The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered or open mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered and open mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.
A covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space or not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm). An open mall building and anchor buildings and parking garages adjoining the perimeter line shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm).
Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided that the following requirements are met:
Exception: The building area of any anchor building shall not be limited provided that the anchor building is not more than three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.
An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered or open mall building or anchor building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Where the total floor area is greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided.
In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered or open mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by Equation 4-1.
OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).
GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).
Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.
The distance of travel from any point within a mall of a covered mall building to an exit shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The maximum distance of travel from any point within an open mall to the perimeter line of the open mall building shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).
Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall of a covered mall building to separate exits or from any point in an open mall of an open mall building to two separate locations on the perimeter line, provided that neither location is an exterior wall of an anchor building or parking garage. The width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be not less than 66 inches (1676 mm).
Exception: Access to exits is permitted by way of a dead-end mall that does not exceed a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.
Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:
The face of the wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the enclosures for interior exit stairways or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:
The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.
In all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, and buildings of Type IV-A and IV-B that are more than 120 feet (37 m) in building height, required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to not fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.
Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided that the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through not fewer than one of the connections.
To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:
If the standby or emergency power system includes a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.
For buildings other than Group R-2 and their ancillary spaces that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, one additional interior exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1011 and 1023 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1006.3. The total capacity of any combination of remaining interior exit stairways with one interior exit stairway removed shall be not less than the total capacity required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairways shall not be considered the additional interior exit stairway required by this section.
The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall be used in the atrium space.
The provisions of Sections 405.2 through 405.9 apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.
Exceptions: The provisions of Section 405 are not applicable to the following buildings or portions of buildings:
A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into not fewer than two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.
All motor-vehicle-related occupancies shall comply with Section 406.2. Private garages and carports shall also comply with Section 406.3. Open public parking garages shall also comply with Sections 406.4 and 406.5. Enclosed public parking garages shall also comply with Sections 406.4 and 406.6. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall also comply with Section 406.7. Repair garages shall also comply with Section 406.8.
The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear height in accordance with Section 406.7.2.
Floor surfaces shall be of concrete or similar approved noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. The area of floor used for the parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. The surface of vehicle fueling pads in motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Section 406.7.1.
Equipment and appliances having an ignition source and located in hazardous locations and public garages, private garages, repair garages, automotive motor fuel-dispensing facilities and parking garages shall be elevated such that the source of ignition is not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor surface on which the equipment or appliance rests. For the purpose of this section, rooms or spaces that are not part of the living space of a dwelling unit and that communicate directly with a private garage through openings shall be considered to be part of the private garage.
Exception: Elevation of the ignition source is not required for appliances that are listed as flammable vapor ignition resistant.
Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation, except that a single door is permitted where the sources of ignition in the appliance are elevated in accordance with Section 406.2.9.
Appliances located in public garages, motor fuel-dispensing facilities, repair garages or other areas frequented by motor vehicles shall be installed not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor. Where motor vehicles are capable of passing under an appliance, the appliance shall be installed at the clearances required by the appliance manufacturer and not less than 1 foot (305 mm) higher than the tallest vehicle garage door opening.
Exception: The requirements of this section shall not apply where the appliances are protected from motor vehicle impact and installed in accordance with Section 406.2.9.1 and NFPA 30A.
Appliances located in private garages and carports shall be installed with a minimum clearance of 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor.
Exception: The requirements of this section shall not apply where the appliances are protected from motor vehicle impact and are installed in accordance with Section 406.2.9.1.
Private garages and carports shall be classified as Group U occupancies. Each private garage shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area. Multiple private garages are permitted in a building where each private garage is separated from the other private garages by 1-hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707, or 1-hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711, or both.
The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of gypsum board, not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to structures supporting the separation from habitable rooms above the garage. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 13/8 inches (34.9 mm) in thickness, or doors in compliance with Section 722.214.171.124 with a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.
Carports shall be open on not fewer than two sides. Carports open on fewer than two sides shall be considered to be a garage and shall comply with the requirements for private garages.
Parking garages, other than private garages, shall be classified as public parking garages and shall comply with the provisions of Sections 406.2 and 406.4 and shall be classified as either an open parking garage or an enclosed parking garage. Open parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.5. Enclosed parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.6. See Section 510 for special provisions for parking garages.
Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) in height shall be placed where the vertical distance from the floor of a drive lane or parking space to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barriers shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.9.
Exception: Vehicle barriers are not required in vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.
For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier shall be not less than 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall be not less than 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be not less than 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.
Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION||AREA PER TIER |
|HEIGHT (in tiers)|
|Ramp access||Mechanical access|
|Automatic sprinkler system|
|IB||Unlimited||12 tiers||12 tiers||18 tiers|
|IIA||50,000||10 tiers||10 tiers||15 tiers|
|IIB||50,000||8 tiers||8 tiers||12 tiers|
|IV||50,000||4 tiers||4 tiers||4 tiers|
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
Where the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, and the building is without other uses, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.5.4, along with increases allowed by Section 406.5.5.
Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.
In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered under these provisions to be a tier.
The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under these provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm).
Allowable tier areas in Table 406.5.4 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. Not fewer than three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for not less than 80 percent of the length of the sides. All parts of such larger tier shall be not more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.
Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm). All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.5.2. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.
Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, heavy timber complying with Section 2304.11 or construction providing 1-hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:
Activation of a gas detection alarm shall result in all of the following:
Areas wherein psychiatric care recipients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:
Movement from habitable rooms shall not require passage through more than three doors and 100 feet (30 480 mm) distance of travel within the suite.
Doors in care suites serving habitable rooms shall be permitted to comply with one of the following:
Sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be grouped into care suites where one of the following criteria is met:
Exception: Care suites containing sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be not greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) in area where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
Exception: Care suites not containing sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be not greater than 15,000 square feet (1394 m2) in area where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite in accordance with Section 907.
Refuge areas shall be provided within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compartments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accommodate the largest occupant load of the adjoining compartments. The size of the refuge area shall provide the following:
Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group I-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy where provisions are made for the release of occupants at all times.
Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.
Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Condition 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanisms required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.
Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.
Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks in accordance with Section 2702.
Occupancies in Group I-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.6 and 709 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into not fewer than two smoke compartments.
In occupancies in Group I-3, windows and doors in 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 708 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 709 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met.
Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected.
The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.
Exception: Stages need not be constructed of the same materials as required for the type of construction provided that the construction complies with one of the following:
Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials consistent with the requirements for the type of construction of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.
Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.
Stages shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.
Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.7. Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.7.
Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.
Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the exit access travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height limitations of Table 4126.96.36.199.
HEIGHT LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION||HEIGHTa |
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
Stairways in airport traffic control towers shall be in accordance with Section 1011. Exit stairways shall be smokeproof enclosures complying with one of the alternatives provided in Section 909.20. Where interior exit stairways and ramps are pressurized in accordance with Section 909.20.5, the smoke control pressurization system shall comply with the requirements specified in Section 909.6.3.
Fire pumps shall be located in rooms that are separated from all other areas of the building by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Exception: Separation is not required for fire pumps physically separated in accordance with NFPA 20.
Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.
Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.
Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.
Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based on the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.3.6.
Exception: Where a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.
[F] TABLE 412.3.6
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c
|MAXIMUM SINGLE |
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION|
|≥ 40,001||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I|
|40,000||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|30,000||Group III||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|20,000||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|15,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group III||Group II||Group III||Group II||Group II|
|12,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group II|
|8,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II|
|5,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.