installations having properly enclosed service chutes and properly installed and maintained chute intake doors shall be permitted to have chute intake doors open to a corridor or normally occupied space.
  2. Waste chutes and laundry chutes shall be permitted to open into rooms not exceeding 400 ft2 (37 m2) that are used for storage, provided that the room is protected by automatic sprinklers.

[101:9.5.1.5]

Waste chutes, laundry chutes, and incinerators shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 82 unless such installations are approved existing installations, which shall be permitted to be continued in service. [101:9.5.2]
Stationary generator sets shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 37 and NFPA 70.
Portable generators shall not be operated or refueled within buildings, on balconies, or on roofs.
Portable generators shall be permitted to be operated or refueled in a building or room that has been constructed for such use in accordance with the building code.
Fueling from a container shall be permitted when the engine is shut down and engine surface temperature is below the autoignition temperature of the fuel.
Portable generators shall be positioned so that the exhaust is directed as follows:
  1. At least 5 ft (1.5 m) in any direction away from any openings or air intakes
  2. Away from the building
New stationary generators for emergency use or for legally required standby power required by this Code, the building code, or other codes and standards shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 110.
Newly installed stationary generators for emergency use or for legally required standby power for fire protection systems and features shall demonstrate the capacity of the energy converter, with its controls and accessories, to survive without damage from common and abnormal disturbances in actual load circuits by any of the following means:
  1. By tests on separate prototype models
  2. By acceptance tests on the system components as performed by the component suppliers
  3. By listing for emergency service as a completely factory-assembled and factory-tested apparatus
Stored electrical energy systems required by this Code, the building code, or other NFPA codes and standards shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 111 and NFPA 70.
Stationary generators used for emergency or legally required standby power shall be tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 37.
Stationary generators required by this Code, the building code, or other NFPA codes and standards shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110.
Stored electrical energy systems required by this Code, the building code, or other NFPA codes and standards shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 111.
Newly installed smoke-control systems shall be inspected by the AHJ and tested in accordance with the criteria established in the approved design documents, NFPA 204 and NFPA 92.
Smoke-control systems shall have an approved maintenance and testing program to ensure operational integrity in accordance with this section. Components of such systems shall be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with their operation and maintenance manuals.
Operational testing of the smoke-control system shall be in accordance with NFPA 92, and shall include all equipment related to the system including, but not limited to, initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors, and windows.
An approved written schedule for such operational tests shall be established.
Test records shall be maintained on the premises and must indicate the date of such testing, the qualified service personnel, and any corrective measures needed or taken.
All smoke-control systems and devices shall be maintained in a reliable operating condition and shall be replaced or repaired where defective.
The AHJ shall be notified when any smoke-control system is out of service for more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period and again upon restoration of service of such systems.
The AHJ shall be permitted to require the building to be evacuated or an approved fire watch to be provided for all portions left unprotected by the fire protection system shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.
Where required, emergency command centers shall comply with Section 11.9.
The location, design, content, and fire department access of the emergency command center shall be approved by the fire department.
The emergency command center shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a fire barrier having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
New emergency command center rooms shall be a minimum of 200 ft2 (19 m2) with a minimum dimension of 10 ft (3050 mm).
Existing emergency command center rooms shall be maintained with the minimum square footage and dimensions previously approved by the AHJ.
The following shall be provided in the emergency command center:
  1. The fire department communication unit
  2. A telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the public telephone system
  3. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core means of egress, fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment, and fire department access
  4. Work table
  5. If applicable, hazardous material management plans for the building
Where otherwise required, the following devices or functions shall be provided within the emergency command center:
  1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system unit
  2. Fire detection and alarm system annunciator unit
  3. Annunciator visually indicating the location of the elevators and whether they are operational
  4. Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems
  5. Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously
  6. Sprinkler valve and waterflow detector display panels
  7. Emergency and standby power status indicators
  8. Fire pump status indicators
  9. Generator supervision devices and manual start and transfer features
  10. Public address system, where specifically required by other sections of this Code
  11. Controls required for smoke control
Devices, equipment, components, and sequences shall be individually tested in accordance with appropriate standards and manufacturers' documented instructions.
In all new and existing buildings, minimum radio signal strength for fire department communications shall be maintained at a level determined by the AHJ.
Where required by the AHJ, two-way radio communication enhancement systems shall comply with NFPA 1221.
Where a two-way radio communication enhancement system is required and such system, components, or equipment has a negative impact on the normal operations of the facility at which it is installed, the AHJ shall have the authority to accept an automatically activated responder system.
Medical gas and vacuum systems shall comply with NFPA 99.
Photovoltaic systems shall be in accordance with Section 11.12 and NFPA 70.
Photovoltaic systems shall be permanently marked as specified in this subsection.
Buildings with a PV system shall be provided with permanent labels as described in 11.12.2.1.1.1 through 11.12.2.1.1.7.
The type of PV system rapid shutdown shall be labeled as described in 11.12.2.1.1.1.1 or 11.12.2.1.1.1.2.
For PV systems that shut down the array and conductors leaving the array:

EMERGENCY RESPONDER:
THIS SOLAR PV SYSTEM IS EQUIPPED WITH RAPID SHUTDOWN

TURN RAPID SHUTDOWN SWITCH TO THE "OFF" POSITION TO SHUT DOWN ENTIRE PV SYSTEM

For PV systems that only shut down conductors leaving the array:

EMERGENCY RESPONDER:
THIS SOLAR PV SYSTEM IS EQUIPPED WITH RAPID SHUTDOWN

TURN RAPID SHUTDOWN SWITCH TO THE "OFF" POSITION.
ONLY CONDUCTORS INSIDE BUILDING OR OFF THE ROOF WILL SHUT DOWN

The label shall be reflective, with all letters capitalized and having a minimum height of 3/8 in. (9.5 mm), in white on a red background.
The label shall include a simple diagram of a building with a roof. Diagram sections in red shall signify sections of the PV system that are not shut down when the rapid shutdown switch is operated. Sections of the diagram in green shall signify sections of the PV system that are shut down when the rapid shutdown switch is operated.
The rapid shutdown label shall be located on or no more than 3 ft (1 m) from the service disconnecting means to which the PV systems are connected, and the label shall indicate the location of the rapid shutdown switch if it is not at the same location.
For buildings that have PV systems with both rapid shutdown types, or a rapid shutdown type and a PV system with no rapid shutdown, a detailed plan view diagram of the roof shall be provided showing each PV system and a dotted line around areas that remain energized after the rapid shutdown switch is operated.
The rapid shutdown switch shall have a label located on or no more than 3 ft (1 m) from the switch that includes the following words:

RAPID SHUTDOWN SWITCH FOR SOLAR PV SYSTEM

The label required by 11.12.2.1.1.6 shall be reflective, with all letters capitalized and having a minimum height of 3/8 in. (9.5 mm), in white on red background. [70:690.56(C)]
Each PV system disconnecting means shall be permanently marked to identify it as a PV system disconnect and shall indicate whether in the open or closed position. [70:690.13(B)]
The following wiring methods and enclosures that contain PV power source conductors shall be marked with the words WARNING: PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SOURCE by means of permanently affixed labels or other approved permanent marking:
  1. Exposed raceways, cable trays, and other wiring methods
  2. Covers or enclosures of pull boxes and junction boxes
  3. Conduit bodies in which any of the available conduit openings are unused

[70:690.31(G)(3)]

The labels or markings shall be visible after installation. The labels shall be reflective and shall have all letters capitalized with a minimum height of 3/8 (9.5 mm) white on red background. PV power circuit labels shall appear on every section of the wiring system that is separated by enclosures, walls, partitions, ceilings, or floors. Spacing between labels or markings, or between a label and a marking, shall not be more than 10 ft (3 m). Labels required by this section shall be suitable for the environment where they are installed. [70:690.31(G)(4)]
A permanent plaque or directory, denoting all electric power sources on or in the premises, shall be installed at each service equipment location and at locations of all electric power production sources capable of being interconnected. [70:705.10]
A label shall be installed adjacent to the main disconnect indicating the name and emergency telephone number of the company currently servicing the PV system.
Access and spacing requirements shall be required to provide emergency access to the roof, provide pathways to specific areas of the roof, provide for smoke ventilation opportunity areas, and to provide emergency egress from the roof. The AHJ shall be permitted to reduce or modify roof access based upon fire department ventilation procedures or alternative methods that ensure adequate fire department access, pathways, and smoke ventilation.
Photovoltaic systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses shall provide roof access in accordance with 11.12.2.2.2. Designation of ridges shall not apply to roofs with 2 in 12 or less pitch.

11.12.2.2.2.1 Pathways

ILLUSTRATION
Not less than two 36 in. (914 mm) wide pathways on separate roof planes, from gutter to ridge, shall be provided on all buildings. One pathway shall be provided on the street or driveway side of the roof. For each roof plane with a PV array, a 36 in. (914 mm) wide pathway from gutter to ridge shall be provided on the same roof plane as the PV array, on an adjacent roof plane or straddling the same and adjacent roof planes. Pathways shall be located in areas with minimal obstructions such as vent pipes, conduit, or mechanical equipment.
For PV arrays occupying up to 33 percent of the plan view roof area, a minimum 18 in. (457 mm) pathway shall be provided on either side of a horizontal ridge. For PV arrays occupying more than 33 percent of the plan view roof area, a minimum of 36 in. (914 mm) pathway shall be provided on either side of a horizontal ridge.
Photovoltaic systems installed on any building other than one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses shall provide roof access in accordance with 11.12.2.2.2.3. Where the AHJ determines that the roof configuration is similar to a one- and two-family dwelling or townhouse, the AHJ shall allow the roof access requirements of 11.12.2.2.2. Detached, nonhabitable structures including, but not limited to, parking shade structures, carports, solar trellises, and similar structures shall not be required to provide roof access.
A minimum 4 ft (1219 mm) wide perimeter pathway shall be provided around the edges of the roof for buildings with a length or width of 250 ft (76.2 m) or less along either axis. A minimum 6 ft (1829 mm) wide perimeter pathway shall be provided around the edges of the roof for buildings having length or width greater than 250 ft (76.2 m) along either axis.
Pathways shall be over areas capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof and shall be provided between array sections as follows:
  1. Pathways shall be provided in a straight line 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width to all ventilation hatches, and roof standpipes.
  2. Pathways shall be provided 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width around roof access hatches with at least one 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width pathway to the parapet or roof edge.
  3. Pathways shall be provided at intervals no greater than 150 ft (46 m) throughout the length and width of the roof.
A pathway shall be provided 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width bordering all sides of nongravity-operated smoke and heat vents. Ventilation options between array sections shall be one of the following:
  1. A pathway 96 in. (2438 mm) or greater in width
  2. A pathway 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width and bordering on existing roof skylights or gravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents on not less than one side
  3. A pathway 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width and bordering 48 in. (1219 mm) by 96 in. (2438 mm) venting cutouts options every 20 ft (6096 mm)
Pathways shall be located in areas with minimal obstructions such as vent pipes, conduit, or mechanical equipment to reduce trip hazards and maximize ventilation opportunities.
Ground-mounted photovoltaic systems shall be installed in accordance with 11.12.3.1 through 11.12.3.3.
A clear area of 10 ft (3048 mm) around ground-mounted photovoltaic installations shall be provided.
A vegetation management plan or noncombustible base acceptable to the AHJ shall be approved and maintained under and around the installation where required by the AHJ.
Fencing, skirting, or other suitable security barriers shall be installed when required by the AHJ.
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