Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Section 11.1 shall apply to permanent and temporary electrical appliances, equipment, fixtures, and wiring.
All new electrical wiring, fixtures, appliances and equipment shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70.
Permanent wiring abandoned in place shall be tagged or otherwise identified at its termination and junction points as "Abandoned in Place" or removed from all accessible areas and insulated from contact with other live electrical wiring or devices.
Multiplug adapters, such as multiplug extension cords, cube adapters, strip plugs, and other devices, shall be listed and used in accordance with their listing.
Multiplug adapters shall not be used as a substitute for permanent wiring or receptacles.
The relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle.
Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings, or floors; under doors or floor coverings; or be subject to environmental or physical damage.
The ampacity of the extension cords shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.
The extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration, or damage.
Extension cords shall be grounded when servicing grounded portable appliances.
Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures; extend through walls, ceilings, or floors, or under doors or floor coverings; or be subject to environmental or physical damage.
Extension cords shall not be used as a substitute for permanent wiring.
The provisions of 11.1.6 shall apply to temporary electric power and lighting installations. [70:590.1]
Temporary electric power and lighting installations shall be permitted during the period of construction, remodeling, maintenance, repair, or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment, or similar activities. [70:590.3(A)]
Temporary electric power and lighting installations shall be permitted for a period not to exceed 90 days for holiday decorative lighting and similar purposes. [70:590.3(B)]
Temporary electric power and lighting installations shall be permitted during emergencies and for tests, experiments, and developmental work. [70:590.3(C)]
Temporary wiring shall be removed immediately upon completion of construction or purpose for which the wiring was installed. [70:590.3(D)]
The disconnecting means shall be maintained accessible to the fire department.
Each disconnecting means shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. The marking shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved. [70:110.22(A)]
All panelboard and switchboards, pull boxes, junction boxes, switches, receptacles, and conduit bodies shall be provided with covers compatible with the box or conduit body construction and suitable for the conditions of use.
All existing elevators having a travel distance of 25 ft (7620 mm) or more above or below the level that best serves the needs of emergency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall conform to the fire fighters' emergency operations requirements of ASME A17.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators and Escalators. [101:184.108.40.206]
Elevator machine rooms that contain solid-state equipment for elevators, other than existing elevators, having a travel distance exceeding 50 ft (15 m) above the level of exit discharge or exceeding 30 ft (9.1 m) below the level of exit discharge shall be provided with independent ventilation or air-conditioning systems to maintain temperature during fire fighters' emergency operations for elevator operation (see 11.3.1). The operating temperature shall be established by the elevator equipment manufacturer's specifications. When standby power is connected to the elevator, the machine room ventilation or air-conditioning shall be connected to standby power. [101:9.4.5]
Elevators shall be subject to periodic inspections and tests as specified in ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators. [101:220.127.116.11]
The elevator inspections and tests required by 18.104.22.168 shall be performed at frequencies complying with one of the following:
- Inspection and test frequencies specified in Appendix N of ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators
- Inspection and test frequencies specified by the AHJ
Buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access elevator shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire service key complying with ASME A17.1/CSA B44, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, except as otherwise permitted by 11.3.6.
The front cover shall be permanently labeled with the words "Fire Department Use Only — Elevator Keys."
The access box shall be mounted at each elevator bank at the lobby nearest to the lowest level of fire department access.
11.3.7 Elevators for Occupant-Controlled Evacuation Prior to Phase I Emergency Recall Operations and Fire Service Access Elevators
An approved method to prevent automatic sprinkler water from infiltrating into the hoistway enclosure from the operation of the automatic sprinkler system outside the enclosed occupant evacuation elevator lobby shall be provided where the hoistway serves elevators in accordance with any of the following:
- Occupant-controlled evacuation elevators in accordance with Section 7.14 of NFPA 101
- Occupant-controlled evacuation elevators in accordance with the building code
- Fire service access elevators in accordance with the building code
Aboveground gas meters, regulators, and piping exposed to vehicular damage shall be protected in accordance with 22.214.171.124.
The installation of stationary liquid fuel-burning appliances, including but not limited to industrial-, commercial-, and residential-type steam, hot water, or warm air heating appliances; domestic-type range burners; space heaters; and portable liquid fuel-burning equipment shall comply with Section 11.5 and NFPA 31.
Section 11.5 shall not apply to internal combustion engines, oil lamps, or portable devices not specifically covered in NFPA 31. (See Chapter 11 of NFPA 31 for portable devices that are covered in NFPA 31.) [31:1.1.5]
The type and grade of liquid fuel used in a liquid fuel-burning appliance shall be that liquid fuel for which the appliance is listed and approved or is stipulated by the manufacturer. Liquid fuels shall meet one of the following specifications and shall not contain gasoline or any other flammable liquid:
- ASTM D396, Standard Specification for Fuel Oils
- ASTM D3699, Standard Specification for Kerosene
- ASTM D6448, Industrial Burner Fuels from Used Lube Oils
- ASTM D6751, Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuel
- ASTM D6823, Commercial Burner Fuels from Used Lube Oils
Appliances that burn crankcase oil or used oil shall not be used in a residential occupancy. Such appliances shall only be used if all of the following conditions are met:
- The installation is in a commercial or industrial occupancy.
- The oil-burning appliance is designed to burn crankcase oil or used oil and is listed for such use.
- The appliance is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and with the terms of its listing.
- The installation meets the applicable requirements of Section 4.6 and Chapter 12 of NFPA 31.
Where heavy oils are used, the following shall be required:
- The oil-burning appliance shall be designed to burn such fuels.
- Means shall be provided to maintain the oil at its proper atomizing temperature.
- Automatically operated burners that require preheating of oil shall be arranged so that no oil can be delivered for combustion until the oil is at the proper atomizing temperature.
- * Use of an oil-fired appliance that is listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 296A, Standard for Waste Oil-Burning Air-Heating Appliances, shall be deemed as meeting the intent of 126.96.36.199.3(1) through 188.8.131.52.3(3).
A properly sized and rated oil filter or strainer shall be installed in the oil supply line to an oil burner. [31:4.5.4]
Clothes dryers shall be cleaned to maintain the lint trap and keep the mechanical and heating components free from excessive accumulations of lint.
Kerosene burners and oil stoves shall be equipped with a primary safety control furnished as an integral part of the appliance by the manufacturer to stop the flow of oil in the event of flame failure. Barometric oil feed shall not be considered a primary safety control.
Kerosene heaters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 647, Standard for Unvented Kerosene-Fired Room Heaters and Portable Heaters, and their use shall meet all of the following:
- Adequate ventilation shall be provided.
- Kerosene heaters shall not be placed on carpeting.
- Kerosene heaters shall be located not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) from combustible furnishings and drapes.
- Only approved Type 1-K water clear kerosene shall be used.
- Kerosene heaters shall be allowed to cool before refueling.
Portable electric heaters shall be designed and located so that they cannot be easily overturned.
All portable electric heaters shall be listed.
All chimneys, smokestacks, or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, incinerators, boilers, or any other heat-producing devices or appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 54 and NFPA 211.
Waste chutes and laundry chutes shall be separately enclosed by walls or partitions in accordance with the provisions of Section 12.7. [101:184.108.40.206]
The doors of chutes specified in 220.127.116.11 shall open only to a room that is designed and used exclusively for accessing the chute opening. [101:18.104.22.168]
The requirements of 22.214.171.124 through 126.96.36.199 shall not apply where otherwise permitted by the following:
- Existing installations having properly enclosed service chutes and properly installed and maintained chute intake doors shall be permitted to have chute intake doors open to a corridor or normally occupied space.
- Waste chutes and laundry chutes shall be permitted to open into rooms not exceeding 400 ft2 (37 m2) that are used for storage, provided that the room is protected by automatic sprinklers.
Stationary generator sets shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 37 and NFPA 70.
Portable generators shall not be operated or refueled within buildings, on balconies, or on roofs.
Portable generators shall be permitted to be operated or refueled in a building or room that has been constructed for such use in accordance with the building code.
Fueling from a container shall be permitted when the engine is shut down and engine surface temperature is below the autoignition temperature of the fuel.
Portable generators shall be positioned so that the exhaust is directed as follows:
- At least 5 ft (1.5 m) in any direction away from any openings or air intakes
- Away from the building
Newly installed stationary generators for emergency use or for legally required standby power for fire protection systems and features shall demonstrate the capacity of the energy converter, with its controls and accessories, to survive without damage from common and abnormal disturbances in actual load circuits by any of the following means:
Stationary generators used for emergency or legally required standby power shall be tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 37.
Stationary generators required by this Code, the building code, or other NFPA codes and standards shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110.
Test records shall be maintained on the premises and must indicate the date of such testing, the qualified service personnel, and any corrective measures needed or taken.
All smoke-control systems and devices shall be maintained in a reliable operating condition and shall be replaced or repaired where defective.
Where required, emergency command centers shall comply with Section 11.9.
The emergency command center shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a fire barrier having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
New emergency command center rooms shall be a minimum of 200 ft2 (19 m2) with a minimum dimension of 10 ft (3050 mm).
The following shall be provided in the emergency command center:
- The fire department communication unit
- A telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the public telephone system
- Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core means of egress, fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment, and fire department access
- Work table
- If applicable, hazardous material management plans for the building
Where otherwise required, the following devices or functions shall be provided within the emergency command center:
- The emergency voice/alarm communication system unit
- Fire detection and alarm system annunciator unit
- Annunciator visually indicating the location of the elevators and whether they are operational
- Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems
- Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously
- Sprinkler valve and waterflow detector display panels
- Emergency and standby power status indicators
- Fire pump status indicators
- Generator supervision devices and manual start and transfer features
- Public address system, where specifically required by other sections of this Code
- Controls required for smoke control
Devices, equipment, components, and sequences shall be individually tested in accordance with appropriate standards and manufacturers' documented instructions.
Photovoltaic systems shall be permanently marked as specified in this subsection.
The label shall be reflective, with all letters capitalized and having a minimum height of 3/8 in. (9.5 mm), in white on a red background.
The label shall include a simple diagram of a building with a roof. Diagram sections in red shall signify sections of the PV system that are not shut down when the rapid shutdown switch is operated. Sections of the diagram in green shall signify sections of the PV system that are shut down when the rapid shutdown switch is operated.
The rapid shutdown label shall be located on or no more than 3 ft (1 m) from the service disconnecting means to which the PV systems are connected, and the label shall indicate the location of the rapid shutdown switch if it is not at the same location.
For buildings that have PV systems with both rapid shutdown types, or a rapid shutdown type and a PV system with no rapid shutdown, a detailed plan view diagram of the roof shall be provided showing each PV system and a dotted line around areas that remain energized after the rapid shutdown switch is operated.
The rapid shutdown switch shall have a label located on or no more than 3 ft (1 m) from the switch that includes the following words:
RAPID SHUTDOWN SWITCH FOR SOLAR PV SYSTEM
The label required by 188.8.131.52.1.6 shall be reflective, with all letters capitalized and having a minimum height of 3/8 in. (9.5 mm), in white on red background. [70:690.56(C)]
184.108.40.206.3 Markings for Direct-Current Photovoltaic Source and Direct-Current Output Circuits on or Inside a Building
The following wiring methods and enclosures that contain PV power source conductors shall be marked with the words WARNING: PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SOURCE by means of permanently affixed labels or other approved permanent marking:
- Exposed raceways, cable trays, and other wiring methods
- Covers or enclosures of pull boxes and junction boxes
- Conduit bodies in which any of the available conduit openings are unused
The labels or markings shall be visible after installation. The labels shall be reflective and shall have all letters capitalized with a minimum height of 3/8 (9.5 mm) white on red background. PV power circuit labels shall appear on every section of the wiring system that is separated by enclosures, walls, partitions, ceilings, or floors. Spacing between labels or markings, or between a label and a marking, shall not be more than 10 ft (3 m). Labels required by this section shall be suitable for the environment where they are installed. [70:690.31(G)(4)]
A permanent plaque or directory, denoting all electric power sources on or in the premises, shall be installed at each service equipment location and at locations of all electric power production sources capable of being interconnected. [70:705.10]
Access and spacing requirements shall be required to provide emergency access to the roof, provide pathways to specific areas of the roof, provide for smoke ventilation opportunity areas, and to provide emergency egress from the roof. The AHJ shall be permitted to reduce or modify roof access based upon fire department ventilation procedures or alternative methods that ensure adequate fire department access, pathways, and smoke ventilation.
Not less than two 36 in. (914 mm) wide pathways on separate roof planes, from gutter to ridge, shall be provided on all buildings. One pathway shall be provided on the street or driveway side of the roof. For each roof plane with a PV array, a 36 in. (914 mm) wide pathway from gutter to ridge shall be provided on the same roof plane as the PV array, on an adjacent roof plane or straddling the same and adjacent roof planes. Pathways shall be located in areas with minimal obstructions such as vent pipes, conduit, or mechanical equipment.
For PV arrays occupying up to 33 percent of the plan view roof area, a minimum 18 in. (457 mm) pathway shall be provided on either side of a horizontal ridge. For PV arrays occupying more than 33 percent of the plan view roof area, a minimum of 36 in. (914 mm) pathway shall be provided on either side of a horizontal ridge.
Photovoltaic systems installed on any building other than one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses shall provide roof access in accordance with 220.127.116.11.2.3. Where the AHJ determines that the roof configuration is similar to a one- and two-family dwelling or townhouse, the AHJ shall allow the roof access requirements of 18.104.22.168.2. Detached, nonhabitable structures including, but not limited to, parking shade structures, carports, solar trellises, and similar structures shall not be required to provide roof access.
A minimum 4 ft (1219 mm) wide perimeter pathway shall be provided around the edges of the roof for buildings with a length or width of 250 ft (76.2 m) or less along either axis. A minimum 6 ft (1829 mm) wide perimeter pathway shall be provided around the edges of the roof for buildings having length or width greater than 250 ft (76.2 m) along either axis.
Pathways shall be over areas capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof and shall be provided between array sections as follows:
- Pathways shall be provided in a straight line 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width to all ventilation hatches, and roof standpipes.
- Pathways shall be provided 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width around roof access hatches with at least one 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width pathway to the parapet or roof edge.
- Pathways shall be provided at intervals no greater than 150 ft (46 m) throughout the length and width of the roof.
A pathway shall be provided 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width bordering all sides of nongravity-operated smoke and heat vents. Ventilation options between array sections shall be one of the following:
- A pathway 96 in. (2438 mm) or greater in width
- A pathway 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width and bordering on existing roof skylights or gravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents on not less than one side
- A pathway 48 in. (1219 mm) or greater in width and bordering 48 in. (1219 mm) by 96 in. (2438 mm) venting cutouts options every 20 ft (6096 mm)
Pathways shall be located in areas with minimal obstructions such as vent pipes, conduit, or mechanical equipment to reduce trip hazards and maximize ventilation opportunities.
A clear area of 10 ft (3048 mm) around ground-mounted photovoltaic installations shall be provided.