ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

UPC 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

601.1 Applicability

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
This chapter shall govern the materials, design and installation of water supply systems, including backflow prevention devices, assemblies and methods used for backflow prevention.
Except where not deemed necessary for safety or sanitation by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, each plumbing fixture shall be provided with an adequate supply of potable running water piped thereto in an approved manner, so arranged as to flush and keep it in a clean and sanitary condition without danger of backflow or cross-connection. Water closets and urinals shall be flushed using an approved flush tank or flushometer valve.
Exception: Listed fixtures that do not require water for their operation and are not connected to the water supply.


In occupancies where plumbing fixtures are installed for private use, hot water shall be required for bathing, washing, laundry, cooking purposes, dishwashing or maintenance. In occupancies where plumbing fixtures are installed for public use, hot water shall be required for bathing and washing purposes. This requirement shall not supersede the requirements for individual temperature control limitations for public lavatories and public and private bidets, bathtubs, whirlpool bathtubs, and shower control valves.

In buildings where potable water and nonpotable water systems are installed, each system shall be clearly identified in accordance with Section 601.3.1 through Section 601.3.5.
Green background with white lettering.
Each system shall be identified with a colored pipe or band and coded with paints, wraps, and materials compatible with the piping.

Except as required by Section 601.3.3, nonpotable water systems shall have a yellow background with black uppercase lettering, with the words "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK." Each nonpotable system shall be identified to designate the liquid being conveyed, and the direction of normal flow shall be clearly shown. The minimum size of the letters and length of the color field shall comply with Table 601.3.2.

The background color and required information shall be indicated every 20 feet (6096 mm) but not less than once per room, and shall be visible from the floor level.

TABLE 601.3.2
MINIMUM LENGTH OF COLOR FIELD AND SIZE OF LETTERS

OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF PIPE OR COVERING
(inches)
MINIMUM LENGTH OF COLOR FIELD
(inches)
MINIMUM SIZE OF LETTERS
(inches)
1/2 to 11/4 8 1/2
11/2 to 2 8 3/4
21/2 to 6 12 11/4
8 to 10 24 21/2
Over 10 32 31/2

For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

Alternate water source systems shall have a purple (Pantone color No. 512, 522C, or equivalent) background with uppercase lettering and shall be field or factory marked as follows:
  1. Gray water systems shall be marked in accordance with this section with the words "CAUTION: NON POTABLE GRAY WATER, DO NOT DRINK" in black letters.
  2. Reclaimed (recycled) water systems shall be marked in accordance with this section with the words: "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE RECLAIMED (RECYCLED) WATER, DO NOT DRINK" in black letters.
  3. On-site treated water systems shall be marked in accordance with this section with the words: "CAUTION: ON-SITE TREATED NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK" in black letters.
  4. Rainwater catchment systems shall be marked in accordance with this section with the words: "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE RAINWATER WATER, DO NOT DRINK" in black letters.
Where vacuum breakers or backflow preventers are installed with fixtures listed in Table 1701.1, identification of the discharge side shall be permitted to be omitted.
Each outlet on the nonpotable water line that is used for special purposes shall be posted with black uppercase lettering as follows: "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK."
No installation of potable water supply piping, or part thereof, shall be made in such a manner that it will be possible for used, unclean, polluted, or contaminated water, mixtures, or substances to enter a portion of such piping from a tank, receptor, equipment, or plumbing fixture by reason of backsiphonage, suction, or other cause, either during normal use and operation thereof, or where such tank, receptor, equipment, or plumbing fixture is flooded or subject to pressure exceeding the operating pressure in the hot or cold water piping.
No person shall make a connection or allow one to exist between pipes or conduits carrying domestic water supplied by a public or private building supply system, and pipes, conduits, or fixtures containing or carrying water from any other source or containing or carrying water that has been used for any purpose whatsoever, or piping carrying chemicals, liquids, gases, or substances whatsoever, unless there is provided a backflow prevention device approved for the potential hazard and maintained in accordance with this code. Each point of use shall be separately protected where potential cross-contamination of individual units exists.
No plumbing fixture, device, or construction shall be installed or maintained, or shall be connected to a domestic water supply, where such installation or connection provides a possibility of polluting such water supply or cross-connection between a distributing system of water for drinking and domestic purposes and water that becomes contaminated by such plumbing fixture, device, or construction unless there is provided a backflow prevention device approved for the potential hazard.
No water piping supplied by a private water supply system shall be connected to any other source of supply without the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, Health Department, or other department having jurisdiction.

603.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Cross-connection control shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. Devices or assemblies for protection of the public water system must be models approved by the department of health under WAC 246-290-490. The authority having jurisdiction shall coordinate with the local water purveyor where applicable in all matters concerning cross-connection control within the property lines of the premises.

No person shall install any water operated equipment or mechanism, or use any water treating chemical or substance, if it is found that such equipment, mechanism, chemical or substance may cause pollution or contamination of the domestic water supply. Such equipment or mechanism may be permitted only when equipped with an approved backflow prevention device or assembly.

603.2 Approval of Devices or Assemblies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Before any device or assembly is installed for the prevention of backflow, it shall have first been approved by the authority having jurisdiction. Devices or assemblies shall be tested for conformity with recognized standards or other standards acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. Backflow prevention devices and assemblies shall comply with Table 603.2, except for specific applications and provisions as stated in Section 603.5.1 through 603.5.21.

All devices or assemblies installed in a potable water supply system for protection against backflow shall be maintained in good working condition by the person or persons having control of such devices or assemblies. Such devices or assemblies shall be tested in accordance with Section 603.4.2 and WAC 246-290-490. If found to be defective or inoperative, the device or assembly shall be replaced or repaired. No device or assembly shall be removed from use or relocated or other device or assembly substituted, without the approval of the authority having jurisdiction.

Testing shall be performed by a Washington state department of health certified backflow assembly tester.


TABLE 603.2
BACKFLOW PREVENTION DEVICES, ASSEMBLIES, AND METHODS

DEGREE OF HAZARD
DEVICE, ASSEMBLY, OR METHOD1 APPLICABLE STANDARDS POLLUTION
(LOW HAZARD)
CONTAMINATION
(HIGH HAZARD)
INSTALLATION2,3
BACKSIPHONAGE BACKPRESSURE BACKSIPHONAGE BACKPRESSURE
Air gap ASME
A112.1.2
X X See Table 603.3.1 in this chapter.
Air gap fittings for use with plumbing fixtures, appliances, and appurtenances ASME
A112.1.3
X X Air gap fitting is a device with an internal air gap, and typical installation includes plumbing fixtures, appliances, and appurtenances. The critical level shall not be installed below the flood level rim.
Atmospheric vacuum breaker (consists of a body, checking member and atmospheric port) ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1 X X Upright position. No valve downstream. Minimum of 6 inches or listed distance above all downstream piping and flood level rim of receptor.4,5
Antisiphon fill valve (ballcocks) for gravity water closet flush tanks and urinal tanks ASSE 1002/
ASME
A112.1002/
CSA B125.12
X X Installation of gravity water closet flush tank and urinal tanks with the fill valve installed with the critical level not less than 1 inch above the opening of the overflow pipe.4,5
Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, hose bibbs, freeze resistant, automatic draining type ASSE 1019 or CSA B64.2.1.1 X X Installation includes wall hydrants and hose bibbs. Such devices are not for use under continuous pressure conditions (means of shutoff downstream of device is prohibited).4,5
Hose connection vacuum breakers ASSE 1011 X X Such devices are not for use under continuous pressure conditions. No valve downstream.4,6
Hose connection backflow preventers ASSE 1052 X X Such devices are not for use under continuous pressure conditions 4,6
Dual check backflow preventer wall hydrants, freeze resistant ASSE 1053 X X Such devices are not for use under continuous pressure conditions.4
Freeze resistant sanitary yard hydrants ASSE 1057 X X Such devices are not for use under continuous pressure conditions.4
Spill-Resistant Pressure Vacuum Breaker (single check valve with air inlet vent and means of field testing) ASSE 1056 X X Upright position. Minimum of 12 inches or listed distance above all downstream piping and flood-level rim of receptor.5
Double Check Valve Backflow Prevention Assembly (two independent check valves and means of field testing) ASSE 1015; AWWA C510; CSA B64.5 or CSA B64.5.1 X X Horizontal unless otherwise listed. Access and clearance shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and not less than a 12 inch clearance at the bottom for maintenance. May need platform/ladder for test and repair.
Does not discharge water.
Double Check Detector Fire Protection Backflow Prevention Assembly (two independent check valves with a parallel detector assembly consisting of a water meter and a double check valve backflow prevention assembly and means for field testing) ASSE 1048 X X Horizontal unless otherwise listed. Access and clearance shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and not less than a 12 inch clearance at the bottom for maintenance. May need platform/ladder for test and repair. Does not discharge water. Installation includes a fire protection system and is designed to operate under continuous pressure conditions.
Pressure Vacuum Breaker Backflow Prevention Assembly (loaded air inlet valve, internally loaded check valve and means for field testing) ASSE 1020 or CSA B64.1.2 X X Upright position. May have valves downstream. Minimum of 12 inches above all downstream piping and flood-level rim of the receptor. May discharge water.
Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Prevention Assembly (two independently acting loaded check valves, a differential pressure relief valve and means for field testing) ASSE 1013;
AWWA C511;
CSA B64.4 or CSA B64.4.1
X X X X Horizontal unless otherwise listed. Access and clearance shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and not less than a 12 inch clearance at the bottom for maintenance. May need platform/ladder for test and repair. May discharge water.
Reduced Pressure Detector Fire Protection Backflow Prevention Assembly (two independently acting loaded check valves, a differential pressure relief valve, with a parallel detector assembly consisting of a water meter and a reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly, and means for field testing) ASSE 1047 X X X X Horizontal unless otherwise listed. Access and clearance shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and not less than a 12 inch clearance at the bottom for maintenance. May need platform/ladder for test and repair. May discharge water. Installation includes a fire protection system and is designed to operate under continuous pressure conditions.

For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

Notes:

1 See the description of devices and assemblies in this chapter.

2 Installation in pit or vault requires previous approval by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

3 Refer to the general and specific requirement for installation.

4 Not to be subjected to operating pressure for more than 12 hours in a 24 hour period.

5 For deck-mounted and equipment-mounted vacuum breaker, see Section 603.5.13.

6 Shall be installed in accordance with Section 603.5.7.

 

Backflow prevention devices, assemblies, and methods shall comply with Section 603.3.1 through Section 603.3.9.
The minimum air gap to afford backflow protection shall be in accordance with Table 603.3.1.
TABLE 603.3.1
MINIMUM AIR GAPS FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION4
FIXTURES WHERE NOT AFFECTED BY SIDEWALLS1
(inches)
WHERE AFFECTED BY SIDEWALLS2
(inches)
Effective openings3 not greater than 1/2 of an inch in diameter 1 11/2
Effective openings3 not greater than 3/4 of an inch in diameter 11/2 21/4
Effective openings3 not greater than 1 inch in diameter 2 3
Effective openings3 greater than 1 inch in diameter Two times the diameter of effective opening Three times the diameter of effective opening

For SI units: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

Notes:

1 Sidewalls, ribs, or similar obstructions do not affect air gaps where spaced from the inside edge of the spout opening a distance exceeding three times the diameter of the effective opening for a single wall, or a distance exceeding four times the effective opening for two intersecting walls.

2 Vertical walls, ribs, or similar obstructions extending from the water surface to or above the horizontal plane of the spout opening other than specified in Footnote 1 above. The effect of three or more such vertical walls or ribs has not been determined. In such cases, the air gap shall be measured from the top of the wall.

3 The effective opening shall be the minimum cross-sectional area at the seat of the control valve or the supply pipe or tubing that feeds the device or outlet. Where two or more lines supply one outlet, the effective opening shall be the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the individual supply lines or the area of the single outlet, whichever is smaller.

4 Air gaps less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) shall be approved as a permanent part of a listed assembly that has been tested under actual backflow conditions with vacuums of 0 to 25 inches of mercury (85 kPa).

An atmospheric vacuum breaker consists of a body, a checking member, and an atmospheric port.
A hose connection backflow preventer consists of two independent check valves with an independent atmospheric vent between and a means of field testing and draining.
A double check valve backflow prevention assembly consists of two independently acting internally loaded check valves, four properly located test cocks, and two isolation valves.
A pressure vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly consists of a loaded air inlet valve, an internally loaded check valve, two properly located test cocks, and two isolation valves. This device shall be permitted to be installed indoors where provisions for spillage are provided.
A pressure-type vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly consists of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air inlet vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned downstream of the check valve and located between and including two tightly closing shutoff valves and test cocks.
A reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly consists of two independently acting internally loaded check valves, a differential pressure relief valve, four properly located test cocks, and two isolation valves.
A double check valve backflow prevention assembly with a parallel detector assembly consisting of a water meter and a double check valve backflow prevention assembly (DC).
A reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly with a parallel detector assembly consisting of a water meter and a reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP).
Assemblies shall comply with listed standards and be acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, with jurisdiction over the selection and installation of backflow prevention assemblies.
Where more than one backflow prevention valve is installed on a single premise, and the valves are installed in one location, each separate valve shall be permanently identified by the permittee in a manner satisfactory to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

603.4.2 Testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
For devices and assemblies other than those regulated by the Washington department of health in conjunction with the local water purveyor for the protection of public water systems, the authority having jurisdiction shall ensure that the premise owner or responsible person shall have the backflow prevention assembly tested by a Washington state department of health certified backflow assembly tester:
  1. At the time of installation, repair or relocation; and
  2. At least on an annual schedule thereafter, unless more frequent testing is required by the authority having jurisdiction.
Access and clearance shall be provided for the required testing, maintenance, and repair. Access and clearance shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and not less than 12 inches (305 mm) between the lowest portion of the assembly and grade, floor, or platform. Installations elevated that exceed 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor or grade shall be provided with a platform capable of supporting a tester or maintenance person.
Direct connections between potable water piping and sewer-connected wastes shall not be permitted to exist under any condition with or without backflow protection. Where potable water is discharged to the drainage system, it shall be by means of an approved air gap of two pipe diameters of the supply inlet, but in no case shall the gap be less than 1 inch (25.4 mm). Connection shall be permitted to be made to the inlet side of a trap provided that an approved vacuum breaker is installed not less than 6 inches (152 mm), or the distance according to the device's listing, above the flood-level rim of such trapped fixture, so that at no time will such device be subjected to backpressure.
Backflow preventers for hot water exceeding 110°F (43°C) shall be a type designed to operate at temperatures exceeding 110°F (43°C) without rendering a portion of the assembly inoperative.
Fixtures, appliances, or appurtenances with integral backflow preventers or integral air gaps manufactured as a unit shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements and the manufacturer's installation instructions.
In cold climate areas, backflow assemblies and devices shall be protected from freezing with an outdoor enclosure that complies with ASSE 1060 or by a method acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Drain lines serving backflow devices or assemblies shall be sized in accordance with the discharge rates of the manufacturer's flow charts of such devices or assemblies.

603.4.9 Prohibited Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Backflow prevention devices with atmospheric vents or ports shall not be installed in pits, underground or in submerged locations. Backflow preventers shall not be located in any area containing fumes or aerosols that are toxic, poisonous, infectious, or corrosive.
Specific requirements for backflow prevention shall comply with Section 603.5.1 through Section 603.5.21.
Water closet and urinal flushometer valves shall be protected against backflow by an approved backflow prevention assembly, device, or method. Where the valves are equipped with an atmospheric vacuum breaker, the vacuum breaker shall be installed on the discharge side of the flushometer valve with the critical level not less than 6 inches (152 mm), or the distance according to its listing, above the overflow rim of a water closet bowl or the highest part of a urinal.
Water closet and urinal tanks shall be equipped with a ballcock. The ballcock shall be installed with the critical level not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the full opening of the overflow pipe. In cases where the ballcock has no hush tube, the bottom of the water supply inlet shall be installed 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the full opening of the overflow pipe.
Water closet flushometer tanks shall be protected against backflow by an approved backflow prevention assembly, device, or method.
Heat exchangers used for heat transfer, heat recovery, or solar heating shall protect the potable water system from being contaminated by the heat-transfer medium. Single-wall heat exchangers used in indirect-fired water heaters shall meet the requirements of Section 505.4.1. Double-wall heat exchangers shall separate the potable water from the heat-transfer medium by providing a space between the two walls that are vented to the atmosphere.
Water supply inlets to tanks, vats, sumps, swimming pools, and other receptors shall be protected by one of the following means:
  1. An approved air gap.
  2. A listed vacuum breaker installed on the discharge side of the last valve with the critical level not less than 6 inches (152 mm) or in accordance with its listing.
  3. A backflow preventer suitable for the degree of hazard, installed in accordance with the requirements for that type of device or assembly as set forth in this chapter.

603.5.6 Protection From Lawn Sprinklers and Irrigation Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Potable water supplies to systems having no pumps or connections for pumping equipment, and no chemical injection or provisions for chemical injection, shall be protected from backflow by one of the following:
  1. Atmospheric vacuum breaker (AVB).
  2. Pressure vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly (PVB).
  3. Spill-resistant pressure vacuum breaker (SVB).
  4. Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP).
  5. A double check valve backflow prevention assembly (DC) may be allowed when approved by the water purveyor and the authority having jurisdiction.
Where sprinkler and irrigation systems have pumps, connections for pumping equipment, or auxiliary air tanks, or are otherwise capable of creating backpressure, the potable water supply shall be protected by the following type of device where the backflow device is located upstream from the source of backpressure:
  1. Reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP)
Where systems have a backflow device installed downstream from a potable water supply pump or a potable water supply pump connection, the device shall be one of the following:
  1. Atmospheric vacuum breaker (AVB)
  2. Pressure vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly (PVB)
  3. Spill-resistant pressure vacuum breaker (SVB)
  4. Reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP)
Where systems include a chemical injector or provisions for chemical injection, the potable water supply shall be protected by a reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP).
Potable water outlets with hose attachments, other than water heater drains, boiler drains, and clothes washer connections, shall be protected by a nonremovable hose bibb-type backflow preventer, a nonremovable hose bibb-type vacuum breaker, or by an atmospheric vacuum breaker installed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest point of usage located on the discharge side of the last valve. In climates where freezing temperatures occur, a listed self-draining frost-proof hose bibb with an integral backflow preventer or vacuum breaker shall be used.
Water-cooled compressors, degreasers, or other water-cooled equipment shall be protected by a backflow preventer installed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. Water-cooled equipment that produces backpressure shall be equipped with the appropriate protection.
Water inlets to water-supplied aspirators shall be equipped with a vacuum breaker installed in accordance with its listing requirements and this chapter. The discharge shall drain through an air gap. Where the tailpiece of a fixture to receive the discharge of an aspirator is used, the air gap shall be located above the flood-level rim of the fixture.

603.5.10 Steam or Hot Water Boilers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Potable water connections to steam or hot water boilers shall be protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.
In cases where it is impractical to correct individual cross-connections on the domestic waterline, the line supplying such outlets shall be considered a nonpotable water line. No drinking or domestic water outlets shall be connected to the nonpotable waterline. Where possible, portions of the nonpotable waterline shall be exposed, and exposed portions shall be properly identified in a manner satisfactory to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Each outlet on the nonpotable waterline that is permitted to be used for drinking or domestic purposes shall be posted: "CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER, DO NOT DRINK."

603.5.12 Beverage Dispensers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Potable water supply to carbonators shall be protected by a listed reduced pressure principle backflow preventer as approved by the authority having jurisdiction for the specific use. The backflow preventer shall comply with Section 603.4.3. The piping downstream of the backflow preventer shall not be of copper, copper alloy, or other material that is affected by carbon dioxide.
Deck-mounted or equipment-mounted vacuum breakers shall be installed in accordance with their listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions, with the critical level not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the flood-level rim.

603.5.14 Protection From Fire Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Except as provided under Sections 603.5.14.1 and 603.5.14.2, potable water supplies to fire protection systems that are normally under pressure, including but not limited to standpipes and automatic sprinkler systems, except in one or two family or townhouse residential flow-through or combination sprinkler systems, piped in materials approved for potable water distribution systems, shall be protected from backpressure and back-siphonage by one of the following testable assemblies:
  1. Double check valve backflow prevention assembly (DC).
  2. Double check detector fire protection backflow prevention assembly.
  3. Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP).
  4. Reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow prevention assembly.

Potable water supplies to fire protection systems that are not normally under pressure shall be protected from backflow and shall meet the requirements of the appropriate standard(s) referenced in Table 1701.1.

Where fire protection systems supplied from a potable water system include a fire department (siamese) connection that is located less than 1700 feet (518.2 m) from a nonpotable water source that is capable of being used by the fire department as a secondary water supply, the potable water supply shall be protected by one of the following:
  1. Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP)
  2. Reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow prevention assembly

Nonpotable water sources include fire department vehicles carrying water of questionable quality or water that is treated with antifreeze, corrosion inhibitors, or extinguishing agents.

Where antifreeze, corrosion inhibitors, or other chemicals are added to a fire protection system supplied from a potable water supply, the potable water system shall be protected by one of the following:
  1. Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP)
  2. Reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow prevention assembly
Where a backflow device is installed in the potable water supply to a fire protection system, the hydraulic design of the system shall account for the pressure drop through the backflow device. Where such devices are retrofitted for an existing fire protection system, the hydraulics of the sprinkler system design shall be checked to verify that there will be sufficient water pressure available for satisfactory operation of the fire sprinklers.
Vacuum breakers for washer-hose bedpans shall be located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. Hose connections in health care or laboratory areas shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor.
Portable cleaning equipment and dental vacuum pumps shall be protected from backflow by an air gap, an atmospheric vacuum breaker, a spill-resistant vacuum breaker, or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.
Potable water outlets, freeze-proof yard hydrants, combination stop-and-waste valves, or other fixtures that incorporate a stop and waste feature that drains into the ground shall not be installed underground.
The water supply to a pure water process system, such as dialysis water systems, semiconductor washing systems, and similar process piping systems, shall be protected from backpressure and backsiphonage by a reduced-pressure principle backflow preventer.
The individual connections of the dialysis related equipment to the dialysis pure water system shall not require additional backflow protection.
Plumbing fixture fittings with integral backflow protection shall comply with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
Potable water supply to swimming pools, spas, and hot tubs shall be protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer in accordance with the following:
  1. The unit is equipped with a submerged fill line.
  2. The potable water supply is directly connected to the unit circulation system.
The water supply to chemical dispensers shall be protected against backflow. The chemical dispenser shall comply with ASSE 1055 or the water supply shall be protected by one of the following methods:
  1. Air gap
  2. Atmospheric vacuum breaker (AVB)
  3. Pressure vacuum breaker backflow prevention assembly (PVB)
  4. Spill-resistant pressure vacuum breaker (SVB)
  5. Reduced-pressure principle backflow prevention assembly (RP)
Pipe, tube, fittings, solvent cement, thread sealants, solders, and flux used in potable water systems intended to supply drinking water shall comply with NSF 61. Where fittings and valves are made from copper alloys containing more than 15 percent zinc by weight and are used in plastic piping systems, they shall be resistant to dezincification and stress corrosion cracking in compliance with NSF 14.

TABLE 604.1
MATERIALS FOR BUILDING SUPPLY AND WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPING AND FITTINGS

MATERIAL BUILDING SUPPLY PIPE AND FITTINGS WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE AND FITTINGS REFERENCED STANDARD(S) PIPE REFERENCED STANDARD(S) FITTINGS
Copper and Copper Alloys X X ASTM B42, ASTM B43, ASTM B75, ASTM B88, ASTM B135, ASTM B251, ASTM B302, ASTM B447 ASME B16.15, ASME B16.18, ASME B 16.22, ASME B 16.26, ASME B16.502, ASME B16.51, ASSE 1061
CPVC X X ASTM D2846, ASTM F441, ASTM F442, CSA B137.6 ASSE 1061, ASTM D2846, ASTM F437, ASTM F438, ASTM F439, ASTM F1970, CSA B137.6
CPVC-AL-CPVC X X ASTM F2855 ASTM D2846
Ductile-Iron X X AWWA C151 ASME B16.4, AWWA C110, AWWA C153
Galvanized Steel X X ASTM A53
Malleable Iron X X ASME B16.3
PE X1 ASTM D2239, ASTM D2737, ASTM D3035, AWWA C901, CSA B137.1 ASTM D2609, ASTM D2683, ASTM D3261, ASTM F1055, CSA B137.1
PE-AL-PE X X ASTM F1282, CSA B137.9 ASTM F1282, ASTM F1974, CSA B137.9
PE-AL-PEX X X ASTM F1986 ASTM F1986
PE-RT X X ASTM F2769, CSA B137.18 ASTM D3261, ASTM F1055, ASSE 1061, ASTM F1807, ASTM F2098, ASTM F2159, ASTM F2735, ASTM F2769, CSA B137.18
PEX X X ASTM F876, ASTM F877, CSA B137.5, AWWA C9041 ASSE 1061, ASTM F877, ASTM F1807, ASTM F1960, ASTM F1961, ASTM F2080, ASTM F2159, ASTM F2735, CSA B137.5
PEX-AL-PEX X X ASTM F1281, CSA B137.10, ASTM F2262 ASTM F1281, ASTM F1974, ASTM F2434, CSA B137.10
PP X X ASTM F2389, CSA B137.11 ASTM F2389, CSA B137.11
PVC X1 ASTM D1785, ASTM D2241, AWWA C900 ASTM D2464, ASTM D2466, ASTM D2467, ASTM F1970, AWWA C907
Stainless Steel X X ASTM A269, ASTM A312

Notes:

1 For building supply or exterior cold-water applications, not for water distribution piping.

2 For brazed fittings only.

Materials used in the water supply system, except valves and similar devices, shall be of a like material, except where otherwise approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Materials for building water piping and building supply piping shall comply with the applicable standards referenced in Table 604.1.

The maximum allowable lead content in pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures intended to convey or dispense water for human consumption shall be not more than a weighted average of 0.25 percent with respect to the wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures. For solder and flux, the lead content shall be not more than 0.2 percent where used in piping systems that convey or dispense water for human consumption.
Exceptions:
  1. Pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, fixtures, or backflow preventers used for nonpotable services such as manufacturing, industrial processing, irrigation, outdoor watering, or any other uses where the water is not used for human consumption.
  2. Flush valves, fill valves, flushometer valves, tub fillers, shower valves, service saddles, or water distribution main gate valves that are 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter or larger.
Pipes, pipe fittings, valves, and faucets utilized in the water supply system for non-drinking water applications shall have a maximum of 8 percent lead content.
Copper or copper alloy tube for water piping shall have a weight of not less than Type L.
Exception: Type M copper or copper alloy tubing shall be permitted to be used for water piping where piping is aboveground in, or on, a building or underground outside of structures.
Hard-drawn copper or copper alloy tubing for water supply and distribution in addition to the required incised marking shall be marked in accordance with ASTM B88. The colors shall be: Type K, green; Type L, blue; and Type M, red.
Flexible water connectors shall be installed in readily accessible locations, and where under continuous pressure shall comply with ASME A112.18.6/CSA B125.6. Flexible water connectors with an excess flow shutoff device shall comply with CSA B125.5/IAPMO Z600.
Cast-iron fittings up to and including 2 inches (50 mm) in size, where used in connection with potable water piping, shall be galvanized.
Malleable iron water fittings shall be galvanized.
Piping and tubing that has previously been used for a purpose other than for potable water systems shall not be used.
The epoxy coating used on existing, underground steel building supply piping shall comply with NSF 61 and AWWA C210.
Approved plastic materials shall be permitted to be used in building supply piping, provided that where metal building supply piping is used for electrical grounding purposes, replacement piping, therefore, shall be of like materials.
Exception: Where a grounding system acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction is installed, inspected, and approved, the metallic pipe shall be permitted to be replaced with nonmetallic pipe.
Plastic materials for building supply piping outside underground shall have an electrically continuous corrosion-resistant blue insulated copper tracer wire, or other approved conductor installed adjacent to the piping. Access shall be provided to the tracer wire, or the tracer wire shall terminate aboveground at each end of the nonmetallic piping. The tracer wire size shall be not less than 14 AWG, and the insulation type shall be suitable for direct burial.
Solder shall comply with the requirements of Section 604.2.
Flexible corrugated connectors of copper, copper alloy, or stainless steel shall be limited to the following connector lengths:
  1. Fixture Connectors — 30 inches (762 mm)
  2. Washing Machine Connectors — 72 inches (1829 mm)
  3. Dishwasher and Icemaker Connectors — 120 inches (3048 mm)
Flexible metallic (copper and stainless steel), reinforced flexible, braided stainless steel, or polymer braided with EPDM core connectors that connect a water heater to the piping system shall comply with ASME A112.18.6/CSA B125.6. Copper, copper alloy, or stainless steel flexible connectors shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). PEX, PEX-AL-PEX, PE-AL-PE, or PE-RT tubing shall not be installed within the first 18 inches (457 mm) of piping connected to a water heater.

604.14 Plastic Pipe Termination

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Plastic water service piping may terminate within a building, provided the connection to the potable water distribution system shall be made as near as is practical to the point of entry and shall be accessible. Barbed insert fittings with hose clamps are prohibited as a transition fitting within the building.
Joining methods for copper or copper alloy pipe, tubing, and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.1.1 through Section 605.1.5.
Brazed joints between copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing and fittings shall be made with brazing alloys having a liquid temperature above 1000°F (538°C). The joint surfaces to be brazed shall be cleaned bright by either manual or mechanical means. Tubing shall be cut square and reamed to full inside diameter. Brazing flux shall be applied to the joint surfaces where required by manufacturer's recommendation. Brazing filler metal shall conform to AWS A5.8 and shall be applied at the point where the pipe or tubing enters the socket of the fitting.
Flared joints for soft copper or copper alloy water tubing shall be made with fittings that comply with the applicable standards referenced in Table 604.1. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square using an appropriate tubing cutter. The tubing shall be reamed to full inside diameter, resized to round, and expanded with a proper flaring tool.
Mechanical joints shall include, but are not limited to, compression, flanged, grooved, pressed, and push fit fittings.
Mechanically formed tee fittings shall have extracted collars that shall be formed in a continuous operation consisting of drilling a pilot hole and drawing out the pipe or tube surface to form a collar having a height not less than three times the thickness of the branch tube wall. The branch pipe or tube shall be notched to conform to the inner curve of the run pipe or tube and shall have two dimple depth stops to ensure that penetration of the branch pipe or tube into the collar is of a depth for brazing and that the branch pipe or tube does not obstruct the flow in the main line pipe or tube. Dimple depth stops shall be in line with the run of the pipe or tube. The second dimple shall be 1/4 of an inch (6.4 mm) above the first and shall serve as a visual point of inspection. Fittings and joints shall be made by brazing. Soldered joints shall not be permitted.
Press-connect fittings for copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing shall have an elastomeric o-ring that forms the joint. The pipe or tubing shall be fully inserted into the fitting, and the pipe or tubing marked at the shoulder of the fitting. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square, chamfered, and reamed to full inside diameter. The fitting alignment shall be checked against the mark on the pipe or tubing to ensure the pipe or tubing is inserted into the fitting. The joint shall be pressed using the tool recommended by the manufacturer.
Removable and nonremovable push fit fittings for copper or copper alloy tubing or pipe that employ quick assembly push fit connectors shall comply with ASSE 1061. Push fit fittings for copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing shall have an approved elastomeric o-ring that forms the joint. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square, chamfered, and reamed to full inside diameter. The tubing shall be fully inserted into the fitting, and the tubing marked at the shoulder of the fitting. The fitting alignment shall be checked against the mark on the tubing to ensure the tubing is inserted into the fitting and gripping mechanism has engaged on the pipe.
Soldered joints between copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing and fittings shall be made in accordance with ASTM B828 with the following sequence of joint preparation and operation as follows: measuring and cutting, reaming, cleaning, fluxing, assembly and support, heating, applying the solder, cooling and cleaning. Pipe or tubing shall be cut square and reamed to the full inside diameter including the removal of burrs on the outside of the pipe or tubing. Surfaces to be joined shall be cleaned bright by manual or mechanical means. Flux shall be applied to pipe or tubing and fittings and shall conform to ASTM B813, and shall become noncorrosive and nontoxic after soldering. Insert pipe or tubing into the base of the fitting and remove excess flux. Pipe or tubing and fitting shall be supported to ensure a uniform capillary space around the joint. Heat shall be applied using an air or fuel torch with the flame perpendicular to the pipe or tubing using acetylene or an LP gas. Preheating shall depend on the size of the joint. The flame shall be moved to the fitting cup and alternate between the pipe or tubing and fitting. Solder conforming to ASTM B32 shall be applied to the joint surfaces until capillary action draws the molten solder into the cup. Solder and fluxes with a lead content that exceeds 0.2 percent shall be prohibited in piping systems conveying potable water. Joint surfaces shall not be disturbed until cool and any remaining flux residue shall be cleaned.
Threaded joints for copper or copper alloy pipe shall be made with pipe threads that comply with ASME B1.20.1. Thread sealant tape or compound shall be applied only on male threads, and such material shall be of approved types, insoluble in water, and nontoxic.
CPVC plastic pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.2.1 through Section 605.2.3.
Mechanical joints shall include compression, flanged, grooved and push fit fittings.
Removable and nonremovable push fit fittings that employ a quick assembly push fit connector shall comply with ASSE 1061.
Solvent cement joints for CPVC pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Solvent cements shall comply with ASTM F493, requiring the use of a primer shall be orange in color. The primer shall be colored and shall comply with ASTM F656. Listed solvent cement that complies with ASTM F493 and that does not require the use of primers, yellow or red in color, shall be permitted for pipe and fittings that comply with ASTM D2846, 1/2 of an inch (15 mm) through 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter or ASTM F442, 1/2 of an inch (15 mm) through 3 inches (80 mm) in diameter. Apply primer where required inside the fitting and to the depth of the fitting on pipe. Apply liberal coat of cement to the outside surface of pipe to depth of fitting and inside of fitting. Place pipe inside fitting to forcefully bottom the pipe in the socket and hold together until joint is set.
Threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. A minimum of Schedule 80 shall be permitted to be threaded; however, the pressure rating shall be reduced by 50 percent. The use of molded fittings shall not result in a 50 percent reduction in the pressure rating of the pipe provided that the molded fittings shall be fabricated so that the wall thickness of the material is maintained at the threads. Thread sealant compound that is compatible with the pipe and fitting, insoluble in water, and nontoxic shall be applied to male threads. Caution shall be used during assembly to prevent over tightening of the CP VC components once the thread sealant has been applied. Female CPVC threaded fittings shall be used with plastic male threads only.
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride/aluminum/chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC/AL/CPVC) plastic pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.3.1 or Section 605.3.2.
Solvent cement joints for CPVC/AL/CPVC pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Solvent cements that comply with ASTM F493, requiring the use of a primer shall be orange in color. The primer shall be colored and shall comply with ASTM F656. Listed solvent cement that complies with ASTM F493 and that does not require the use of primers, yellow in color, shall be permitted to join pipe that comply with ASTM F2855 and fittings that comply with ASTM D2846, 1/2 of an inch (15 mm) through 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter. Apply primer where required inside the fitting and to the depth of the fitting on pipe. Apply liberal coat of cement to the outside surface of pipe to depth of fitting and inside of fitting. Place pipe inside fitting to forcefully bottom the pipe in the socket and hold together until joint is set.
Mechanical joints shall include flanged, grooved, and push fit fittings.
Removable and nonremovable push fit fittings that employ a quick assembly push fit connector shall comply with ASSE 1061.
Ductile iron pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.4.1 or Section 605.4.2.
Mechanical joints for ductile iron pipe and fittings shall consist of a bell that is cast integrally with the pipe or fitting and provided with an exterior flange having bolt holes and a socket with annular recesses for the sealing gasket and the plain end of the pipe or fitting. The elastomeric gasket shall comply with AWWA C111. Lubricant recommended for potable water application by the pipe manufacturer shall be applied to the gasket and plain end of the pipe.
Push-on joints for ductile iron pipe and fittings shall consist of a single elastomeric gasket that shall be assembled by positioning the elastomeric gasket in an annular recess in the pipe or fitting socket and forcing the plain end of the pipe or fitting into the socket. The plain end shall compress the elastomeric gasket to form a positive seal and shall be designed so that the elastomeric gasket shall be locked in place against displacement. The elastomeric gasket shall comply with AWWA C111. Lubricant recommended for potable water application by the pipe manufacturer shall be applied to the gasket and plain end of the pipe.
Galvanized steel pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.5.1 or Section 605.5.2.
Mechanical joints shall be made with an approved and listed elastomeric gasket.
Threaded joints shall be made with pipe threads that comply with ASME B1.20.1. Thread sealant tape or compound shall be applied only on male threads, and such material shall be of approved types, insoluble in water, and nontoxic.
PE plastic pipe or tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.6.1 or Section 605.6.2.
Heat-fusion joints between PE pipe or tubing and fittings shall be assembled in accordance with Section 605.6.1.1 through Section 605.6.1.3 using butt, socket, and electro-fusion heat methods.
Butt-fusion joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F2620. Joints shall be made by heating the squared ends of two pipes, pipe and fitting, or two fittings by holding ends against a heated element. The heated element shall be removed where the proper melt is obtained and joined ends shall be placed together with applied force.
Electro-fusion joints shall be heated internally by a conductor at the interface of the joint. Align and restrain fitting to pipe to prevent movement and apply electric current to the fitting. Turn off the current when the proper time has elapsed to heat the joint. The joint shall fuse together and remain undisturbed until cool.
Socket-fusion joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F2620. Joints shall be made by simultaneously heating the outside surface of a pipe end and the inside of a fitting socket. Where the proper melt is obtained, the pipe and fitting shall be joined by inserting one into the other with applied force. The joint shall fuse together and remain undisturbed until cool.
Mechanical joints between PE pipe or tubing and fittings shall include insert and mechanical compression fittings that provide a pressure seal resistance to pullout. Joints for insert fittings shall be made by cutting the pipe square, using a cutter designed for plastic piping, and removal of sharp edges. Two stainless steel clamps shall be placed over the end of the pipe. Fittings shall be checked for proper size based on the diameter of the pipe. The end of pipe shall be placed over the barbed insert fitting, making contact with the fitting shoulder. Clamps shall be positioned equal to 180 degrees (3.14 rad) apart and shall be tightened to provide a leak tight joint. Compression type couplings and fittings shall be permitted for use in joining PE piping and tubing. Stiffeners that extend beyond the clamp or nut shall be prohibited. Bends shall be not less than 30 pipe diameters, or the coil radius where bending with the coil. Bends shall not be permitted closer than 10 pipe diameters of a fitting or valve. Mechanical joints shall be designed for their intended use.
PE-AL-PE plastic pipe or tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.7.1 and Section 605.7.1.1.
Mechanical joints for PE-AL-PE pipe or tubing and fittings shall be either of the metal insert fittings with a split ring and compression nut or metal insert fittings with copper crimp rings. Metal insert fittings shall comply with ASTM F1974. Crimp insert fittings shall be joined to the pipe by placing the copper crimp ring around the outer circumference of the pipe, forcing the pipe material into the space formed by the ribs on the fitting until the pipe contacts the shoulder of the fitting. The crimp ring shall then be positioned on the pipe so the edge of the crimp ring is 1/8 of an inch (3.2 mm) to 1/4 of an inch (6.4 mm) from the end of the pipe. The jaws of the crimping tool shall be centered over the crimp ring and tool perpendicular to the barb. The jaws shall be closed around the crimp ring and shall not be crimped more than once.
Compression joints for PE-AL-PE pipe or tubing and fittings shall be joined through the compression of a split ring, by a compression nut around the circumference of the pipe. The compression nut and split ring shall be placed around the pipe. The ribbed end of the fitting shall be inserted into the pipe until the pipe contacts the shoulder of the fitting. Position and compress the split ring by tightening the compression nut onto the insert fitting.
Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) tubing and fitting joining methods and shall comply with Section 605.8.1.
Fittings for PE-RT tubing shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Table 604.1. Mechanical joints for PE-RT tubing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
PEX plastic tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.9.1 through Section 605.9.3.
Fittings for PEX tubing shall comply with the applicable standards referenced in Table 604.1. PEX tubing that complies with ASTM F876 shall be marked with the applicable standard designation for the fittings, specified by the tubing manufacturer for use with the tubing.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Removable and nonremovable push fit fittings that employ a quick assembly push fit connector shall comply with ASSE 1061.
PEX-AL-PEX plastic pipe or tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.10.1 and Section 605.10.1.1.
Mechanical joints between PEX-AL-PEX tubing and fittings shall include mechanical and compression type fittings and insert fittings with a crimping ring. Insert fittings utilizing a crimping ring shall comply with ASTM F1974 or ASTM F2434. Crimp joints for crimp insert fittings shall be joined to PEX-AL-PEX pipe by the compression of a crimp ring around the outer circumference of the pipe, forcing the pipe material into annular spaces formed by ribs on the fitting.
Compression joints shall include compression insert fittings and shall be joined to PEX-AL-PEX pipe through the compression of a split ring or compression nut around the outer circumference of the pipe, forcing the pipe material into the annular space formed by the ribs on the fitting.
PP pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.11.1 through Section 605.11.3.
Heat-fusion joints for polypropylene (PP) pipe and fitting joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, fusion outlets, butt-fusion polypropylene fittings or pipe, or electro-fusion polypropylene fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F2389 or CSA B137.11.
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
PP pipe shall not be threaded. PP transition fittings for connection to other piping materials shall only be threaded by use of copper alloy or stainless steel inserts molded in the fitting.
PVC plastic pipe and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.12.1 through Section 605.12.3.

PVC piping shall not be exposed to direct sunlight unless the piping does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) and is wrapped with not less than 0.04 of an inch (1.02 mm) thick tape or otherwise protected from UV degradation.

Mechanical joints shall be designed to provide a permanent seal and shall be of the mechanical or push-on joint. The mechanical joint shall include a pipe spigot that has a wall thickness to withstand without deformation or collapse; the compressive force exerted where the fitting is tightened. The push-on joint shall have a minimum wall thickness of the bell at any point between the ring and the pipe barrel. The elastomeric gasket shall comply with ASTM D3139, and be of such size and shape as to provide a compressive force against the spigot and socket after assembly to provide a positive seal.
Solvent cement joints for PVC pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Pipe shall be cut square and pipe shall be deburred. Where surfaces to be joined are cleaned and free of dirt, moisture, oil, and other foreign material, apply primer purple in color that complies with ASTM F656. Primer shall be applied to the surface of the pipe and fitting is softened. Solvent cement that complies with ASTM D2564 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. Joints shall be made while both the inside socket surface and outside surface of pipe are wet with solvent cement. Hold joint in place and undisturbed for 1 minute after assembly.
Threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. A minimum of Schedule 80 shall be permitted to be threaded; however, the pressure rating shall be reduced by 50 percent. The use of molded fittings shall not result in a 50 percent reduction in the pressure rating of the pipe provided that the molded fittings shall be fabricated so that the wall thickness of the material is maintained at the threads. Thread sealant compound that is compatible with the pipe and fitting, insoluble in water and nontoxic shall be applied to male threads. Caution shall be used during assembly to prevent over tightening of the PVC components once the thread sealant has been applied. Female PVC threaded fittings shall be used with plastic male threads only.
Joining methods for stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.13.1 or Section 605.13.2.
Mechanical joints shall be designed for their intended use. Such joints shall include compression, flanged, grooved, press-connect, and threaded.
Welded joints shall be either fusion or resistance welded based on the selection of the base metal. The chemical composition of the filler metal shall comply with AWS A5.9 based on the alloy content of the piping material.
In water piping, slip joints shall be permitted to be used only on the exposed fixture supply.
Dielectric unions where installed at points of connection where there is a dissimilarity of metals shall be in accordance with AS SE 1079.
Joints between various materials shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 605.16.1 through Section 605.16.3.
Joints from copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing to threaded pipe shall be made using copper alloy adapter, copper alloy nipple [minimum 6 inches (152 mm)], dielectric fitting, or dielectric union in accordance with ASSE 1079. The joint between the copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing and the fitting shall be a soldered, brazed, flared, or press-connect joint and the connection between the threaded pipe and the fitting shall be made with a standard pipe size threaded joint.
Where connecting plastic pipe to other types of piping, approved types of adapter or transition fittings designed for the specific transition intended shall be used.
Where connecting stainless steel pipe to other types of piping, mechanical joints of the compression type, dielectric fitting, or dielectric union in accordance with ASSE 1079 and designed for the specific transition intended shall be used.
Valves up to and including 2 inches (50 mm) in size shall be copper alloy or other approved material. Sizes exceeding 2 inches (50 mm) shall be permitted to have cast iron or copper alloy bodies. Each gate or ball valve shall be a fullway or full-port type with working parts of the non-corrosive material. Valves carrying water used in potable water systems intended to supply drinking water shall comply with the requirements of NSF 61 and ASME A112.4.14, ASME B16.34, ASTM F1970, ASTM F2389, AWWA C500, AWWA C504, AWWA C507, IAPMO Z1157, MSS SP-67, MSS SP-70, MSS SP-71, MSS SP-72, MSS SP-78, MSS SP-80, MSS SP-110, MSS SP-122, or NSF 359.
A fullway valve controlling outlets shall be installed on the discharge side of each water meter and each unmetered water supply. Water piping supplying more than one building on one premise shall be equipped with a separate fullway valve to each building, so arranged that the water supply can be turned on or off to an individual or separate building provided; however, that supply piping to a single-family residence and building accessory thereto shall be permitted to be controlled by one valve. Such shutoff valves shall be accessible. A fullway valve shall be installed on the discharge piping from water supply tanks at or near the tank. A fullway valve shall be installed on the cold water supply pipe to each water heater at or near the water heater.
In multidwelling units, one or more shutoff valves shall be provided in each dwelling unit so that the water supply to a plumbing fixture or group of fixtures in that dwelling unit can be shut off without stopping water supply to fixtures in other dwelling units. These valves shall be accessible in the dwelling unit that they control.
Valves used to control two or more openings shall be fullway gate valves, ball valves, or other approved valves designed and approved for the service intended.

606.5 Control Valve

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A control valve shall be installed immediately ahead of each water-supplied appliance and immediately ahead of each slip joint or appliance supply.

Parallel water distribution systems shall provide a control valve either immediately ahead of each fixture being supplied or installed at the manifold, and shall be identified with the fixture being supplied. Where parallel water distribution system manifolds are located in attics, crawl spaces, or other locations not accessible, a separate shutoff valve shall be required immediately ahead of each individual fixture or appliance served.

Required shutoff or control valves shall be accessible.
A single control valve shall be installed on a water supply line ahead of an automatic metering valve that supplies a battery of fixtures.
Potable water supply tanks shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and supported in accordance with the building code.
Potable water supply tanks, interior tank coatings, or tank liners intended to supply drinking water shall comply with NSF 61.
Tanks used for potable water shall be tightly covered and vented in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Such vent shall be screened with a corrosion-resistant material of not less than number 24 mesh.
Tanks shall have not less than a 16 square inch (0.01 m2) overflow that is screened with a corrosion-resistant material of not less than number 24 mesh.
Pressurized tanks shall be provided with a listed pressure-relief valve installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. The relief valve shall be discharged in accordance with Section 608.5. Where a potable water supply tank is located above the fixtures, appliances, or system components it serves, it shall be equipped with a vacuum relief valve that complies with CSA Z21.22.
Where the water pressure in the main or other source of supply will not provide a residual water pressure of not less than 15 pounds force per square inch (psi) (103 kPa), after allowing for friction and other pressure losses, a tank and a pump or other means that will provide said 15 psi (103 kPa) pressure shall be installed. Where fixtures, fixture fittings, or both are installed that, require residual pressure exceeding 15 psi (103 kPa), that minimum residual pressure shall be provided.
Where static water pressure in the water supply piping is exceeding 80 psi (552 kPa), an approved-type pressure regulator preceded by an adequate strainer shall be installed and the static pressure reduced to 80 psi (552 kPa) or less. Pressure regulators) equal to or exceeding 11/2 inches (40 mm) shall not require a strainer. Such regulator(s) shall control the pressure to water outlets in the building unless otherwise approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Each such regulator and strainer shall be accessibly located aboveground or in a vault equipped with a properly sized and sloped boresighted drain to daylight, shall be protected from freezing, and shall have the strainer readily accessible for cleaning without removing the regulator or strainer body or disconnecting the supply piping.

Pipe size determinations shall be based on 80 percent of the reduced pressure where using Table 610.4.

An approved expansion tank shall be installed in the cold water distribution piping downstream of each such regulator to prevent excessive pressure from developing due to thermal expansion and to maintain the pressure setting of the regulator. Expansion tanks used in potable water systems intended to supply drinking water shall comply with NSF 61. The expansion tank shall be properly sized and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and listing. Systems designed by registered design professionals shall be permitted to use approved pressure relief valves in lieu of expansion tanks provided such relief valves have a maximum pressure relief setting of 100 psi (689 kPa) or less.

608.3 Expansion Tanks, and Combination Temperature and Pressure-Relief Valves

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A water system provided with a check valve, backflow preventer, or other normally closed device that prevents dissipation of building pressure back into the water main, independent of the type of water used, shall be provided with an approved, listed, and adequately sized expansion tank or other approved device having a similar function to control thermal expansion. Such expansion tank or other approved device shall be installed on the building side of the check valve, backflow preventer, or other device and shall be sized and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Exception: Instantaneous hot water systems installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Each pressure relief valve shall be an approved automatic type with drain, and each such relief valve shall be set at a pressure of not more than 150 psi (1034 kPa). No shutoff valve shall be installed between the relief valve and the system.

608.5 Discharge Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The discharge piping serving a temperature relief valve, pressure relief valve, or combination of both shall have no valves, obstructions, or means of isolation and be provided with the following:
  1. Equal to the size of the valve outlet and shall discharge full size to the flood level of the area receiving the discharge and pointing down.
  2. Materials shall be rated at not less than the operating temperature of the system and approved for such use or shall comply with ASME A112.4.1.
  3. Discharge pipe shall discharge independently by gravity through an air gap into the drainage system or outside of the building with the end of the pipe not exceeding 2 feet (610 mm) and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the ground pointing downwards.
  4. Discharge in such a manner that does not cause personal injury or structural damage.
  5. No part of such discharge pipe shall be trapped or subject to freezing.
  6. The terminal end of the pipe shall not be threaded.
  7. Discharge from a relief valve into a water heater pan shall be prohibited.
Exception: Where no drainage was provided, replacement water heating equipment shall only be required to provide a drain pointing downward from the relief valve to extend between two (2) feet (610 mm) and six (6) inches (152 mm) from the floor. No additional floor drain need be provided.
A water-heating device connected to a separate storage tank and having valves between said heater and tank shall be provided with an approved water pressure relief valve.
Where a hot-water storage tank or an indirect water heater is located at an elevation above the fixture outlets in the hot-water system, a vacuum relief valve that complies with CSA Z21.22 shall be installed on the storage tank or heater.
Water piping shall be adequately supported in accordance with Table 313.3. Burred ends shall be reamed to the full bore of the pipe or tube. Changes in direction shall be made by the appropriate use of fittings, except that changes in direction in copper or copper alloy tubing shall be permitted to be made with bends, provided that such bends are made with bending equipment that does not deform or create a loss in the cross-sectional area of the tubing. Changes in direction are allowed with flexible pipe and tubing without fittings in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Provisions shall be made for expansion in hot-water piping. Piping, equipment, appurtenances, and devices shall be installed in a workmanlike manner in accordance with the provisions and intent of the code. Building supply yard piping shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) below the average local frost depth. The cover shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) below finish grade.
Water pipes shall not be run or laid in the same trench as building sewer or drainage piping constructed of clay or materials that are not approved for use within a building unless both of the following conditions are met:
  1. The bottom of the water pipe shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the sewer or drain line.
  2. The water pipe shall be placed on a solid shelf excavated at one side of the common trench with a clear horizontal distance of not less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the sewer or drain line.

    Water pipes crossing sewer or drainage piping constructed of clay or materials that are not approved for use within a building shall be laid not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the sewer or drain pipe.

Water piping installed within a building and in or under a concrete floor slab resting on the ground shall be installed in accordance with the following requirements:
  1. Ferrous piping shall have a protective coating of an approved type; machine applied and in accordance with recognized standards. Field wrapping shall provide equivalent protection and shall be restricted to those short sections and fittings necessarily stripped for threading. Zinc coating (galvanizing) shall not be deemed adequate protection for piping or fittings. Approved nonferrous piping shall not be required to be wrapped.
  2. Copper or copper alloy tubing shall be installed without joints where possible. Where joints are permitted, they shall be brazed, and fittings shall be wrought copper.

For the purpose of this section, "within a building" shall mean within the fixed limits of the building foundation.

Upon completion of a section or of the entire hot and cold water supply system, the system shall be tested with water or air. The potable water test pressure shall be greater than or equal to the working pressure under which the system is to be used. The air pressure shall be a minimum of 50 psi (345 kPa). Plastic pipe shall not be tested with air. The piping system shall withstand the test pressure without showing evidence of leakage for a period of not less than 15 minutes.
Exception: PEX, PP or PE-RT tube shall be permitted to be tested with air where permitted by the manufacturer's instructions.
Unions shall be installed in the water supply piping not more than 12 inches (305 mm) of regulating equipment, water heating, conditioning tanks, and similar equipment that requires service by removal or replacement in a manner that will facilitate its ready removal.
Except as provided in Section 609.7, no building supply shall be located in a lot other than the lot that is the site of the building or structure served by such building supply.
Nothing contained in this code shall be construed to prohibit the use of an abutting lot to:
  1. Provide access to connect a building supply to an available public water service where proper cause and legal easement not in violation of other requirements have been first established to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  2. Provide additional space for a building supply where the proper cause, transfer of ownership, or change of boundary not in violation of other requirements have been first established to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The instrument recording such action shall constitute an agreement with the Authority Having Jurisdiction, which shall clearly state and show that the areas so joined or used shall be maintained as a unit during the time they are so used. Such an agreement shall be recorded in the office of the County Recorder as a part of the conditions of ownership of said properties, and shall be binding on heirs, successors, and assigns to such properties. A copy of the instrument recording such proceedings shall be filed with the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Where a booster pump (excluding a fire pump) is connected to a building supply or underground water pipe, a low-pressure cutoff switch on the inlet side of the pump shall be installed not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) of the inlet. The cutoff switch shall be set for not less than 10 psi (69 kPa). A pressure gauge shall be installed between the shutoff valve and the pump.

609.9 Disinfection of Potable Water System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
New or repaired potable water systems shall be disinfected prior to use where required by the authority having jurisdiction. The method to be followed shall be that prescribed by the health authority or, in case no method is prescribed by it, the following:
  1. The pipe system shall be flushed with clean, potable water until potable water appears at the points of outlet.
  2. The system or parts thereof shall be filled with a water-chlorine solution containing not less than 50 parts per million of chlorine, and the system or part thereof shall be valved-off and allowed to stand for twenty-four hours; or, the system or part thereof shall be filled with a water-chlorine solution containing not less than 200 parts per million of chlorine and allowed to stand for three hours.
  3. Following the allowed standing time, the system shall be flushed with clean, potable water until the chlorine residual in the water coming from the system does not exceed the chlorine residual in the flushing water.
  4. The procedure shall be repeated when a standard bacteriological test for drinking water, performed by a laboratory certified for drinking water in Washington state, shows unsatisfactory results indicating that contamination persists in the system.
Building water supply systems where quick-acting valves are installed shall be provided with water hammer arrester(s) to absorb high pressures resulting from the quick closing of these valves. Water hammer arresters shall be approved mechanical devices that comply with ASSE 1010 or PDI-WH 201 and shall be installed as close as possible to quick-acting valves.
Where listed mechanical devices are used, the manufacturer's specifications as to location and method of installation shall be followed.

609.11 Pipe InsulationInsulation of Potable Water Piping

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Domestic water piping within commercial buildings shall be insulated in accordance with Section C403.2.8 and Table C403.2.8 or Section C404.6 of the Washington State Energy Code, as applicable.
Domestic hot water piping shall be insulated.
Hot water pipe insulation shall have a minimum wall thickness of not less than the diameter of the pipe for a pipe up to 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter. Insulation wall thickness shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) for a pipe of 2 inches (50 mm) or more in diameter.

Exceptions:

  1. Piping that penetrates framing members shall not be required to have pipe insulation for the distance of the framing penetration.
  2. Hot water piping between the fixture control valve or supply stop and the fixture or appliance shall not be required to be insulated.
The size of each water meter and each potable water supply pipe from the meter or other source of supply to the fixture supply branches, risers, fixtures, connections, outlets, or other uses shall be based on the total demand and shall be determined according to the methods and procedures outlined in this section. Water piping systems shall be designed to ensure that the maximum velocities allowed by the code and the applicable standard are not exceeded.
Where a water filter, water softener, backflow prevention device, tankless water heater, or similar device is installed in a water supply line, the pressure loss through such devices shall be included in the pressure loss calculations of the system, and the water supply pipe and meter shall be adequately sized to provide for such a pressure loss.

No water filter, water softener, backflow prevention device, or similar device regulated by this code shall be installed in a potable water supply piping where the installation of such device produces an excessive pressure drop in such water supply piping. In the absence of specific pressure drop information, the diameter of the inlet or outlet of such device or its connecting piping shall be not less than the diameter of such water distribution piping to the fixtures served by the device.

Such devices shall be of a type approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction and shall be tested for flow rating and pressure loss by an approved laboratory or recognized testing agency to standards consistent with the intent of this chapter.

The quantity of water required to be supplied to every plumbing fixture shall be represented by fixture units, as shown in Table 610.3. Equivalent fixture values shown in Table 610.3 include both hot and cold water demand.
TABLE 610.3
WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (WSFU) AND MINIMUM FIXTURE BRANCH PIPE SIZES3
APPLIANCES, APPURTENANCES OR FIXTURES2 MINIMUM FIXTURE BRANCH PIPE SIZE1,4
(inches)
PRIVATE PUBLIC ASSEMBLY6
Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower (fill) 1/2 4.0 4.0
3/4 inch Bathtub Fill Valve 3/4 10.0 10.0
Bidet 1/2 1.0
Clothes Washer 1/2 4.0 4.0
Dental Unit, cuspidor 1/2 1.0
Dishwasher, domestic 1/2 1.5 1.5
Drinking Fountain or Water Cooler 1/2 0.5 0.5 0.75
Hose Bibb 1/2 2.5 2.5
Hose Bibb, each additional8 1/2 1.0 1.0
Lavatory 1/2 1.0 1.0 1.0
Lawn Sprinkler, each head5 1.0 1.0
Mobile Home, each (minimum) 12.0
Sinks
Bar 1/2 1.0 2.0
Clinical Faucet 1/2 3.0
Clinical Flushometer Valve with or without faucet 1 8.0
Kitchen, domestic with or without dishwasher 1/2 1.5 1.5
Laundry 1/2 1.5 1.5
Service or Mop Basin 1/2 1.5 3.0
Washup, each set of faucets 1/2 2.0
Shower, per head 1/2 2.0 2.0
Urinal, 1.0 GPF Flushometer Valve 3/4 See Footnote7
Urinal, greater than 1.0 GPF Flushometer Valve 3/4 See Footnote7
Urinal, flush tank 1/2 2.0 2.0 3.0
Urinal, Hybrid 1/2 1.0 1.0 1.0
Wash Fountain, circular spray 3/4 4.0
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank 1/2 2.5 2.5 3.5
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Tank 1/2 2.5 2.5 3.5
Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve 1 See Footnote7
Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank 1/2 3.0 5.5 7.0
Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve 1 See Footnote7

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

Notes:

1 Size of the cold branch pipe, or both the hot and cold branch pipes.

2 Appliances, appurtenances, or fixtures not referenced in this table shall be permitted to be sized by reference to fixtures having a similar flow rate and frequency of use.

3 The listed fixture unit values represent their load on the cold water building supply. The separate cold water and hot water fixture unit value for fixtures having both hot and cold water connections shall be permitted to be each taken as three-quarter of the listed total value of the fixture.

4 The listed minimum supply branch pipe sizes for individual fixtures are the nominal (I.D.) pipe size.

5 For fixtures or supply connections likely to impose continuous flow demands, determine the required flow in gallons per minute (gpm) (L/s), and add it separately to the demand in gpm (L/s) for the distribution system or portions thereof.

6 Assembly [Public Use (See Table 422.1)].

7 Where sizing flushometer systems, see Section 610.10.

8 Reduced fixture unit loading for additional hose bibbs is to be used where sizing total building demand and for pipe sizing where more than one hose bibb is supplied by a segment of water distribution pipe. The fixture branch to each hose bibb shall be sized on the basis of 2.5 fixture units.

610.4 Sizing Water Supply and Distribution Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Systems within the range of Table 610.4 may be sized from that table or by the method set forth in Section 610.5.

Listed parallel water distribution systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing.

TABLE 610.4
FIXTURE UNITTABLE FOR DETERMINING WATER PIPE AND METER SIZES

METER AND STREET SERVICE
(inches)
BUILDING SUPPLY AND BRANCHES
(inches)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH
(feet)
40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
PRESSURE RANGE — 30 to 45 psi1
3/4 1/22 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3/4 3/4 16 16 14 12 9 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 1
3/4 1 29 25 23 21 17 15 13 12 10 8 6 6 6 6 6
1 1 36 31 27 25 20 17 15 13 12 10 8 6 6 6 6
3/4 11/4 36 33 31 28 24 23 21 19 17 16 13 12 12 11 11
1 11/4 54 47 42 38 32 28 25 23 19 17 14 12 12 11 11
11/2 11/4 78 68 57 48 38 32 28 25 21 18 15 12 12 11 11
1 11/2 85 84 79 65 56 48 43 38 32 28 26 22 21 20 20
11/2 11/2 150 124 105 91 70 57 49 45 36 31 26 23 21 20 20
2 11/2 151 129 129 110 80 64 53 46 38 32 27 23 21 20 20
1 2 85 85 85 85 85 85 82 80 66 61 57 52 49 46 43
11/2 2 220 205 190 176 155 138 127 120 104 85 70 61 57 54 51
2 2 370 327 292 265 217 185 164 147 124 96 70 61 57 54 51
2 21/2 445 418 390 370 330 300 280 265 240 220 198 175 158 143 133
PRESSURE RANGE — 46 to 60 psi1
3/4 1/22 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
3/4 3/4 20 20 19 17 14 11 9 8 6 5 4 4 3 3 3
3/4 1 39 39 36 33 28 23 21 19 17 14 12 10 9 8 8
1 1 39 39 39 36 30 25 23 20 18 15 12 10 9 8 8
3/4 11/4 39 39 39 39 39 39 34 32 27 25 22 19 19 17 16
1 11/4 78 78 76 67 52 44 39 36 30 27 24 20 19 17 16
11/2 11/4 78 78 78 78 66 52 44 39 33 29 24 20 19 17 16
1 11/2 85 85 85 85 85 85 80 67 55 49 41 37 34 32 30
11/2 11/2 151 151 151 151 128 105 90 78 62 52 42 38 35 32 30
2 11/2 151 151 151 151 150 117 98 84 67 55 42 38 35 32 30
1 2 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 83 80
11/2 2 370 370 340 318 272 240 220 198 170 150 135 123 110 102 94
2 2 370 370 370 370 368 318 280 250 205 165 142 123 110 102 94
2 21/2 654 640 610 580 535 500 470 440 400 365 335 315 285 267 250
PRESSURE RANGE — Over 60 psi1
3/4 1/22 7 7 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0
3/4 3/4 20 20 20 20 17 13 11 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 4
3/4 1 39 39 39 39 35 30 27 24 21 17 14 13 12 12 11
1 1 39 39 39 39 38 32 29 26 22 18 14 13 12 12 11
3/4 11/4 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 34 28 26 25 23 22 21
1 11/4 78 78 78 78 74 62 53 47 39 31 26 25 23 22 21
11/2 11/4 78 78 78 78 78 74 65 54 43 34 26 25 23 22 21
1 11/2 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 81 64 51 48 46 43 40
11/2 11/2 151 151 151 151 151 151 130 113 88 73 51 51 46 43 40
2 11/2 151 151 151 151 151 151 142 122 98 82 64 51 46 43 40
1 2 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85
11/2 2 370 370 370 370 360 335 305 282 244 212 187 172 153 141 129
2 2 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 340 288 245 204 172 153 141 129
2 21/2 654 654 654 654 654 650 610 570 510 460 430 404 380 356 329

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa

Notes:

1 Available static pressure after head loss.

2 Building supply, not less than 3/4 of an inch (20 mm) nominal size.

Except as provided in Section 610.4, the size of each water piping system shall be determined in accordance with the procedure set forth in Appendix A. For alternate methods of sizing water supply systems, see Appendix C.
Except where the type of pipe used and the water characteristics are such that no decrease in capacity due to the length of service (age of system) is expected, friction-loss data shall be obtained from the "Fairly Rough" or "Rough" charts in Appendix A of this code. Friction or pressure losses in a water meter, valve, and fittings shall be obtained from the same sources. Pressure losses through water-treating equipment, backflow prevention devices, or other flow-restricting devices shall be computed in accordance with Section 610.2.
On a proposed water piping installation sized using Table 610.4, the following conditions shall be determined:
  1. Total number of fixture units as determined from Table 610.3, Equivalent Fixture Units, for the fixtures to be installed.
  2. Developed length of supply pipe from meter to the most remote outlet.
  3. Difference in elevation between the meter or other source of supply and the highest fixture or outlet.
  4. Pressure in the street main or another source of supply at the locality where the installation is to be made.
  5. In localities where there is a fluctuation of pressure in the main throughout the day, the water piping system shall be designed on the basis of the minimum pressure available.
The size of the meter and the building supply pipe shall be determined as follows:
  1. Determine the available pressure at the water meter or other source of supply.
  2. Add or subtract depending on positive or negative elevation change, 1/2 psi (3.4 kPa) for each foot (305 mm) of difference in elevation between such source of supply and the highest water supply outlet in the building or on the premises.
  3. Use the "pressure range" group within which this pressure will fall using Table 610.4.
  4. Select the "length" column that is equal to or longer than the required length.
  5. Follow down the column to a fixture unit value equal to or exceeding the total number of fixture units required by the installation.
  6. Having located the proper fixture unit value for the required length, sizes of meter and building supply pipe as found in the two left-hand columns shall be applied.

No building supply pipe shall be less than 3/4 of an inch (20 mm) in diameter.

Where Table 610.4 is used, the minimum size of each branch shall be determined by the total fixture units served by that branch and then following the steps in Section 610.8. No branch piping shall exceed the total demand in fixture units for the system computed from Table 610.3.
Where using Table 610.4 to size water supply systems serving flushometer valves, the number of flushometer fixture units assigned to every section of pipe, whether branch or main, shall be determined by the number and category of flushometer valves served by that section of pipe, in accordance with Table 610.10. Piping supplying a flushometer valve shall be not less in size than the valve inlet.

Where using Table 610.10 to size water piping, care shall be exercised to assign flushometer fixture units based on the number and category of fixtures served.

TABLE 610.10
FLUSHOMETER FIXTURE UNITS FOR WATER SIZING USING TABLE 610.3

FIXTURE CATEGORY: WATER CLOSET WITH FLUSHOMETER VALVES
NUMBER OF FLUSHOMETER VALVES INDIVIDUAL FIXTURE UNITS ASSIGNED IN DECREASING VALUE FIXTURE UNITS ASSIGNED FOR WATER CLOSETS AND SIMILAR 10-UNIT FIXTURES IN ACCUMULATIVE VALUES
1 40 40
2 30 70
3 20 90
4 15 105
5 or more 10 each 115 plus 10 for each additional fixture in excess of 5
FIXTURE CATEGORY: URINALS WITH FLUSHOMETER VALVES
NUMBER OF FLUSHOMETER VALVES INDIVIDUAL FIXTURE UNITS ASSIGNED IN DECREASING VALUE FIXTURE UNITS ASSIGNED FOR URINALS AND SIMILAR 5-UNIT FIXTURES IN ACCUMULATIVE VALUES
1 20 20
2 15 35
3 10 45
4 8 53
5 or more 5 each 58 plus 5 for each additional fixture in excess of 5

In the example below, fixture units assigned to each section of pipe are computed. Each capital letter refers to the section of pipe above it unless otherwise shown.

A: 1 WC = 40 F.U.
B: 2 WC = 70 F.U.
C: 2 WC (70) + 1 UR (20) = 90 F.U.
D: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) = 105 F.U.
E: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) + 1 LAV (1) = 106 F.U.
F: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) + 2 LAV (2) = 107 F.U.
G: 1 LAV = 1 F.U.
H: 2 LAV = 2 F.U.
I: 2 LAV (2) + 1 UR (20) = 22 F.U.
J: 2 LAV (2)+ 2 UR (35) = 37 F.U.
K: 2 LAV (2) + 2 UR (35) + 1 WC (40) = 77 F.U.
L: 2 LAV (2) + 2 UR (35) + 2 WC (70) = 107 F.U.
M: 4 WC (105) + 4 UR (53) + 4 LAV (4) = 162 F.U.
N: 1 WC = 40 F.U.
O: 1 WC (40) + 1 UR (20) = 60 F.U.
P: 1 WC (40) + 1 UR (20) + 1 LAV (1) = 61 F.U.
Q: 2 WC (70) + 1 UR (20) + 1 LAV (1) = 91 F.U.
R: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) + 1 LAV (1) = 106 F.U.
S: 2 WC (70) + 2 UR (35) + 2 LAV (2) = 107 F.U.
T: 6 WC (125) + 6 UR (63) + 6 LAV (6) = 194 F.U.

EXAMPLE 610.10
SIZING METHOD FOR PUBLIC USE FIXTURES USING TABLE 610.10

The size of branches and mains serving flushometer tanks shall be consistent with the sizing procedures for flush tank water closets.
Water piping systems shall not exceed the maximum velocities listed in this section or Appendix A.
Maximum velocities in copper and copper alloy tube and fitting systems shall not exceed 8 feet per second (ft/s) (2.4 m/s) in cold water and 5 ft/s (1.5 m/s) in hot water.
Maximum velocities through copper fittings in tubing other than copper shall not exceed 8 ft/s (2.4 m/s) in cold water and 5 ft/s (1.5 m/s) in hot water.
The provisions of this section relative to the size of water piping shall not apply to the following:
  1. Water supply piping systems designed in accordance with recognized engineering procedures acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  2. Alteration of or minor additions to existing installations provided the Authority Having Jurisdiction finds that there will be an adequate supply of water to operate fixtures.
  3. Replacement of existing fixtures or appliances.
  4. Piping that is part of fixture equipment.
  5. Unusual conditions where, in the judgment of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, an adequate supply of water is provided to operate fixtures and equipment.
  6. The size and material of irrigation water piping installed outside of a building or structure and separated from the potable water supply by means of an approved air gap or backflow prevention device are not regulated by this code. The potable water piping system supplying each such irrigation system shall be adequately sized as required elsewhere in this chapter to deliver the full connected demand of both the domestic use and the irrigation systems.

611.1 Application

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Drinking water treatment units shall comply with NSF 42 or NSF 53. Water softeners shall comply with NSF 44. Ultraviolet water treatment systems shall comply with NSF 55. Reverse osmosis drinking water treatment systems shall comply with NSF 58. Drinking water distillation systems shall comply with NSF 62.
The owner of a building that serves potable water to twenty-five or more people at least sixty or more days per year and that installs drinking water treatment units including, but not limited to, the treatment units in Section 611.1, may be regulated (as a Group A public water system) by the Washington state department of health under chapter 246-290 WAC. See Washington state department of health publication 331-488 for guidance.
Discharge from drinking water treatment units shall enter the drainage system through an air gap in accordance with Table 603.3.1 or an air gap device that complies with Table 603.2, NSF 58, or IAPMO PS 65.
The tubing to and from drinking water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recommended by the manufacturer.
Residential-use water softeners shall be sized in accordance with Table 611.4.
TABLE 611.4
SIZING OF RESIDENTIAL WATER SOFTENERS4
REQUIRED SIZE OF SOFTENER CONNECTION
(inches)
NUMBER OF BATHROOM GROUPS SERVED1
3/4 up to 22
1 up to 43

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

Notes:

1 Installation of a kitchen sink and dishwasher, laundry tray, and automatic clothes washer permitted without additional size increase.

2 An additional water closet and lavatory permitted.

3 Over four bathroom groups, the softener size shall be engineered for the specific installation.

4 See also Appendix A, Recommended Rules for Sizing the Water Supply System, and Appendix C, Alternate Plumbing Systems, for alternate methods of sizing water supply systems.

612.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where residential fire sprinkler systems are installed, they shall be installed in accordance with the International Building Code or International Residential Code.

612.2 Types of Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3 Sprinklers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.1 Required Sprinkler Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.2 Sprinkler Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.3 Temperature Rating and Separation From Heat Sources

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.3.1 Intermediate Temperature Sprinklers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.4 Freezing Areas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.5 Coverage Area Limit

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.6 Obstructions to Sprinkler Coverage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.6.1 Additional Requirements for Pendent Sprinklers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.6.2 Additional Requirements for Sidewall Sprinklers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.3.7 Sprinkler Modifications Prohibited

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.4 Sprinkler Piping System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.4.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.4.2 Nonmetallic Pipe and Tubing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.4.2.1 Nonmetallic Pipe Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.4.2.2 Sprinkler Installation on Systems Assembled With Solvent Cement

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.4.3 Shutoff Valves Prohibited

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.4.4 Single Dwelling Limit

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.4.5 Drain

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5 Sprinkler Piping Design

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.1 Determining System Design Flow

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.1.1 Determining Required Flow Rate for Each Sprinkler

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.1.2 System Flow Rate

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.2 Sprinkler Pipe Water Supply

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.2.1 Water Pressure From Individual Sources

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.2.2 Required Capacity

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.3 Sprinkler Pipe Sizing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.3.1 Sprinkler Pipe Sizing Method

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.3.2 Prescriptive Pipe Sizing Method

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.3.2.1 Available Pressure Equation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.5.3.2.2 Calculation Procedure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.6 Instructions and Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.7 Inspection and Testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.7.1 Pre-Concealment Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

612.7.2 Final Inspection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
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