ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

UPC 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Part I — Drainage Systems

This chapter shall govern the materials, design, and installation of sanitary drainage systems and building sewers.

701.2 Drainage Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Materials for drainage piping shall be in accordance with one of the referenced standards in Table 701.1 except that:
  1. No galvanized wrought-iron or galvanized steel pipe shall be used underground and shall be kept not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above ground.
  2. ABS and PVC DWV piping installations shall be installed in accordance with applicable standards in Table 1701.1. Except for individual single family dwelling units, materials exposed within ducts or plenums shall have a maximum flamespread index of 25 and a maximum smoke developed index of 50, when tested in accordance with ASTM E-84 and UL 723.
  3. No vitrified clay pipe or fittings shall be used above ground or where pressurized by a pump or ejector. They shall be kept not less than 12 inches (305 mm) below ground.
  4. Copper tube for drainage and vent piping shall have a weight of not less than that of copper drainage tube type DWV.
  5. Stainless steel 304 pipe and fittings shall not be installed underground and shall be kept not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above ground.
  6. Cast-iron soil pipe and fittings shall be listed and tested in accordance with standards referenced in Table 1701.1. Such pipe and fittings shall be marked with country of origin and identification of the original manufacturer in addition to markings required by referenced standards.

TABLE 701.2
MATERIALS FOR DRAIN, WASTE, VENT PIPE AND FITTINGS

MATERIAL UNDERGROUND DRAIN, WASTE, VENT PIPE AND FITTINGS ABOVEGROUND DRAIN, WASTE, VENT PIPE AND FITTINGS BUILDING SEWER PIPE AND FITTINGS REFERENCED STANDARD(S) PIPE REFERENCED STANDARD(S) FITTINGS
ABS (Schedule 40) X X X ASTM D2661,
ASTM D2680*
ASTM D2661,
ASTM D2680*
Cast-Iron X X X ASTM A74,
ASTM A888,
CISPI 301
ASME B16.12,
ASTM A74,
ASTM A888,
CISPI 301
Co-Extruded ABS (Schedule 40) X X X ASTM F628 ASTM D2661,
ASTM D2680*
Co-Extruded Composite (Schedule 40) X X X ASTM F1488 ASTM D2661,
ASTM D2665,
ASTM F794*,
ASTM F1866
Co-Extruded PVC (Schedule 40) X X X ASTM F891,
ASTM F1760
ASTM D2665,
ASTM F794*,
ASTM F1336*,
ASTM F1866
Copper and Copper Alloys (Type DWV) X X X ASTM B43,
ASTM B75,
ASTM B251,
ASTM B302,
ASTM B306
ASME B 16.23,
ASME B 16.29
Galvanized Malleable Iron X ASME B 16.3
Galvanized Steel X ASTM A53
Polyethylene X ASTM F714,
ASTM F894
PVC (Schedule 40) X X X ASTM D1785,
ASTM D2665,
ASTM F794*
ASTM D2665,
ASTM F794*,
ASTM F1866
PVC (Sewer and Drain) X ASTM D2729 ASTM D2729
PVC PSM X ASTM D3034 ASTM D3034
Stainless Steel 304 X ASME A112.3.1 ASME A112.3.1
Stainless Steel 316L X X X ASME A112.3.1 ASME A112.3.1
Vitrified Clay (Extra strength) X ASTM C700 ASTM C700

* For building sewer applications.


UpCodes note: There seems to be a misprint in the Chapter 51-56-0700 WAC, State Building Code Adoption and Amendment of the 2018 Edition of the Uniform Plumbing Code. It states:

"701.2 Drainage Piping. Materials for drainage piping shall be in accordance with one of the referenced standards in Table 701.1..."

It is referencing Table 701.1 which is not in the 2018 Uniform Plumbing Code. We are showing the amendment on this section as how it appears on the regulation.
Materials for drainage fittings shall comply with the applicable standards referenced in Table 701.2 of the same diameter as the piping served, and such fittings shall be compatible with the type of pipe used.
Fittings on screwed pipe shall be of the recessed drainage type. Burred ends shall be reamed to the full bore of the pipe.
The threads of drainage fittings shall be tapped to allow 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) grade.
Fittings used for drainage shall be of the drainage type, have a smooth interior water-way, and be constructed to allow 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) grade.
Continuous wastes and fixture tailpieces shall be constructed from the materials specified in Section 701.2 for drainage piping, provided, however, that such connections where exposed or accessible shall be permitted to be of seamless drawn brass not less than No. 20 B & S Gauge (0.032 inches) (0.8 mm).
(See Table 1701.1) Sheet lead shall comply with the following:
  1. For safe pans — not less than 4 pounds per square foot (lb/ft2) (19 kg/m2) or 1/16 of an inch (1.6 mm) thick.
  2. For flashings or vent terminals — not less than 3 lb/ft2 (15 kg/m2) or 0.0472 of an inch (1.2 mm) thick.
  3. Lead bends and lead traps shall be not less than 1/8 of an inch (3.2 mm) in wall thickness.
Caulking ferrules shall be manufactured from copper or copper alloy and shall be in accordance with Table 701.6.

TABLE 701.6
CAULKING FERRULES
PIPE SIZE
(inches)
INSIDE
DIAMETER
(inches)
LENGTH
(inches)
MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH
pounds ounces
2 21/4 41/2 1 0
3 31/4 41/2 1 12
4 41/4 41/2 2 8

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 pound = 0.453 kg, 1 ounce = 0.02834 kg

Soldering bushings shall be of copper or copper alloy and shall be in accordance with Table 701.7.
TABLE 701.7
SOLDERING BUSHINGS
PIPE SIZE
(inches)
MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH PIPE SIZE
(inches)
MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH
pounds ounces pounds ounces
11/4 0 6 21/2 1 6
11/2 0 8 3 2 0
2 0 14 4 3 8

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 pound = 0.453 kg, 1 ounce = 0.02834 kg

702.1 Trap Size

ILLUSTRATION
The unit equivalent of plumbing fixtures shown in Table 702.1 shall be based on the size of the trap required, and the unit equivalent of fixtures and devices not shown in Table 702.1 shall be based on the size of trap or trap arm.

Maximum drainage fixture units for a fixture trap and trap arm loadings for sizes up to 4 inches (100 mm) shall be in accordance with Table 702.2(1).

TABLE 702.1
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUES (DFU)
PLUMBING APPLIANCES, APPURTENANCES, OR FIXTURES MINIMUM SIZE TRAP AND TRAP ARM7
(inches)
PRIVATE PUBLIC ASSEMBLY8
Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower 11/2 2.0 2.0
Bidet 11/4 1.0
Bidet 11/2 2.0
Clothes Washer, domestic, standpipe5 2 3.0 3.0 3.0
Dental Unit, cuspidor 11/4 1.0 1.0
Dishwasher, domestic, with independent drain2 11/2 2.0 2.0 2.0
Drinking Fountain or Water Cooler 11/4 0.5 0.5 1.0
Food Waste Disposer, commercial 2 3.0 3.0
Floor Drain, emergency 2 0.0 0.0
Floor Drain (for additional sizes see Section 702.0) 2 2.0 2.0 2.0
Shower, single-head trap 2 2.0 2.0 2.0
Multi-head, each additional 2 1.0 1.0 1.0
Lavatory 11/4 1.0 1.0 1.0
Lavatories in sets 11/2 2.0 2.0 2.0
Washfountain 11/2 2.0 2.0
Washfountain 2 3.0 3.0
Mobile Home, trap 3 12.0
Receptor, indirect waste1,3 11/2 See footnote1,3
Receptor, indirect waste1,4 2 See footnote1,4
Receptor, indirect waste1 3 See footnote1
Sinks
Bar 11/2 1.0
Bar2 11/2 2.0 2.0
Clinical 3 6.0 6.0
Commercial with food waste2 11/2 3.0 3.0
Exam Room 11/2 1.0
Special Purpose2 11/2 2.0 3.0 3.0
Special Purpose 2 3.0 4.0 4.0
Special Purpose 3 6.0 6.0
Kitchen, domestic2 (with or without food waste disposer, dishwasher, or both) 11/2 2.0 2.0
Laundry2(with or without discharge from a clothes washer) 11/2 2.0 2.0 2.0
Service or Mop Basin 2 3.0 3.0
Service or Mop Basin 3 3.0 3.0
Service, flushing rim 3 6.0 6.0
Wash, each set of faucets 2.0 2.0
Urinal, Hybrid 2 1.0 1.0 1.0
Urinal, integral trap 1.0 GPF2 2 2.0 2.0 5.0
Urinal, integral trap greater than 1.0 GPF 2 2.0 2.0 6.0
Urinal, exposed trap2 11/2 2.0 2.0 5.0
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank6 3 3.0 4.0 6.0
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Tank6 3 3.0 4.0 6.0
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve6 3 3.0 4.0 6.0
Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank6 3 4.0 6.0 8.0
Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve6 3 4.0 6.0 8.0

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

Notes:

1 Indirect waste receptors shall be sized based on the total drainage capacity of the fixtures that drain thereinto, in accordance with Table 702.2(2).

2 Provide a 2 inch (50 mm) minimum drain.

3 For refrigerators, coffee urns, water stations, and similar low demands.

4 For commercial sinks, dishwashers, and similar moderate or heavy demands.

5 Buildings having a clothes-washing area with clothes washers in a battery of three or more clothes washers shall be rated at 6 fixture units each for purposes of sizing common horizontal and vertical drainage piping.

6 Water closets shall be computed as 6 fixture units where determining septic tank sizes based on Appendix H of this code.

7 Trap sizes shall not be increased to the point where the fixture discharge is capable of being inadequate to maintain their self-scouring properties.

8 Assembly [Public Use (see Table 422.1)].

Drainage fixture units for intermittent flow into the drainage system shall be computed on the rated discharge capacity in gallons per minute (gpm) (L/s) in accordance with Table 702.2(2).

TABLE 702.2(1)
MAXIMUM DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR A TRAP AND TRAP ARM*

SIZE OF TRAP AND TRAP ARM
(inches)
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUES (DFU)
11/4 1 unit
11/2 3 units
2 4 units
3 6 units
4 8 units

For SI Units: 1 inch = 25 mm

* Exception: On self-service laundries.

TABLE 702.2(2)
DISCHARGE CAPACITY IN GALLONS PER MINUTE FOR INTERMITTENT FLOW ONLY*

GPM FIXTURE UNITS
up to 71/2 Equals 1 Fixture Unit
Greater than 71/2 to 15 Equals 2 Fixture Units
Greater than 15 to 30 Equals 4 Fixture Units
Greater than 30 to 50 Equals 6 Fixture Units

For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

* Discharge capacity exceeding 50 gallons per minute (3.15 L/s) shall be determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

For a continuous flow into a drainage system, such as from a pump, sump ejector, air conditioning equipment, or similar device, 2 fixture units shall be equal to each gallon per minute (gpm) (L/s) of flow.
The minimum sizes of vertical, horizontal, or both drainage piping shall be determined from the total of fixture units connected thereto, and additionally, in the case of vertical drainage pipes, in accordance with their length.

703.2 Maximum Number of Fixture Units

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Table 703.2 shows the maximum number of fixture units allowed on a vertical or horizontal drainage pipe, building drain, or building sewer of a given size; the maximum number of fixture units allowed on a branch interval of a given size; and the maximum length (in feet and meters) of a vertical drainage pipe of a given size.

TABLE 703.2
MAXIMUM UNIT LOADING AND MAXIMUM LENGTH OF DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPING

SIZE OF PIPE (inches) 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12
Maximum Units                    
Drainage Piping1                    
   Vertical 1 22 163 484 256 600 1380 3600 5600 8400
   Horizontal 1 1 83 354 2165 4285 7205 26405 46805 82005
Maximum Length                    
Drainage Piping                    
   Vertical, (feet) 45 65 85 212 300 390 510 750
   Horizontal (unlimited)                    
Vent Piping                    
Horizontal and Vertical6                    
   Maximum Units 1 83 24 84 256 600 1380 3600
   Maximum Lengths, (feet) 45 60 120 212 300 390 510 750    

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm

Notes:

  1. Excluding trap arm.
  2. Except sinks, urinals, and dishwashers - Exceeding 1 fixture unit.
  3. Except six-unit traps or water closets.
  4. Only four water closets or six-unit traps allowed on a vertical pipe or stack; and not to exceed three water closets or six-unit traps on a horizontal branch or drain.
    Exception: In a single family dwelling addition or alteration where a 4 inch horizontal waste is not readily available four water closets not to exceed 1.6 gpf each may be allowed on a 3 inch horizontal waste when approved by the AHJ.
  5. Based on one-fourth inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) slope. For one-eights of an inch per foot (10.4 mm/m) slope, multiply horizontal fixture units by a factor of 0.8.
  6. The diameter of an individual vent shall be not less than one and one-fourth inches (32 mm) nor less than one-half the diameter of the drain to which it is connected. Fixture unit load values for drainage and vent piping shall be computed from Table 702.1 and Table 702.2(b). Not to exceed one-third of the total permitted length of a vent shall be permitted to be installed in a horizontal position. Where vents are increased one pipe size for their entire length, the maximum length limitations specified in this table do not apply. This table is in accordance with the requirements of Section 901.2.
For alternate method of sizing drainage piping, see Appendix C.
Drainage piping shall be provided with approved inlet fittings for fixture connections, correctly located according to the size and type of fixture proposed to be connected.
Two fixtures set back-to-back, or side-by-side, within the distance allowed between a trap and its vent, shall be permitted to be served by a single vertical drainage pipe provided that each fixture wastes separately into an approved double-fixture fitting having inlet openings at the same level.

704.3 Commercial Sinks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Except where specifically required to be connected indirectly to the drainage system, or when first approved by the authority having jurisdiction, all plumbing fixtures, drains, appurtenances, and appliances shall be directly connected to the drainage system of the building or premises.
Joining methods for ABS plastic pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.1.1 through Section 705.1.3.
Mechanical joints shall be designed to provide a permanent seal and shall be of the mechanical or push-on joint. The push-on joint shall include an elastomeric gasket that complies with ASTM D3212 and shall provide a compressive force against the spigot and socket after assembly to provide a permanent seal.
Solvent cement joints for ABS pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Pipe shall be cut square and shall be deburred. Where surfaces to be joined are cleaned, and free of dirt, moisture, oil, and other foreign material, the solvent cement that complies with ASTM D2235 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. Joints shall be made while both the inside socket surface and outside surface of pipe are wet with solvent cement. Hold joint in place and undisturbed for 1 minute after assembly.
Threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. A minimum of Schedule 80 shall be permitted to be threaded. Molded threads on adapter fittings for the transition to threaded joints shall be permitted. Thread sealant compound shall be applied to male threads, insoluble in water, and nontoxic. The joint between the pipe and transition fitting shall be of the solvent cement type. Caution shall be used during assembly to prevent over tightening of the ABS components once the thread sealant compound has been applied.
Joining methods for cast-iron pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.2.1 or Section 705.2.2.
Caulked joints shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp and filled with molten lead to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) in one continuous pour. The lead shall be caulked thoroughly at the inside and outside edges of the joint. After caulking, the finished joint shall not exceed 1/8 of an inch (3.2 mm) below the rim of the hub. No paint, varnish, or other coatings shall be permitted on the joining material until after the joint has been tested and approved.
Mechanical joints for cast-iron pipe and fittings shall be of the elastomeric compression type or mechanical joint couplings. Compression type joints with an elastomeric gasket for cast-iron hub and spigot pipe shall comply with ASTM C564 and be tested in accordance with ASTM C1563. Hub and spigot shall be clean and free of dirt, mud, sand, and foreign materials. Cut pipe shall be free from sharp edges. Fold and insert gasket into the hub. Lubricate the joint following manufacturer's instructions. Insert spigot into hub until the spigot end of the pipe bottom out in the hub. Use the same procedure for the installation of fittings.

A mechanical joint shielded coupling type for hubless cast-iron pipe and fittings shall have a metallic shield that complies with ASTM A1056, ASTM C1277, ASTM C1540, or CISPI 310. The elastomeric gasket shall comply with ASTM C564. Hubless cast-iron pipe and fittings shall be clean and free of dirt, mud, sand, and foreign materials. Cut pipe shall be free from sharp edges. Gasket shall be placed on the end of the pipe or fitting and the stainless steel shield and clamp assembly on the end of the other pipe or fitting. Pipe or fittings shall be seated against the center stop inside the elastomeric sleeve. Slide the stainless steel shield and clamp assembly into a position centered over the gasket and tighten. Bands shall be tightened using an approved calibrated torque wrench specifically set by the manufacturer of the couplings.

Joining methods for copper or copper alloy pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.3.1 through Section 705.3.4.
Brazed joints between copper or copper alloy pipe and fittings shall be made with brazing alloys having a liquid temperature above 1000°F (538°C). The joint surfaces to be brazed shall be cleaned bright by either manual or mechanical means. Piping shall be cut square and reamed to full inside diameter. Brazing flux shall be applied to the joint surfaces where required by manufacturer's recommendation. Brazing filler metal shall conform to AWS A5.8 and shall be applied at the point where the pipe or tubing enters the socket of the fitting.
Mechanical joints in copper or copper alloy piping shall be made with a mechanical coupling with grooved end piping or approved joint designed for the specific application.
Soldered joints between copper or copper alloy pipe and fittings shall be made in accordance with ASTM B828 with the following sequence of joint preparation and operation as follows: measuring and cutting, reaming, cleaning, fluxing, assembly and support, heating, applying the solder, cooling, and cleaning. Pipe shall be cut square and reamed to the full inside diameter including the removal of burrs on the outside of the pipe. Surfaces to be joined shall be cleaned bright by manual or mechanical means. Flux shall be applied to pipe and fittings and shall conform to ASTM B813, and shall become noncorrosive and nontoxic after soldering. Insert pipe into the base of the fitting and remove excess flux. Pipe and fitting shall be supported to ensure a uniform capillary space around the joint. Heat shall be applied using air or fuel torch with the flame perpendicular to the pipe using acetylene or an LP gas. Preheating shall depend on the size of the joint. The flame shall be moved to the fitting cup and alternate between the pipe and fitting. Solder conforming to ASTM B32 shall be applied to the joint surfaces until capillary action draws the molten solder into the cup. Joint surfaces shall not be disturbed until cool, and any remaining flux residue shall be cleaned.
Threaded joints for copper or copper alloy pipe shall be made with pipe threads that comply with ASME B1.20.1. Thread sealant tape or compound shall be applied only to male threads, and such material shall be approved types, insoluble in water, and nontoxic.
Joining methods for galvanized steel pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.4.1 or Section 705.4.2.
Mechanical joints shall be made with an elastomeric gasket.
Threaded joints shall be made with pipe threads that comply with ASME B1.20.1. Thread sealant tape or compound shall be applied only to male threads, and such material shall be of approved types, insoluble in water, and nontoxic.
Polyethylene (PE) sewer pipe or tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.5.1 through Section 705.5.1.3.
Heat-fusion joints between PE sewer pipe or tubing and fittings shall be assembled in accordance with Section 705.5.1.1 through Section 705.5.1.3 using butt-fusion, electro-fusion, or socket-fusion heat methods. Do not disturb the joint until cooled to ambient temperature.
Butt-fusion joints for PE pipe shall be installed in accordance with ASTM F2620 and shall be made by heating the prepared ends of two pipes, pipe and fitting, or two fittings by holding ends against a heated element. The heated element shall be removed when the required melt or times are obtained and heated ends shall be placed together with applied force. Do not disturb the joint until cooled to ambient temperature.
Electro-fusion joints shall be heated internally by a conductor at the interface of the joint. Fittings shall comply with ASTM F1055 for the performance requirements of polyethylene electro-fusion fittings. The specified electro-fusion cycle used to form the joint requires consideration of the properties of the materials being joined, the design of the fitting being used, and the environmental conditions. Align and restrain fitting to pipe to prevent movement and apply electric current to the fitting. Turn off the current when the required time has elapsed to heat the joint. Do not disturb the joint until cooled to ambient temperature.
Socket fusion joints shall be installed in accordance with ASTM F2620 and shall be made by simultaneously heating the outside surface of a pipe end and the inside of a fitting socket. Where the required melt is obtained, the pipe and fitting shall be joined by inserting one into the other with applied force. Do not disturb the joint until cooled to ambient temperature.
Joining methods for PVC plastic pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.6.1 through Section 705.6.3.
Mechanical joints shall be designed to provide a permanent seal and shall be of the mechanical or push-on joint type. The push-on joint shall include an elastomeric gasket that complies with ASTM D3212 and shall provide a compressive force against the spigot and socket after assembly to provide a permanent seal.
Solvent cement joints for PVC pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Pipe shall be cut square, and pipe shall be deburred. Where surfaces to be joined are cleaned and free of dirt, moisture, oil, and other foreign material, apply primer purple in color that complies with ASTM F656. Primer shall be applied to the surface of the pipe and fitting is softened. Solvent cement that comply with ASTM D2564 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. Joints shall be made while both the inside socket surface and outside surface of pipe are wet with solvent cement. Hold joint in place and undisturbed for 1 minute after assembly.
Threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. A minimum of Schedule 80 shall be permitted to be threaded. Molded threads on adapter fittings for the transition to threaded joints shall be permitted. Thread sealant compound that is compatible with the pipe and fitting, insoluble in water and nontoxic shall be applied to male threads. The joint between the pipe and transition fitting shall be of the solvent cement type. Caution shall be used during assembly to prevent over tightening of the PVC components once the thread sealant has been applied. Female PVC threaded fittings shall be used with plastic male threads only.
Joining methods for stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.7.1 or Section 705.7.2.
Mechanical joints between stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be of the compression, grooved coupling, hydraulic press-connect fittings, or flanged.
Welded joints between stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be made in accordance with ASME A112.3.1 and shall be welded autogenously. Pipe shall be cleaned, free of scale and contaminating particles. Pipe shall be cut with a combination cutting and beveling tool that provides a square cut, and free of burrs. Mineral oil lubricant shall be used during the cutting and beveling process.
Joining methods for vitrified clay pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.8.1.
Mechanical joints shall be designed to provide a permanent seal and shall be of the mechanical or push-on joint type. The push-on joint shall include an elastomeric gasket that complies with ASTM C425 and shall provide a compressive force against the spigot and socket after assembly to provide a permanent seal.
Special joints shall comply with Section 705.9.1 through Section 705.9.4.
In fixture drains and traps, slip joints of approved materials shall be permitted to be used in accordance with their approvals.
Expansion joints shall be accessible, except where in vent piping or drainage stacks, and shall be permitted to be used where necessary to provide for expansion and contraction of the pipes.
Copper or copper alloy ground joint flared, or ferrule-type connections that allow adjustment of tubing, but provide a rigid joint where made up, shall not be considered as slip joints.
A solvent cement transition joint between ABS and PVC building drain and building sewer shall be made using listed transition solvent cement in accordance with ASTM D3138.
Joints between various materials shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and with Section 705.10.1 through Section 705.10.4. Mechanical couplings used to join different materials shall comply with ASTM C1173 for belowground use, ASTM C1460 for aboveground use, or ASTM C1461 for aboveground and belowground use.
Joints from copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing to cast-iron pipe shall be made with a listed compression-type joint or copper alloy ferrule. The copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing shall be soldered or brazed to the ferrule, and the ferrule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a compression or caulked joint.
Joints from copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing to threaded pipe shall be made by the use of a listed copper alloy adapter or dielectric fitting. The joint between the copper or copper alloy pipe and the fitting shall be a soldered or brazed, and the connection between the threaded and the fittings shall be made with a standard pipe size threaded joint.
Where connecting plastic pipe to other types of plastic or other types of piping material; approved listed adapter or transition fittings and listed for the specific transition intended shall be used.
Where connecting stainless steel pipe to other types of piping, listed mechanical joints of the compression type and listed for the specific transition intended shall be used.
Changes in the direction of drainage piping shall be made by the appropriate use of approved fittings and shall be of the angles presented by a one-sixteenth bend, one-eighth bend, or one-sixth bend, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep.
Horizontal drainage lines, connecting with a vertical stack, shall enter through 45 degree (0.79 rad) wye branches, 60 degree (1.05 rad) wye branches, combination wye and one-eighth bend branches, sanitary tee or sanitary tapped tee branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep. No fitting having more than one inlet at the same level shall be used unless such fitting is constructed so that the discharge from one inlet cannot readily enter any other inlet. Double sanitary tees shall be permitted to be used where the barrel of the fitting is not less than two pipe sizes larger than the largest inlet, (pipe sizes recognized for this purpose are 2 inches, 21/2 inches, 3 inches, 31/2 inches, 4 inches, 41/2 inches, 5 inches, 6 inches, etc.) (50 mm, 65 mm, 80 mm, 90 mm, 100 mm, 115 mm, 125 mm, 150 mm, etc.).
Horizontal drainage lines connecting with other horizontal drainage lines shall enter through 45 degree (0.79 rad) wye branches, combination wye and one-eighth bend branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep.
Vertical drainage lines connecting with horizontal drainage lines shall enter through 45 degree (0.79 rad) wye branches, combination wye and one-eighth bend branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep. Branches or offsets of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) shall be permitted to be used where installed in a true vertical position.
Each cleanout fitting for cast-iron pipe shall consist of a cast-iron or copper alloy body and an approved plug. Each cleanout for galvanized wrought iron, galvanized steel, copper, or copper alloy pipe shall consist of a plug as specified in Table 707.1, or a standard weight copper alloy cap, or an approved ABS or PVC plastic plug, or an approved stainless steel cleanout or plug. Plugs shall have raised square heads or approved countersunk rectangular slots.
TABLE 707.1
CLEANOUTS
SIZE OF PIPE
(inches)
SIZE OF CLEANOUT
(inches)
THREADS
(per inches)
11/2 11/2 111/2
2 11/2 111/2
21/2 21/2 8
3 21/2 8
4 & larger 31/2 8

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

Each cleanout fitting and each cleanout plug or cap shall be of an approved type.
Cleanouts shall be designed to be watertight and gastight.

707.4 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Each horizontal drainage pipe shall be provided with a cleanout at its upper terminal, and each run of piping, that is more than 100 feet (30,480 mm) in total developed length, shall be provided with a cleanout for each 100 feet (30,480 mm), or fraction thereof, in length of such piping. An additional cleanout shall be provided in a drainage line for each aggregate horizontal change of direction exceeding 135 degrees (2.36 rad).

Exceptions:

  1. Cleanouts shall be permitted to be omitted on a horizontal drain line less than 5 feet (1,524 mm) in length unless such line is serving sinks or urinals.
  2. Cleanouts shall be permitted to be omitted on a horizontal drainage pipe installed on a slope of 72 degrees (1.26 rad) or less from the vertical angle (one-fifth bend).
  3. Except for the building drain, its horizontal branches, and urinals, a cleanout shall not be required on a pipe or piping that is above the floor level of the lowest floor of the building.
  4. An approved type of two-way cleanout fitting, installed inside the building wall near the connection between the building drain and the building sewer or installed outside of a building at the lower end of a building drain and extended to grade, shall be permitted to be substituted for an upper terminal cleanout.
Each cleanout shall be installed so that it opens to allow cleaning in the direction of flow of the soil or waste or at right angles thereto and, except in the case of wye branch and end-of-line cleanouts, shall be installed vertically above the flow line of the pipe.
Each cleanout extension shall be considered as drainage piping and each 90 degree (1.57 rad) cleanout extension shall be extended from a wye-type fitting or other approved fitting of equivalent sweep.
Each cleanout for an interceptor shall be outside of such interceptor.
Each cleanout, unless installed under an approved cover plate, shall be above grade, readily accessible, and so located as to serve the purpose for which it is intended. Cleanouts located under cover plates shall be so installed as to provide the clearances and accessibility required by this section.

707.9 Clearance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Each cleanout in piping 2 inches (50 mm) or less in size shall be so installed that there is a clearance of not less than 12 inches (457 mm) in front of the cleanout. Cleanouts in piping exceeding 2 inches (50 mm) shall have a clearance of not less than 18 inches (610 mm) in front of the cleanout. Cleanouts in under-floor piping shall be extended to or above the finished floor or shall be extended outside the building where there is less than 18 inches (457 mm) vertical overall, allowing for obstructions such as ducts, beams, and piping, and 30 inches of (762 mm) horizontal clearance from the means of access to such cleanout. No under-floor cleanout shall be located exceeding 20 feet (1,524 mm) from an access door, trap door, or crawl hole.
Cleanout fittings shall be not less in size than those given in Table 707.1.
Cleanouts shall be provided for pressure drainage systems as classified under Section 710.7.
Countersunk cleanout plugs shall be installed where raised heads cause a hazard.
Where a hubless blind plug is used for a required cleanout, the complete coupling and plug shall be accessible for removal or replacement.
Cleanouts for trap arms shall be installed in accordance with Section 1002.3.
Horizontal drainage piping shall be run in practical alignment and a uniform slope of not less than 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) or 2 percent toward the point of disposal provided that, where it is impractical due to the depth of the street sewer, to the structural features, or to the arrangement of a building or structure to obtain a slope of 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) or 2 percent, such pipe or piping 4 inches (100 mm) or larger in diameter shall be permitted to have a slope of not less than 1/8 inch per foot (10.4 mm/m) or 1 percent, where first approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Where practicable, plumbing fixtures shall be drained to the public sewer or private sewage disposal system by gravity.
Fixtures installed on a floor level that is lower than the next upstream manhole cover of the public, or private sewer shall be protected from backflow of sewage by installing an approved type of backwater valve. Fixtures on such floor level that are not below the next upstream manhole cover shall not be required to be protected by a backwater valve. Fixtures on floor levels above such elevation shall not discharge through the backwater valve. Cleanouts for drains that pass through a backwater valve shall be clearly identified with a permanent label stating "backwater valve downstream."
Drainage piping serving fixtures that are located below the crown level of the main sewer shall discharge into an approved watertight sump or receiving tank, so located as to receive the sewage or wastes by gravity. From such sump or receiving tank, the sewage or other liquid wastes shall be lifted and discharged into the building drain or building sewer by approved ejectors, pumps, or other equally efficient approved mechanical devices.
A sewage ejector or sewage pump receiving the discharge of water closets or urinals:
  1. Shall have a discharge capacity of not less than 20 gpm (1.26 L/s).
  2. In single dwelling units, the ejector or pump shall be capable of passing an 11/2 inch (38 mm) diameter solid ball, and the discharge piping of each ejector or pump shall have a backwater valve and gate valve, and be not less than 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter.
  3. In other than single-dwelling units, the ejector or pump shall be capable of passing a 2 inch (51 mm) diameter solid ball, and the discharge piping of each ejector or pump shall have a backwater valve and gate valve, and be not less than 3 inches (80 mm) in diameter.
The discharge line from such ejector, pump, or another mechanical device shall be of approved pressure rated material and be provided with an accessible backwater or swing check valve and gate or ball valve. Where the gravity drainage line to which such discharge line connects is horizontal, the method of connection shall be from the top through a wye branch fitting. The gate or ball valve shall be located on the discharge side of the backwater or check valve.

Gate or ball valves, where installed in drainage piping, shall be fullway type with working parts of corrosion-resistant metal. Sizes 4 inches (100 mm) or more in diameter shall have cast-iron bodies and sizes less than 4 inches (100 mm), cast-iron or copper alloy bodies.

Building drains or building sewers receiving a discharge from a pump or ejector shall be adequately sized to prevent overloading. Two fixture units shall be allowed for each gallon per minute (L/s) of flow.
Backwater valves, gate valves, fullway ball valves, unions, motors, compressors, air tanks, and other mechanical devices required by this section shall be located where they will be accessible for inspection and repair and, unless continuously exposed, shall be enclosed in a masonry pit fitted with an adequately sized removable cover.

Backwater valves shall comply with ASME A112.14.1, and have bodies of cast-iron, plastic, copper alloy, or other approved materials; shall have noncorrosive bearings, seats, and self-aligning discs; and shall be constructed to ensure a positive mechanical seal. Such backwater valves shall remain open during periods of low flows to avoid screening of solids and shall not restrict capacities or cause excessive turbulence during peak loads. Unless otherwise listed, valve access covers shall be bolted type with gasket, and each valve shall bear the manufacturer's name cast into the body and the cover.

The drainage and venting systems, in connection with fixtures, sumps, receiving tanks, and mechanical waste-lifting devices shall be installed under the same requirements as provided for in this code for gravity systems.
Sumps and receiving tanks shall be watertight and shall be constructed of concrete, metal, or other approved materials. Where constructed of poured concrete, the walls and bottom shall be adequately reinforced and designed to recognized acceptable standards. Metal sumps or tanks shall be of such thickness as to serve their intended purpose and shall be treated internally and externally to resist corrosion.
Such sumps and receiving tanks shall be automatically discharged and, wherein a "public use" occupancy, shall be provided with dual pumps or ejectors arranged to function alternately in normal use and independently in case of overload or mechanical failure. The pumps shall have an audio and visual alarm, readily accessible, that signals pump failure or an overload condition. The lowest inlet shall have a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from the high-water or "starting" level of the sump.
Sumps and receiving tanks shall be provided with substantial covers having a bolt-and-gasket-type manhole or equivalent opening to permit access for inspection, repairs, and cleaning. The top shall be provided with a vent pipe that shall extend separately through the roof or, where permitted, be combined with other vent pipes. Such vent shall be large enough to maintain atmospheric pressure within the sump under normal operating conditions and, in no case, shall be less in size than that required by Table 703.2 for the number and type of fixtures discharging into the sump, nor less than 11/2 inches (40 mm) in diameter. Where the preceding requirements are met and the vent, after leaving the sump, is combined with vents from fixtures discharging into the sump, the size of the combined vent need not exceed that required for the total number of fixtures discharging into the sump. No vent from an air-operating sewage ejector shall combine with other vents.
Air tanks shall be so proportioned as to be of equal cubical capacity to the ejectors connected in addition to that in which there shall be maintained an air pressure of not less than 2 pounds per foot (lb/ft) (3 kg/m) of height the sewage is to be raised. No water-operated ejectors shall be permitted.
Grinder pumps shall be permitted to be used.
The discharge piping shall be sized in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in diameter. A check valve and fullway-type shutoff valve shall be located on the discharge line.
Fixtures shall be permitted to discharge to a macerating toilet system, or pumped waste system shall be permitted as an alternate to a sewage pump system where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Such systems shall comply with ASME A112.3.4/CSA B45.9 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
The sump shall be watertight and gastight.
The discharge piping shall be sized in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and shall be not less than 3/4 of an inch (20 mm) in diameter. The developed length of the discharge piping shall not exceed the manufacturer's instructions. A check valve and fullway-type shutoff valve shall be located within the discharge line or internally within the device.
The plumbing fixtures that discharge into the macerating device shall be vented in accordance with this code. The sump shall be vented in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and such vent shall be permitted to connect to the fixture venting.
Drainage connections shall not be made into a drainage piping system within 8 feet (2438 mm) of a vertical to horizontal change of direction of a stack containing suds-producing fixtures. Bathtubs, laundries, washing machine standpipes, kitchen sinks, and dishwashers shall be considered suds-producing fixtures. Where parallel vent stacks are required, they shall connect to the drainage stack at a point 8 feet (2438 mm) above the lowest point of the drainage stack.

Exceptions:

  1. Single-family residences.
  2. Stacks receiving the discharge from less than three stories of plumbing fixtures.
The piping of the plumbing, drainage, and venting systems shall be tested with water or air except that plastic pipe shall not be tested with air. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to require the removal of cleanouts, etc., to ascertain whether the pressure has reached all parts of the system. After the plumbing fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, they shall be submitted to a final test.
The water test shall be applied to the drainage and vent systems either in its entirety or in sections. Where the test is applied to the entire system, openings in the piping shall be tightly closed, except the highest opening, and the system filled with water to the point of overflow. Where the system is tested in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged, except the highest opening of the section under test, and each section shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested with less than a 10 foot head of water (30 kPa). In testing successive sections, not less than the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the next preceding section shall be tested, so that no joint or pipe in the building (except the uppermost 10 feet (3048 mm) of the system) shall have been submitted to a test of less than a 10 foot head of water (30 kPa). The water shall be kept in the system, or in the portion under test, for not less than 15 minutes before inspection starts. The system shall then be tight at all points.
The air test shall be made by attaching an air compressor testing apparatus to a suitable opening and, after closing all other inlets and outlets to the system, forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gauge pressure of 5 pounds-force per square inch (psi) (34 kPa) or sufficient to balance a column of mercury 10 inches (34 kPa) in height. The pressure shall be held without the introduction of additional air for a period of not less than 15 minutes.

Part II — Building Sewers

713.0 Sewer Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

713.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
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713.2 Private Sewage Disposal System

AMENDMENT
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713.3 Public Sewer

AMENDMENT
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713.4 Public Sewer Availability

AMENDMENT
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713.5 Permit

AMENDMENT
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713.6 Lot

AMENDMENT
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713.7 Installation

AMENDMENT
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714.0 Damage to Public Sewer or Private Sewage Disposal System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

714.1 Unlawful Practices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

714.2 Prohibited Water Discharge

AMENDMENT
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714.3 Prohibited Sewer Connection

AMENDMENT
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714.4 Commercial Food Waste Disposer

AMENDMENT
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714.5 Tanks

AMENDMENT
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715.0 Building Sewer Materials

AMENDMENT
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715.1 Materials

AMENDMENT
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715.2 Joining Methods and Materials

AMENDMENT
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715.3 Existing Sewers

AMENDMENT
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716.0 Markings

AMENDMENT
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716.1 General

AMENDMENT
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717.0 Size of Building Sewers

AMENDMENT
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717.1 General

AMENDMENT
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718.0 Grade, Support, and Protection of Building Sewers

AMENDMENT
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718.1 Slope

AMENDMENT
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718.2 Support

AMENDMENT
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718.3 Protection From Damage

AMENDMENT
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719.0 Cleanouts

AMENDMENT
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719.1 Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

719.2 No Additional Cleanouts

AMENDMENT
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719.3 Building Sewer Cleanouts

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

719.4 Cleaning

AMENDMENT
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719.5 Access

AMENDMENT
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719.6 Manholes

AMENDMENT
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720.0 Sewer and Water Pipes

AMENDMENT
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720.1 General

AMENDMENT
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721.0 Location

AMENDMENT
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721.1 Building Sewer

AMENDMENT
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721.2 Abutting Lot

AMENDMENT
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722.0 Abandoned Sewers and Sewage Disposal Facilities

AMENDMENT
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722.1 Building (House) Sewer

AMENDMENT
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722.2

AMENDMENT
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722.3 Filling

AMENDMENT
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722.4 Ownership

AMENDMENT
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722.5 Disposal Facilities

AMENDMENT
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723.0 Building Sewer Test

AMENDMENT
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723.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
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