ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2018 (IRC 2018)

Part IV Energy Conservation

Part V Mechanical

Part VI Fuel Gas

Part VII Plumbing

Part VIII Electrical

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of walls and partitions for buildings.
Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed in accordance with Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.
Wood and wood-based products used for load-supporting purposes shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber shall be identified by a grade mark of an accredited lumber grading or inspection agency and have design values certified by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 shall be permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation "Heat Resistant Adhesive" or "HRA" included in its grade mark.
Gluedlaminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI A190.1, ANSI 117 and ASTM D3737.
Structural log members shall comply with the provisions of ICC 400.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D5456.
Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.
Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with either ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.
Wood structural panel sheathing shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA O325 or CSA O437. Panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and performance category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Fiberboard shall conform to ASTM C208. Fiberboard sheathing, where used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C208.
Structural insulated panels shall be manufactured and identified in accordance with ANSI/APA PRS 610.1.

Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and non-bearing studs shall be permitted to be utility grade lumber, provided that the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

Exterior walls of woodframe construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2), or in accordance with AWC NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, where placed on the exterior side of an exterior wall, shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3) and shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3). Wall sheathing used only for exterior wall covering purposes shall comply with Section R703.

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R602.7(1) and R602.7(2).

TABLE R602.3(1)

FASTENING SCHEDULE

ITEM DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, c SPACING AND LOCATION
Roof
1 Blocking between ceiling joists or rafters to top plate 4-8d box (21/" × 0.113") or

3-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3-3" × 0.131" nails
Toe nail
2 Ceiling joists to top plate 4-8d box (21/2" ×0.113"); or

3-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3-3" × 0.131" nails
Per joist, toe nail
3 Ceiling joist not attached to parallel rafter, laps over partitions (see Section R802.5.2 and Table R802.5.2) 4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162"); or

4-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail
4 Ceiling joist attached to parallel rafter (heel joint) (see Section R802.5.2 and Table R802.5.2) Table R802.5.2 Face nail
5 Collar tie to rafter, face nail or 11/4" ×20 ga. ridge strap to rafter 4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3-10d common (3" × 0.148"); or

4-3" × 0.131 " nails
Face nail each rafter
6 Rafter or roof truss to plate 3-16d box nails (31/2" ×0.135"); or

3-10d common nails (3" × 0.148"); or

4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

4-3" × 0.131 " nails
2 toe nails on one side and 1 toe nail on opposite side of each rafter or trussi
7 Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters or roof rafter to minimum 2" ridge beam 4-16d (31/2" ×0.135"); or

3-10d common (3" × 0.148"); or

4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

4-3" × 0.131 " nails
Toe nail
3-16d box 31/2" ×0.135"); or

2-16d common (31/" × 0.162"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3-3" × 0.131 " nails
End nail
Wall
8 Stud to stud (not at braced wall panels) 16d common (31/2" ×0.162") 24" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3" × 0.131" nails
16" o.c. face nail
9 Stud to stud and abutting studs at intersecting wall corners (at braced wall panels) 16d box (31/2" ×0.135"); or 3" × 0.131" nails 12" o.c. face nail
16d common (31/2" ×0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
10 Built-up header (2" to 2" header with 1/2" spacer) 16d common (31/2" ×0.162") 16" o.c. each edge face nail
16d box (31/2" ×0.135") 12" o.c. each edge face nail
11 Continuous header to stud 5-8d box (21/" × 0.113"); or

4-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

4-10d box (3" × 0.128")
Toe nail
12 Top plate to top plate 16d common (31/2" ×0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or 3" × 0.131" nails 12" o.c. face nail
13 Double top plate splice 8-16d common (31/" × 0.162"); or

12-16d box (31/2" ×0.135"); or

12-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

12-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail on each side of end joint (minimum 24" lap splice length each side of end joint)
14 Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or blocking (not at braced wall panels) 16d common (31/2" ×0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
16d box (31/2" ×0.135"); or 3" × 0.131" nails 12" o.c. face nail
15 Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or blocking (at braced wall panel) 3-16d box (31/" × 0.135"); or

2-16d common (31/2" ×0.162"); or

4-3" × 0.131" nails
3 each 16" o.c. face nail

2 each 16" o.c. face nail

4 each 16" o.c. face nail
16 Top or bottom plate to stud 4-8d box (21/2" ×0.113"); or

3-16d box (31/" × 0.135"); or

4-8d common (21/" × 0.131"); or

4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

4-3" × 0.131" nails
Toe nail
3-16d box (31/2" ×0.135"); or

2-16d common (31/2" ×0.162"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3-3" × 0.131" nails
End nail
17 Top plates, laps at corners and intersections 3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

2-16d common (31/2" ×0.162"); or

3-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail
18 1" brace to each stud and plate 3-8d box (21/2" ×0.113"); or

2-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

2-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

2 staples 13/4"
Face nail
19 1 " × 6" sheathing to each bearing 3-8d box (21/2" ×0.113"); or

2-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

2-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Face nail
20 1 " × 8" and wider sheathing to each bearing 3-8d box (21/2" ×0.113"); or

3-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Face nail
Wider than 1" × 8"

4-8d box (21/2" ×0.113"); or

3-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

4 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Floor
21 Joist to sill, top plate or girder 4-8d box (21/2" ×0.113"); or

3-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3-3" × 0.131" nails
Toe nail
22 Rim joist, band joist or blocking to sill or top plate (roof applications also) 8d box (21/2" ×0.113") 4" o.c. toe nail
8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3" × 0.131" nails
6" o.c. toe nail
23 1 " × 6" subfloor or less to each joist 3-8d box (21/2" ×0.113"); or

2-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 13/4" long
Face nail
Floor
24 2" subfloor to joist or girder 3-16d box (31/2" ×0.135"); or

2-16d common (31/2" ×0.162")
Blind and face nail
25 2" planks (plank & beam—floor & roof) 3-16d box (31/" × 0.135"); or

2-16d common (31/2" ×0.162")
At each bearing, face nail
26 Band or rim joist to joist 3-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")

4-10 box (3" × 0.128"), or

4-3" × 0.131" nails; or

4-3" × 14 ga. staples, 7/16" crown
End nail
27 Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers 20d common (4" × 0.192"); or Nail each layer as follows: 32" o.c. at top and bottom and staggered.
10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3" × 0.131" nails
24" o.c. face nail at top and bottom staggered on opposite sides
And:

2-20d common (4" × 0.192"); or

3-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

3-3" × 0.131" nails
Face nail at ends and at each splice
28 Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters 4-16d box (31/2" ×0.135"); or

3-16d common (31/2" ×0.162"); or

4-10d box (3" × 0.128"); or

4-3" × 0.131" nails
At each joist or rafter, face nail
29 Bridging or blocking to joist 2-10d box (3" × 0.128"), or 2-8d common (21/2" ×0.131"; or 2-3" × 0.131") nails Each end, toe nail
ITEM DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, c SPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges (inches)h Intermediate supportsc, e (inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing [see Table R602.3(3) for wood structural panel exterior wall sheathing to wall framing]
30 3/8" — 1/2" 6d common (2" × 0.113") nail (subfloor, wall)i 8d common (21/2" ×0.131") nail (roof); or RSRS-01 (23/8" × 0.113") nail (roof)j 6 12f
31 19/32" — 1" 8d common nail (21/2" ×0.131"); or RSRS-01; (23/8" × 0.113") nail (roof)j 6 12f
32 11/8" —11/4" 10d common (3" × 0.148") nail; or 8d (21/2" ×0.131") deformed nail 6 12
Other wall sheathingg
33 1/2" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing 11/2" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" head diameter, or 11/4" long 16 ga. staple with 7/16" or 1" crown 3 6
34 25/32" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing 13/4" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" head diameter, or 11/2" long 16 ga. staple with 7/16" or 1" crown 3 6
35 1/2" gypsum sheathingd 11/2" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 11/2" long; 11/4" screws, Type W or S 7 7
36 5/8" gypsum sheathingd 13/4" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 15/8" long; 15/8" screws, Type W or S 7 7
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
37 3/4" and less 6d deformed (2" × 0.120") nail; or 8d common (21/2" ×0.131") nail 6 12
38 7/8" — 1" 8d common (21/2" ×0.131") nail; or 8d deformed (21/2" ×0.120") nail 6 12
39 11/8" —11/4" 10d common (3" × 0.148") nail; or 8d deformed (21/2" ×0.120") nail 6 12

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa.

  1. Nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less.
  2. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7/16-inch on diameter crown width.
  3. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
  4. Four-foot by 8-foot or 4-foot by 9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.
  5. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).
  6. For wood structural panel roof sheathing attached to gable end roof framing and to intermediate supports within 48 inches of roof edges and ridges, nails shall be spaced at 6 inches on center where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 130 mph and shall be spaced 4 inches on center where the ultimate design wind speed is 130 mph or greater but less than 140 mph.
  7. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C208.
  8. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking.
  9. Where a rafter is fastened to an adjacent parallel ceiling joist in accordance with this schedule, provide two toe nails on one side of the rafter and toe nails from the ceiling joist to top plate in accordance with this schedule. The toe nail on the opposite side of the rafter shall not be required.
  10. RSRS-01 is a Roof Sheathing Ring Shank nail meeting the specifications in ASTM F1667.

TABLE R602.3(2)

ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS TO Table R602.3(1)

NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS (inches) DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH (inches) SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges (inches) Intermediate supports (inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roofg and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf
Up to 1/2 Staple 15 ga. 13/4 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 3 6
Staple 16 ga. 13/4 3 6
19/32 and 5/8 0.113 Nail 2 3 6
Staple 15 and 16 ga. 2 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 4 8
23/32 and 3/4 Staple 14 ga. 2 4 8
Staple 15 ga. 13/4 3 6
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/4 4 8
Staple 16 ga. 2 4 8
1 Staple 14 ga. 21/4 4 8
0.113 Nail 21/4 3 6
Staple 15 ga. 21/4 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/2 4 8
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS (inches) DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH (inches) SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges (inches) Body of paneld (inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf-fiber-cementh
Fiber-cement
1/4 3d, corrosion-resistant, ring shank nails (finished flooring other than tile) 3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 1/4crown (finished flooring other than tile) 3 6
11/4 long × .121 shank × .375 head diameter corrosion-resistant (galvanized or stainless steel) roofing nails (for tile finish) 8 8
11/4 long, No. 8 × .375 head diameter, ribbed wafer-head screws (for tile finish) 8 8
Plywood
1/4 and 5/16 11/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8, 3/16 crown width 2 5
11/32, 3/8, 15/32, and 1/2 11/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 6 8e
19/32, 5/8, 23/32 and 3/4 11/2 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 121/2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 6 8
Staple 16 ga. 11/2 6 8
Hardboardf
0.200 11/2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 6
4d cement-coated sinker nail 6 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long (plastic coated) 3 6
Particleboard
1/4 4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 3 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 3/16 crown 3 6
3/8 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 11/8 long, 3/8 crown 3 6
1/2, 5/8 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 15/8 long, 3/8 crown 3 6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Nail is a general description and shall be permitted to be T-head, modified round head or round head.
  2. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch on diameter except as noted.
  3. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
  4. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
  5. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.
  6. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to CPA/ANSI A135.4
  7. Specified alternate attachments for roof sheathing shall be permitted where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 130 mph. Fasteners attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be installed using the spacing listed for panel edges.
  8. Fiber-cement underlayment shall conform to ASTM C1288 or ISO 8336, Category C.

TABLE R602.3(3)

REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa,

MINIMUM NAIL MINIMUM WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SPAN RATING MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inches) MAXIMUM WALL STUD SPACING (inches) PANEL NAIL SPACING ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED Vult (mph)
Size Penetration (inches) Edges (inches o.c.) Field (inches o.c.) Wind exposure category
B C D
6d Common (2.0" × 0.113") 1.5 24/0 3/8 16 6 12 140 115 110
8d Common (2.5" × 0.131") 1.75 24/16 7/16 16 6 12 170 140 135
24 6 12 140 115 110

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
  2. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces in accordance with Section R301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.
  3. Wood structural panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced not more than 16 inches on center.

TABLE R602.3(4)

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa

THICKNESS (inch) GRADE STUD SPACING (inches)
Where siding is nailed to studs Where siding is nailed to sheathing
3/8 M-1 Exterior glue 16
1/2 M-2 Exterior glue 16 16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panel corners will not meet. Panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail not less than 3/8 inch from panel edges.

TABLE R602.3(5)

SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa

STUD SIZE (inches) BEARING WALLS NONBEARING WALLS
Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet) Maximum spacing where supporting a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly, only (inches) Maximum spacing where supporting one floor, plus a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly (inches) Maximum spacing where supporting two floors, plus a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly (inches) Maximum spacing where supporting one floor heighta (inches) Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet) Maximum spacing (inches)
2 × 3b 10 16
2 × 4 10 24c 16c 24 14
3 × 4 10 24 24 16 24 14 24
2 × 5 10 24 24 24 16 24
2 × 6 10 24 24 16 24 20 24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Bearing walls shall be sheathed on not less than one side or bridging shall be installed not greater than 4 feet apart measured vertically from either end of the stud. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where in compliance with Exception 2 of Section R602.3.1 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  2. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
  3. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

TABLE R602.3(6)

ALTERNATE WOOD BEARING WALL STUD SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING

STUD HEIGHT SUPPORTING STUD SPACINGa ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED
115 mph 130 mphb 140 mphb
Maximum roof/floor spanc Maximum roof/floor spanc Maximum roof/floor spanc
12 ft. 24 ft. 12 ft. 24 ft. 12 ft. 24 ft.
11 ft. Roof Only 12 in. 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4
16 in. 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 4 2 × 6
24 in. 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
Roof and One Floor 12 in. 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 4 2 × 6
16 in. 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
24 in. 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
12 ft. Roof Only 12 in 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 4 2 × 6
16 in. 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
24 in. 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
Roof and One Floor 12 in 2 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
16 in. 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6
24 in. 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 2 × 6 DR

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mph = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound = 4.448 N.

DR = Design Required.

  1. Wall studs not exceeding 16 inches on center shall be sheathed with minimum 1/2-inch gypsum board on the interior and 3/8-inch wood structural panel sheathing on the exterior. Wood structural panel sheathing shall be attached with 8d (2.5" x 0.131") nails not greater than 6 inches on center along panel edges and 12 inches on center at intermediate supports, and all panel joints shall occur over studs or blocking.
  2. Where the ultimate design wind speed exceeds 115 mph, studs shall be attached to top and bottom plates with connectors having a minimum 300-pound lateral capacity.
  3. The maximum span is applicable to both single- and multiple-span roof and floor conditions. The roof assembly shall not contain a habitable attic.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(1)

 TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(2)

 FRAMING DETAILS

The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

Exceptions:

  1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.
  2. Where snow loads are less than or equal to 25 pounds per square foot (1.2 kPa), and the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58.1 m/s), 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) studs supporting a roof load with not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of tributary length shall have a maximum height of 18 feet (5486 mm) where spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center, or 20 feet (6096 mm) where spaced at 12 inches (305 mm) on center. Studs shall be No. 2 grade lumber or better.
  3. Exterior load-bearing studs not exceeding 12 feet (3658 mm) in height provided in accordance with Table R602.3(6). The minimum number of full-height studs adjacent to openings shall be in accordance with Section R602.7.5. The building shall be located in Exposure B, the roof live load shall not exceed 20 psf (0.96 kPa), and the ground snow load shall not exceed 30 psf (1.4 kPa). Studs and plates shall be No. 2 grade lumber or better.

Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset not less than 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width not less than the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate used as an alternative to a double top plate shall comply with the following:

  1. The single top plate shall be tied at corners, intersecting walls, and at in-line splices in straight wall lines in accordance with Table R602.3.2.
  2. The rafters or joists shall be centered over the studs with a tolerance of not more than 1 inch (25 mm).
  3. Omission of the top plate is permitted over headers where the headers are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections in accordance with Table R602.3.2.

TABLE R602.3.2

SINGLE TOP-PLATE SPLICE CONNECTION DETAILS

CONDITION TOP-PLATE SPLICE LOCATION
Corners and intersecting walls Butt joints in straight walls
Splice plate size Minimum nails each side of joint Splice plate size Minimum nails each side of joint
Structures in SDC A-C; and in SDC D0, D1 and D2 with braced wall line spacing less than 25 feet 3" × 6" × 0.036" galvanized steel plate or equivalent (6) 8d box (21/2" ×0.113") nails 3" × 12" × 0.036" galvanized steel plate or equivalent (12) 8d box (21/2" ×0.113") nails
Structures in SDC D0, D1 and D2, with braced wall line spacing greater than or equal to 25 feet 3" × 8" × 0.036" galvanized steel plate or equivalent (9) 8d box (21/2" ×0.113") nails 3" × 16" × 0.036" galvanized steel plate or equivalent (18) 8d box (21/2" ×0.113") nails

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:

  1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.
  2. A third top plate is installed.
  3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.
Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width not less than to the width of the studs.

Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where:

    1.1.   The ultimate design wind speed does not exceed 115 mph (51 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less.

    1.2.   The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf (146 N/mm). The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.

  2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation or to a point where the uplift force is 100 plf (146 N/mm) or less. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2.
  3. Wall sheathing and fasteners designed to resist combined uplift and shear forces in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch by 3-inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, where not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with not less than a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.

Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition shall be permitted to be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions shall be permitted to be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width.
  2. Drilling. Any stud shall be permitted to be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is not more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is not more than 5/8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall be doubled with not more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).

    Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted where they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Note: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.

FIGURE R602.6(1)

 NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6(2)

 NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS

Where piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) nails having a minimum length of 11/2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend not less than 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.

Exception: Where the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6.1

 TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

R602.7 Headers

ILLUSTRATION

For header spans, see Tables R602.7(1), R602.7(2) and R602.7(3).

TABLE R602.7(1)

GIRDER SPANSaAND HEADER SPANSaFOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS (Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, Southern pine and spruce-pine-firband required number of jack studs)

GIRDERS AND HEADERS SUPPORTING SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
30 50 70
Building widthc (feet)
12 24 36 12 24 36 12 24 36
Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd Spanf NJd
Roof and ceiling

1-2 × 6 4-0 1 3-1 2 2-7 2 3-5 1 2-8 2 2-3 2 3-0 2 2-4 2 2-0 2
1-2 × 8 5-1 2 3-11 2 3-3 2 4-4 2 3-4 2 2-10 2 3-10 2 3-0 2 2-6 3
1-2 × 10 6-0 2 4-8 2 3-11 2 5-2 2 4-0 2 3-4 3 4-7 2 3-6 3 3-0 3
1-2 × 12 7-1 2 5-5 2 4-7 3 6-1 2 4-8 3 3-11 3 5-5 2 4-2 3 3-6 3
2-2 × 4 4-0 1 3-1 1 2-7 1 3-5 1 2-7 1 2-2 1 3-0 1 2-4 1 2-0 1
2-2 × 6 6-0 1 4-7 1 3-10 1 5-1 1 3-11 1 3-3 2 4-6 1 3-6 2 2-11 2
2-2 × 8 7-7 1 5-9 1 4-10 2 6-5 1 5-0 2 4-2 2 5-9 1 4-5 2 3-9 2
2-2 × 10 9-0 1 6-10 2 5-9 2 7-8 2 5-11 2 4-11 2 6-9 2 5-3 2 4-5 2
2-2 × 12 10-7 2 8-1 2 6-10 2 9-0 2 6-11 2 5-10 2 8-0 2 6-2 2 5-2 3
3-2 × 8 9-5 1 7-3 1 6-1 1 8-1 1 6-3 1 5-3 2 7-2 1 5-6 2 4-8 2
3-2 × 10 11-3 1 8-7 1 7-3 2 9-7 1 7-4 2 6-2 2 8-6 1 6-7 2 5-6 2
3-2 × 12 13-2 1 10-1 2 8-6 2 11-3 2 8-8 2 7-4 2 10-0 2 7-9 2 6-6 2
4-2 × 8 10-11 1 8-4 1 7-0 1 9-4 1 7-2 1 6-0 1 8-3 1 6-4 1 5-4 2
4-2 × 10 12-11 1 9-11 1 8-4 1 11-1 1 8-6 1 7-2 2 9-10 1 7-7 2 6-4 2
4-2 × 12 15-3 1 11-8 1 9-10 2 13-0 1 10-0 2 8-5 2 11-7 1 8-11 2 7-6 2
Roof, ceiling and one centerbearing floor

1-2 × 6 3-3 1 2-7 2 2-2 2 3-0 2 2-4 2 2-0 2 2-9 2 2-2 2 1-10 2
1-2 × 8 4-1 2 3-3 2 2-9 2 3-9 2 3-0 2 2-6 3 3-6 2 2-9 2 2-4 3
1-2 × 10 4-11 2 3-10 2 3-3 3 4-6 2 3-6 3 3-0 3 4-1 2 3-3 3 2-9 3
1-2 × 12 5-9 2 4-6 3 3-10 3 5-3 2 4-2 3 3-6 3 4-10 3 3-10 3 3-3 4
2-2 × 4 3-3 1 2-6 1 2-2 1 3-0 1 2-4 1 2-0 1 2-8 1 2-2 1 1-10 1
2-2 × 6 4-10 1 3-9 1 3-3 2 4-5 1 3-6 2 3-0 2 4-1 1 3-3 2 2-9 2
2-2 × 8 6-1 1 4-10 2 4-1 2 5-7 2 4-5 2 3-9 2 5-2 2 4-1 2 3-6 2
2-2 × 10 7-3 2 5-8 2 4-10 2 6-8 2 5-3 2 4-5 2 6-1 2 4-10 2 4-1 2
2-2 × 12 8-6 2 6-8 2 5-8 2 7-10 2 6-2 2 5-3 3 7-2 2 5-8 2 4-10 3
3-2 × 8 7-8 1 6-0 1 5-1 2 7-0 1 5-6 2 4-8 2 6-5 1 5-1 2 4-4 2
3-2 × 10 9-1 1 7-2 2 6-1 2 8-4 1 6-7 2 5-7 2 7-8 2 6-1 2 5-2 2
3-2 × 12 10-8 2 8-5 2 7-2 2 9-10 2 7-8 2 6-7 2 9-0 2 7-1 2 6-1 2
4-2 × 8 8-10 1 6-11 1 5-11 1 8-1 1 6-4 1 5-5 2 7-5 1 5-11 1 5-0 2
4-2 × 10 10-6 1 8-3 2 7-0 2 9-8 1 7-7 2 6-5 2 8-10 1 7-0 2 6-0 2
4-2 × 12 12-4 1 9-8 2 8-3 2 11-4 2 8-11 2 7-7 2 10-4 2 8-3 2 7-0 2
Roof, ceiling and one clearspan floor

1-2 × 6 2-11 2 2-3 2 1-11 2 2-9 2 2-1 2 1-9 2 2-7 2 2-0 2 1-8 2
1-2 × 8 3-9 2 2-10 2 2-5 3 3-6 2 2-8 2 2-3 3 3-3 2 2-6 3 2 -2 3
1-2 × 10 4-5 2 3-5 3 2-10 3 4-2 2 3-2 3 2-8 3 3-11 2 3-0 3 2-6 3
1-2 × 12 5-2 2 4-0 3 3-4 3 4-10 3 3-9 3 3-2 4 4-7 3 3-6 3 3-0 4
2-2 × 4 2-11 1 2-3 1 1-10 1 2-9 1 2-1 1 1-9 1 2-7 1 2-0 1 1-8 1
2-2 × 6 4-4 1 3-4 2 2-10 2 4-1 1 3-2 2 2-8 2 3-10 1 3-0 2 2-6 2
2-2 × 8 5-6 2 4-3 2 3-7 2 5-2 2 4-0 2 3-4 2 4-10 2 3-9 2 3-2 2
2-2 × 10 6-7 2 5-0 2 4-2 2 6-1 2 4-9 2 4-0 2 5-9 2 4-5 2 3-9 3
2-2 × 12 7-9 2 5-11 2 4-11 3 7-2 2 5-7 2 4-8 3 6-9 2 5-3 3 4-5 3
3-2 × 8 6-11 1 5-3 2 4-5 2 6-5 1 5-0 2 4-2 2 6-1 1 4-8 2 4-0 2
3-2 × 10 8-3 2 6-3 2 5-3 2 7-8 2 5-11 2 5-0 2 7-3 2 5-7 2 4-8 2
3-2 × 12 9-8 2 7-5 2 6-2 2 9-0 2 7-0 2 5-10 2 8-6 2 6-7 2 5-6 3
4-2 × 8 8-0 1 6-1 1 5-1 2 7-5 1 5-9 2 4-10 2 7-0 1 5-5 2 4-7 2
4-2 × 10 9-6 1 7-3 2 6-1 2 8-10 1 6-10 2 5-9 2 8-4 1 6-5 2 5-5 2
4-2 × 12 11-2 2 8-6 2 7-2 2 10-5 2 8-0 2 6-9 2 9-10 2 7-7 2 6-5 2
Roof, ceiling and two centerbearing floors

1-2 × 6 2-8 2 2-1 2 1-10 2 2-7 2 2-0 2 1-9 2 2-5 2 1-11 2 1-8 2
1-2 × 8 3-5 2 2-8 2 2-4 3 3-3 2 2-7 2 2-2 3 3-1 2 2-5 3 2-1 3
1-2 × 10 4-0 2 3-2 3 2-9 3 3-10 2 3-1 3 2-7 3 3-8 2 2-11 3 2-5 3
1-2 × 12 4-9 3 3-9 3 3-2 4 4-6 3 3-7 3 3-1 4 4-3 3 3-5 3 2-11 4
2-2 × 4 2-8 1 2-1 1 1-9 1 2-6 1 2-0 1 1-8 1 2-5 1 1-11 1 1-7 1
2-2 × 6 4-0 1 3-2 2 2-8 2 3-9 1 3-0 2 2-7 2 3-7 1 2-10 2 2-5 2
2-2 × 8 5-0 2 4-0 2 3-5 2 4-10 2 3-10 2 3-3 2 4-7 2 3-7 2 3-1 2
2-2 × 10 6-0 2 4-9 2 4-0 2 5-8 2 4-6 2 3-10 3 5-5 2 4-3 2 3-8 3
2-2 × 12 7-0 2 5-7 2 4-9 3 6-8 2 5-4 3 4-6 3 6-4 2 5-0 3 4-3 3
3-2 × 8 6-4 1 5-0 2 4-3 2 6-0 1 4-9 2 4-1 2 5-8 2 4-6 2 3-10 2
3-2 × 10 7-6 2 5-11 2 5-1 2 7-1 2 5-8 2 4-10 2 6-9 2 5-4 2 4-7 2
3-2 × 12 8-10 2 7-0 2 5-11 2 8-5 2 6-8 2 5-8 3 8-0 2 6-4 2 5-4 3
4-2 × 8 7-3 1 5-9 1 4-11 2 6-11 1 5-6 2 4-8 2 6-7 1 5-2 2 4-5 2
4-2 × 10 8-8 1 6-10 2 5-10 2 8-3 2 6-6 2 5-7 2 7-10 2 6-2 2 5-3 2
4-2 × 12 10-2 2 8-1 2 6-10 2 9-8 2 7-8 2 6-7 2 9-2 2 7-3 2 6-2 2
Roof, ceiling, and two clearspan floors

1-2 × 6 2-3 2 1-9 2 1-5 2 2-3 2 1-9 2 1-5 3 2-2 2 1-8 2 1-5 3
1-2 × 8 2-10 2 2-2 3 1-10 3 2-10 2 2-2 3 1-10 3 2-9 2 2-1 3 1-10 3
1-2 × 10 3-4 2 2-7 3 2-2 3 3-4 3 2-7 3 2-2 4 3-3 3 2-6 3 2-2 4
1-2 × 12 4-0 3 3-0 3 2-7 4 4-0 3 3-0 4 2-7 4 3-10 3 3-0 4 2-6 4
2-2 × 4 2-3 1 1-8 1 1-4 1 2-3 1 1-8 1 1-4 1 2-2 1 1-8 1 1-4 2
2-2 × 6 3-4 1 2-6 2 2-2 2 3-4 2 2-6 2 2-2 2 3-3 2 2-6 2 2-1 2
2-2 × 8 4-3 2 3-3 2 2-8 2 4-3 2 3-3 2 2-8 2 4-1 2 3-2 2 2-8 3
2-2 × 10 5-0 2 3-10 2 3-2 3 5-0 2 3-10 2 3-2 3 4-10 2 3-9 3 3-2 3
2-2 × 12 5-11 2 4-6 3 3-9 3 5-11 2 4-6 3 3-9 3 5-8 2 4-5 3 3-9 3
3-2 × 8 5-3 1 4-0 2 3-5 2 5-3 2 4-0 2 3-5 2 5-1 2 3-11 2 3-4 2
3-2 × 10 6-3 2 4-9 2 4-0 2 6-3 2 4-9 2 4-0 2 6-1 2 4-8 2 4-0 3
3-2 × 12 7-5 2 5-8 2 4-9 3 7-5 2 5-8 2 4-9 3 7-2 2 5-6 3 4-8 3
4-2 × 8 6-1 1 4-8 2 3-11 2 6-1 1 4-8 2 3-11 2 5-11 1 4-7 2 3-10 2
4-2 × 10 7-3 2 5-6 2 4-8 2 7-3 2 5-6 2 4-8 2 7-0 2 5-5 2 4-7 2
4-2 × 12 8-6 2 6-6 2 5-6 2 8-6 2 6-6 2 5-6 2 8-3 2 6-4 2 5-4 3

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Spans are based on minimum design properties for No. 2 grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, Southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
  6. Spans are calculated assuming the top of the header or girder is laterally braced by perpendicular framing. Where the top of the header or girder is not laterally braced (for example, cripple studs bearing on the header), tabulated spans for headers consisting of 2 × 8, 2 × 10, or 2 × 12 sizes shall be multiplied by 0.70 or the header or girder shall be designed.

TABLE R602.7(2)

GIRDER SPANSaAND HEADER SPANSaFOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS (Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firband required number of jack studs)

HEADERS AND GIRDERS SUPPORTING SIZE BUILDING Widthc (feet)
12 24 36
Spane NJd Spane NJd Spane NJd
One floor only 2-2 × 4 4-1 1 2-10 1 2-4 1
2-2 × 6 6-1 1 4-4 1 3-6 1
2-2 × 8 7-9 1 5-5 1 4-5 2
2-2 × 10 9-2 1 6-6 2 5-3 2
2-2 × 12 10-9 1 7-7 2 6-3 2
3-2 × 8 9-8 1 6-10 1 5-7 1
3-2 × 10 11-5 1 8-1 1 6-7 2
3-2 × 12 13-6 1 9-6 2 7-9 2
4-2 × 8 11-2 1 7-11 1 6-5 1
4-2 × 10 13-3 1 9-4 1 7-8 1
4-2 × 12 15-7 1 11-0 1 9-0 2
Two floors 2-2 × 4 2-7 1 1-11 1 1-7 1
2-2 × 6 3-11 1 2-11 2 2-5 2
2-2 × 8 5-0 1 3-8 2 3-1 2
2-2 × 10 5-11 2 4-4 2 3-7 2
2-2 × 12 6-11 2 5-2 2 4-3 3
3-2 × 8 6-3 1 4-7 2 3-10 2
3-2 × 10 7-5 1 5-6 2 4-6 2
3-2 × 12 8-8 2 6-5 2 5-4 2
4-2 × 8 7-2 1 5-4 1 4-5 2
4-2 × 10 8-6 1 6-4 2 5-3 2
4-2 × 12 10-1 1 7-5 2 6-2 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Spans are based on minimum design properties for No. 2 grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, Southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Spans are calculated assuming the top of the header or girder is laterally braced by perpendicular framing. Where the top of the header or girder is not laterally braced (for example, cripple studs bearing on the header), tabulated spans for headers consisting of 2 × 8, 2 × 10, or 2 × 12 sizes shall be multiplied by 0.70 or the header or girder shall be designed.

TABLE R602.7(3)

GIRDER AND HEADER SPANSaFOR OPEN PORCHES (Maximum span for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, Southern pine and spruce-pine-firb)

SIZE SUPPORTING ROOF SUPPORTING FLOOR
GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)
30 50 70
DEPTH OF PORCHc (feet)
8 14 8 14 8 14 8 14
2-2 × 6 7-6 5-8 6-2 4-8 5-4 4-0 6-4 4-9
2-2 × 8 10-1 7-7 8-3 6-2 7-1 5-4 8-5 6-4
2-2 × 10 12-4 9-4 10-1 7-7 8-9 6-7 10-4 7-9
2-2 × 12 14-4 10-10 11-8 8-10 10-1 7-8 11-11 9-0

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Tabulated values assume No. 2 grade lumber, wet service and incising for refractory species. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
  3. Porch depth is measured horizontally from building face to centerline of the header. For depths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.

Single headers shall be framed with a single flat 2-inch-nominal (51 mm) member or wall plate not less in width than the wall studs on the top and bottom of the header in accordance with Figures R602.7.1(1) and R602.7.1(2) and face nailed to the top and bottom of the header with 10d box nails (3 inches × 0.128 inches) spaced 12 inches on center.

FIGURE R602.7.1(1)

 SINGLE-MEMBER HEADER IN EXTERIOR BEARING WALL

FIGURE R602.7.1(2)

 ALTERNATIVE SINGLE-MEMBER HEADER WITHOUT CRIPPLE

Rim board header size, material and span shall be in accordance with Table R602.7(1). Rim board headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and shall be supported at each end by full-height studs. The number of full-height studs at each end shall be not less than the number of studs displaced by half of the header span based on the maximum stud spacing in accordance with Table R602.3(5). Rim board headers supporting concentrated loads shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 25.4 mm = 1 inch.

FIGURE R602.7.2

 RIM BOARD HEADER CONSTRUCTION

Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.3 and Table R602.7.3.

TABLE R602.7.3

MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa

HEADER CONSTRUCTIONb HEADER DEPTH (inches) HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
24 26 28 30 32
Wood structural panel—one side 9 4 4 3 3
15 5 5 4 3 3
Wood structural panel—both sides 9 7 5 5 4 3
15 8 8 7 7 6

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
  2. See Figure R602.7.3 for construction details.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

NOTES:

  1. The top and bottom plates shall be continuous at header location.
  2. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.
  3. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.
  4. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 15/32-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides o the header.
  5. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 1/2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.

FIGURE R602.7.3

 TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION

Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member shall be permitted to be used as a header in interior or exterior non-bearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, cripples or blocking are not required above the header.

Headers shall be supported on each end with one or more jack studs or with approved framing anchors in accordance with Table R602.7(1) or R602.7(2). The full-height stud adjacent to each end of the header shall be end nailed to each end of the header with four-16d nails (3.5 inches × 0.135 inches). The minimum number of full-height studs at each end of a header shall be in accordance with Table R602.7.5.

TABLE R602.7.5

MINIMUM NUMBER OF FULL-HEIGHT STUDS AT EACH END OF HEADERS IN EXTERIOR WALLSa

MAXIMUM HEADER SPAN (feet) ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE CATEGORY
< 140 mph, Exposure B or < 130 mph, Exposure C ≤ 115 mph, Exposure Bb
4 1 1
6 2 1
8 2 1
10 3 2
12 3 2
14 3 2
16 4 2
18 4 2

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

  1. For header spans between those given, use the minimum number of full-height studs associated with the larger header span.
  2. The tabulated minimum number of full-height studs is applicable where jack studs are provided to support the header at each end in accordance with Table R602.7(1). Where a framing anchor is used to support the header in lieu of a jack stud in accordance with Note d of Table R602.7(1), the minimum number of full-height studs at each end of a header shall be in accordance with requirements for wind speed < 140 mph, Exposure B.
Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.

Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. Where exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be continuously sheathed on one side with wood structural panels fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking.

Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

R602.10 Wall Bracing

ILLUSTRATION

Buildings shall be braced in accordance with this section or Section R602.12. Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R301.1.

The building official shall be permitted to require the permit applicant to identify braced wall lines and braced wall panels on the construction documents as described in this section and provide associated analysis. The building official shall be permitted to waive the analysis of the upper floors where the cumulative length of wall openings of each upper floor wall is less than or equal to the length of the openings of the wall directly below.

For the purpose of determining the amount and location of bracing required in each story level of a building, braced wall lines shall be designated as straight lines in the building plan placed in accordance with this section.

The length of a braced wall line shall be the distance between its ends. The end of a braced wall line shall be the intersection with a perpendicular braced wall line, an angled braced wall line as permitted in Section R602.10.1.4 or an exterior wall as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.1

 BRACED WALL LINES

Exterior walls parallel to a braced wall line shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line location as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1. Interior walls used as bracing shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from a braced wall line through the interior of the building as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.

The spacing between parallel braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3. Intermediate braced wall lines through the interior of the building shall be permitted.

TABLE R602.10.1.3

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING

APPLICATION CONDITION BUILDING TYPE BRACED WALL LINE SPACING CRITERIA
Maximum Spacing Exception to Maximum Spacing
Wind bracing Ultimate design wind speed 100 mph to < 140 mph Detached, townhouse 60 feet None
Seismic bracing SDC A — C Detached Use wind bracing
SDC A — B Townhouse Use wind bracing
SDC C Townhouse 35 feet Up to 50 feet when length of required bracing per Table R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).
SDC D0, D1, D2 Detached, townhouses, one- and two-story only 25 feet Up to 35 feet to allow for a single room not to exceed 900 square feet. Spacing of all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet.
SDC D0, D1, D2 Detached, townhouse 25 feet Up to 35 feet when length of required bracing per Table R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

Any portion of a wall along a braced wall line shall be permitted to angle out of plane for a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 mm). Where the angled wall occurs at a corner, the length of the braced wall line shall be measured from the projected corner as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered to be a separate braced wall line and shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.1.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4

 ANGLED WALLS

Braced wall panels shall be full-height sections of wall that shall not have vertical or horizontal offsets. Braced wall panels shall be constructed and placed along a braced wall line in accordance with this section and the bracing methods specified in Section R602.10.4.
The bracing lengths in Table R602.10.3(1) apply only when uplift loads are resisted in accordance with Section R602.3.5.

A braced wall panel shall begin within 10 feet (3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line as determined in Section R602.10.1.1. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels along a braced wall line shall be not greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) as shown in Figure R602.10.2.2.

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.2.2

 LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS

Braced wall panels shall be located at each end of a braced wall line.

Exception: Braced wall panels constructed of Method WSP or BV-WSP and continuous sheathing methods as specified in Section R602.10.4 shall be permitted to begin not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from each end of a braced wall line provided that each end complies with one of the following:

  1. A minimum 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panel for Methods WSP, CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF is applied to each side of the building corner as shown in End Condition 4 of Figure R602.10.7.
  2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the end of the braced wall line shall have an 1,800 lb (8 kN) hold-down device fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below as shown in End Condition 5 of Figure R602.10.7.
Braced wall lines with a length of 16 feet (4877 mm) or less shall have not less than two braced wall panels of any length or one braced wall panel equal to 48 inches (1219 mm) or more. Braced wall lines greater than 16 feet (4877 mm) shall have not less than two braced wall panels.

The required length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be determined as follows:

  1. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories A and B shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
  2. Detached buildings in Seismic Design Category C shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
  3. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively.
  4. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively.

Only braced wall panels parallel to the braced wall line shall contribute toward the required length of bracing of that braced wall line. Braced wall panels along an angled wall meeting the minimum length requirements of Tables R602.10.5 and R602.10.5.2 shall be permitted to contribute its projected length toward the minimum required length of bracing for the braced wall line as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Any braced wall panel on an angled wall at the end of a braced wall line shall contribute its projected length for only one of the braced wall lines at the projected corner.

Exception: The length of wall bracing for dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8 and exceeding the first-story height shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.6.5.

TABLE R602.10.3(1)

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED

MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Ultimate Design Wind Speed (mph) Story Location Braced Wall Line Spacingc (feet) Method LIBb Method GB Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, BV-WSP, ABW, PFH, PFC, CS-SFB Methods CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-PF
≤ 110 10 3.5 3.5 2.0 1.5
20 6.0 6.0 3.5 3.0
30 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
40 11.5 11.5 6.5 5.5
50 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
60 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
10 6.5 6.5 3.5 3.0
20 11.5 11.5 6.5 5.5
30 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
40 21.5 21.5 12.5 10.5
50 26.5 26.5 15.5 13.0
60 31.5 31.5 18.0 15.5
10 NP 9.5 5.5 4.5
20 NP 17.0 10.0 8.5
30 NP 24.5 14.0 12.0
40 NP 32.0 18.5 15.5
50 NP 39.5 22.5 19.0
60 NP 46.5 26.5 23.0
≤ 115 10 3.5 3.5 2.0 2.0
20 6.5 6.5 3.5 3.5
30 9.5 9.5 5.5 4.5
40 12.5 12.5 7.0 6.0
50 15.0 15.0 9.0 7.5
60 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
10 7.0 7.0 4.0 3.5
20 12.5 12.5 7.5 6.5
30 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
40 23.5 23.5 13.5 11.5
50 29.0 29.0 16.5 14.0
60 34.5 34.5 20.0 17.0
10 NP 10.0 6.0 5.0
20 NP 18.5 11.0 9.0
30 NP 27.0 15.5 13.0
40 NP 35.0 20.0 17.0
50 NP 43.0 24.5 21.0
60 NP 51.0 29.0 25.0
≤ 120 10 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.0
20 7.0 7.0 4.0 3.5
30 10.5 10.5 6.0 5.0
40 13.5 13.5 8.0 6.5
50 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
60 19.5 19.5 11.5 9.5
10 7.5 7.5 4.5 3.5
20 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
30 20.0 20.0 11.5 9.5
40 25.5 25.5 15.0 12.5
50 31.5 31.5 18.0 15.5
60 37.5 37.5 21.5 18.5
10 NP 11.0 6.5 5.5
20 NP 20.5 11.5 10.0
30 NP 29.0 17.0 14.5
40 NP 38.0 22.0 18.5
50 NP 47.0 27.0 23.0
60 NP 55.5 32.0 27.0
≤ 130 10 4.5 4.5 2.5 2.5
20 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.0
30 12.0 12.0 7.0 6.0
40 15.5 15.5 9.0 7.5
50 19.5 19.5 11.0 9.5
60 23.0 23.0 13.0 11.0
10 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
20 16.0 16.0 9.5 8.0
30 23.0 23.0 13.5 11.5
40 30.0 30.0 17.5 15.0
50 37.0 37.0 21.5 18.0
60 44.0 44.0 25.0 21.5
10 NP 13.0 7.5 6.5
20 NP 24.0 13.5 11.5
30 NP 34.5 19.5 17.0
40 NP 44.5 25.5 22.0
50 NP 55.0 31.5 26.5
60 NP 65.0 37.5 31.5
< 140 10 5.5 5.5 3.0 2.5
20 10.0 10.0 5.5 5.0
30 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
40 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
50 22.5 22.5 13.0 11.0
60 26.5 26.5 15.0 13.0
10 10.0 10.0 6.0 5.0
20 18.5 18.5 11.0 9.0
30 27.0 27.0 15.5 13.0
40 35.0 35.0 20.0 17.0
50 43.0 43.0 24.5 21.0
60 51.0 51.0 29.0 25.0
10 NP 15.0 8.5 7.5
20 NP 27.5 16.0 13.5
30 NP 39.5 23.0 19.5
40 NP 51.5 29.5 25.0
50 NP 63.5 36.5 31.0
60 NP 75.5 43.0 36.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

NP = Not Permitted.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to not less than one side with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
  3. Where three or more parallel braced wall lines are present and the distances between adjacent braced wall lines are different, the average dimension shall be permitted to be used for braced wall line spacing.

TABLE R602.10.3(2)

WIND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING

ITEM NUMBER ADJUSTMENT BASED ON STORY/SUPPORTING CONDITION ADJUSTMENT FACTORa, b [multiply length from Table R602.10.3(1) by this factor] APPLICABLE METHODS
1 Exposure categoryd One-story structure B 1.00 All methods
C 1.20
D 1.50
Two-story structure B 1.00
C 1.30
D 1.60
Three-story structure B 1.00
C 1.40
D 1.70
2 Roof eave-to-ridge height Roof only < 5 feet 0.70
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.30
20 feet 1.60
Roof + 1 floor < 5 feet 0.85
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.15
20 feet 1.30
Roof + 2 floors < 5 feet 0.90
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.10
20 feet Not permitted
3 Story height (Section R301.3) Any story 8 feet 0.90
9 feet 0.95
10 feet 1.00
11 feet 1.05
12 feet 1.10
4 Any story Number of braced wall lines (per plan direction)c 2 1.00
3 1.30
4 1.45
≥5 1.60
5 Additional 800-pound hold-down device Top story only Fastened to the end studs of each braced wall panel and to the foundation or framing below 0.80 DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS
6 Interior gypsum board finish (or equivalent) Any story Omitted from inside face of braced wall panels 1.40 DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-SFB
7 Gypsum board fastening Any story 4 inches o.c. at panel edges, including top and bottom plates, and all horizontal joints blocked 0.7 GB
8 Horizontal blocking Any story Horizontal block is omitted 2.0 WSP, CS-WSP

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.48 N.

  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. The total adjustment factor is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
  3. The adjustment factor is permitted to be 1.0 when determining bracing amounts for intermediate braced wall lines provided the bracing amounts on adjacent braced wall lines are based on a spacing and number that neglects the intermediate braced wall line.
  4. The same adjustment factor shall be applied to all braced wall lines on all floors of the structure, based on the worst-case exposure category.

TABLE R602.10.3(3)

BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

  • SOIL CLASS Db
  • WALL HEIGHT = 10 FEET
  • 10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
  • 15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
  • BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FEET
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa, f
Seismic Design Category Story Location Braced Wall Line Length (feet)c Method LIBd Method GB Methods DWB, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-SFBe Methods WSP, ABW, PFH and PFGe Methods CS-WSP, CS-G, CS-PF
C (townhouses only) 10 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.6 1.4
20 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.2 2.7
30 7.5 7.5 7.5 4.8 4.1
40 10.0 10.0 10.0 6.4 5.4
50 12.5 12.5 12.5 8.0 6.8
10 NP 4.5 4.5 3.0 2.6
20 NP 9.0 9.0 6.0 5.1
30 NP 13.5 13.5 9.0 7.7
40 NP 18.0 18.0 12.0 10.2
50 NP 22.5 22.5 15.0 12.8
10 NP 6.0 6.0 4.5 3.8
20 NP 12.0 12.0 9.0 7.7
30 NP 18.0 18.0 13.5 11.5
40 NP 24.0 24.0 18.0 15.3
50 NP 30.0 30.0 22.5 19.1
D0 10 NP 2.8 2.8 1.8 1.6
20 NP 5.5 5.5 3.6 3.1
30 NP 8.3 8.3 5.4 4.6
40 NP 11.0 11.0 7.2 6.1
50 NP 13.8 13.8 9.0 7.7
10 NP 5.3 5.3 3.8 3.2
20 NP 10.5 10.5 7.5 6.4
30 NP 15.8 15.8 11.3 9.6
40 NP 21.0 21.0 15.0 12.8
50 NP 26.3 26.3 18.8 16.0
10 NP 7.3 7.3 5.3 4.5
20 NP 14.5 14.5 10.5 9.0
30 NP 21.8 21.8 15.8 13.4
40 NP 29.0 29.0 21.0 17.9
50 NP 36.3 36.3 26.3 22.3
D1 10 NP 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.7
20 NP 6.0 6.0 4.0 3.4
30 NP 9.0 9.0 6.0 5.1
40 NP 12.0 12.0 8.0 6.8
50 NP 15.0 15.0 10.0 8.5
10 NP 6.0 6.0 4.5 3.8
20 NP 12.0 12.0 9.0 7.7
30 NP 18.0 18.0 13.5 11.5
40 NP 24.0 24.0 18.0 15.3
50 NP 30.0 30.0 22.5 19.1
10 NP 8.5 8.5 6.0 5.1
20 NP 17.0 17.0 12.0 10.2
30 NP 25.5 25.5 18.0 15.3
40 NP 34.0 34.0 24.0 20.4
50 NP 42.5 42.5 30.0 25.5
D2 10 NP 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.1
20 NP 8.0 8.0 5.0 4.3
30 NP 12.0 12.0 7.5 6.4
40 NP 16.0 16.0 10.0 8.5
50 NP 20.0 20.0 12.5 10.6
10 NP 7.5 7.5 5.5 4.7
20 NP 15.0 15.0 11.0 9.4
30 NP 22.5 22.5