CORD-AND-PLUG-CONNECTED LIGHTING ASSEMBLY. A lighting assembly consisting of a cord-and-plug-connected transformer and a luminaire intended for installation in the wall of a spa, hot tub, or storable pool.
DRY-NICHE LUMINAIRE. A luminaire intended for installation in the floor or wall of a pool, spa or fountain in a niche that is sealed against the entry of water.
FORMING SHELL. A structure designed to support a wet-niche luminaire assembly and intended for mounting in a pool or fountain structure.
FOUNTAIN. Fountains, ornamental pools, display pools, and reflection pools. The definition does not include drinking fountains.
HYDROMASSAGE BATHTUB. A permanently installed bathtub equipped with a recirculating piping system, pump, and associated equipment. It is designed so it can accept, circulate and discharge water upon each use.
LOW VOLTAGE CONTACT LIMIT. A voltage not exceeding the following values:
- 15 volts (RMS) for sinusoidal AC
- 21.2 volts peak for nonsinusoidal AC
- 30 volts for continuous DC
- 12.4 volts peak for DC that is interrupted at a rate of 10 to 200 Hz
MAXIMUM WATER LEVEL. The highest level that water can reach before it spills out.
NO-NICHE LUMINAIRE. A luminaire intended for installation above or below the water without a niche.
PACKAGED SPA OR HOT TUB EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLY. A factory-fabricated unit consisting of water-circulating, heating and control equipment mounted on a common base, intended to operate a spa or hot tub. Equipment may include pumps, air blowers, heaters, luminaires, controls and sanitizer generators.
PERMANENTLY INSTALLED SWIMMING, WADING, IMMERSION AND THERAPEUTIC POOLS. Those that are constructed in the ground or partially in the ground, and all others capable of holding water with a depth greater than 42 inches (1067 mm), and all pools installed inside of a building, regardless of water depth, whether or not served by electrical circuits of any nature.
POOL. Manufactured or field-constructed equipment designed to contain water on a permanent or semipermanent basis and used for swimming, wading, immersion, or therapeutic purposes.
POOL COVER, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED. Motor-driven equipment designed to cover and uncover the water surface of a pool by means of a flexible sheet or rigid frame.
SELF-CONTAINED SPA OR HOT TUB. A factory-fabricated unit consisting of a spa or hot tub vessel with all water-circulating, heating and control equipment integral to the unit. Equipment may include pumps, air blowers, heaters, luminaires, controls and sanitizer generators.
SPA OR HOT TUB. A hydromassage pool, or tub for recreational or therapeutic use, not located in health care facilities, designed for immersion of users, and usually having a filter, heater, and motor-driven blower. They are installed indoors or outdoors, on the ground or supporting structure, or in the ground or supporting structure. Generally, a spa or hot tub is not designed or intended to have its contents drained or discharged after each use.
STORABLE SWIMMING OR WADING POOL. Those that are constructed on or above the ground and are capable of holding water with a maximum depth of 42 inches (1067 mm), or a pool with nonmetallic, molded polymeric walls or inflatable fabric walls regardless of dimension.
THROUGH-WALL LIGHTING ASSEMBLY. A lighting assembly intended for installation above grade, on or through the wall of a pool, consisting of two interconnected groups of components separated by the pool wall.
WET-NICHE LUMINAIRE. A luminaire intended for installation in a forming shell mounted in a pool or fountain structure where the luminaire will be completely surrounded by water.
Wiring methods used in conjunction with permanently installed swimming pools, spas, hot tubs or hydromassage bathtubs shall be installed in accordance with Table E4202.1 and Chapter 38 except as otherwise stated in this section. Storable swimming pools shall comply with Section E4207.
ALLOWABLE APPLICATIONS FOR WIRING METHODSa, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, l
|WIRING LOCATION OR PURPOSE |
(Application allowed where marked with an “A”)
|AC, FMC, |
NM, SR, SE
|EMT||ENT||IMCj, RMCj, |
|Panelboard(s) that supply pool equipment: |
from service equipment to panelboard
|Ab, e |
SR not permitted
|Wet-niche and no-niche luminaires: from |
branch circuit OCPD to deck or junctionbox
|Wet-niche and no-niche luminaires: from |
deck or junction box to forming shell
|Dry niche: from branch circuit OCPD to |
|Pool-associated motors: from branch circuit |
OCPD to motor
|Packaged or self-contained outdoor spas |
and hot tubs with underwater luminaire:from branch circuit OCPD to spa or hot tub
|Packaged or self-contained outdoor spas |
and hot tubs without underwater luminaire:from branch circuit OCPD to spa or hot tub
|Indoor spas and hot tubs, hydromassage |
bathtubs, and other pool, spa or hot tubassociated equipment: from branch circuit
OCPD to equipment
|Connection at pool lighting transformers or |
|ACb only||Ac||Ab||A||Am, g||Ag||—||Ab||—|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
- For all wiring methods, see Section E4205 for equipment grounding conductor requirements.
- Limited to use within buildings.
- Limited to use on or within buildings.
- Metal conduit shall be constructed of brass or other approved corrosion-resistant metal.
- Permitted only for existing installations in accordance with the exception to Section E4205.6.
- Limited to where necessary to employ flexible connections at or adjacent to a pool motor.
- Sections installed external to spa or hot tub enclosure limited to individual lengths not to exceed 6 feet. Length not limited inside spa or hot tub enclosure.
- Flexible cord shall be installed in accordance with Section E4202.2.
- Nonmetallic conduit shall be rigid polyvinyl chloride conduit Type PVC or reinforced thermosetting resin conduit Type RTRC.
- Aluminum conduits shall not be permitted in the pool area where subject to corrosion.
- Where installed as direct burial cable or in wet locations, Type MC cable shall be listed and identified for the location.
- See Section E4202.3 for listed, double-insulated pool pump motors.
- Limited to use in individual lengths not to exceed 6 feet. The total length of all individual runs of LFMC shall not exceed 10 feet.
Flexible cords used in conjunction with a pool, spa, hot tub or hydromassage bathtub shall be installed in accordance with the following:
- For other than underwater luminaires, fixed or stationary equipment shall be permitted to be connected with a flexible cord to facilitate removal or disconnection for maintenance or repair. For other than storable pools, the flexible cord shall not exceed 3 feet (914 mm) in length. Cords that supply swimming pool equipment shall have a copper equipment grounding conductor not smaller than 12 AWG and shall terminate in a grounding-type attachment plug.
- Other than listed low-voltage lighting systems not requiring grounding, wet-niche luminaires that are supplied by a flexible cord or cable shall have all exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts grounded by an insulated copper equipment grounding conductor that is an integral part of the cord or cable. Such grounding conductor shall be connected to a grounding terminal in the supply junction box, transformer enclosure, or other enclosure and shall be not smaller than the supply conductors and not smaller than 16 AWG.
- A listed packaged spa or hot tub installed outdoors that is GFCI protected shall be permitted to be cord-and-plug-connected provided that such cord does not exceed 15 feet (4572 mm) in length.
- A listed packaged spa or hot tub rated at 20 amperes or less and installed indoors shall be permitted to be cord-and-plug-connected to facilitate maintenance and repair.
- For other than underwater and storable pool lighting luminaire, the requirements of Item 1 shall apply to any cord-equipped luminaire that is located within 16 feet (4877 mm) radially from any point on the water surface.
Receptacles that provide power for water-pump motors or other loads directly related to the circulation and sanitation system shall be permitted to be located between 6 feet and 10 feet (1829 mm and 3048 mm) from the inside walls of pools and outdoor spas and hot tubs, where the receptacle is single and of the locking and grounding type and protected by ground-fault circuit interrupters.
Other receptacles on the property shall be located not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the inside walls of pools and outdoor spas and hot tubs.
In indoor pool areas, the limitations of Section E4203.4.1 shall apply except where the luminaires, lighting outlets and ceiling-suspended paddle fans comply with all of the following conditions:
- The luminaires are of a totally enclosed type;
- A ground-fault circuit interrupter is installed in the branch circuit supplying the luminaires or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans; and
- The distance from the bottom of the luminaire or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fan to the maximum water level is not less than 7 feet, 6 inches (2286 mm).
- 2.1. Recessed luminaires shall have a glass or plastic lens and nonmetallic or electrically isolated metal trim, and shall be suitable for use in damp locations.
- 2.2. Surface-mounted luminaires shall have a glass or plastic globe and a nonmetallic body or a metallic body isolated from contact. Such luminaires shall be suitable for use in damp locations.
Other outlets such as for remote control, signaling, fire alarm and communications shall be not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the inside walls of the pool. Measurements shall be determined in accordance with Section E4203.1.
OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR CLEARANCES
|INSULATED SUPPLY OR SERVICE DROP CABLES, 0-750 |
VOLTS TO GROUND, SUPPORTED ON AND CABLEDTOGETHER WITH AN EFFECTIVELY GROUNDED BARE
MESSENGER OR EFFECTIVELY GROUNDED NEUTRALCONDUCTOR (feet)
|ALL OTHER SUPPLY OR |
SERVICE DROP CONDUCTORS (feet)
|Voltage to ground|
|0-15 kV||Greater than 15 to 50 kV|
|A. Clearance in any direction to the water |
level, edge of water surface, base ofdiving platform, or permanently
|B. Clearance in any direction to the |
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Except where installed with the clearances specified in Table E4203.5, the following parts of pools and outdoor spas and hot tubs shall not be placed under existing service-drop conductors or any other open overhead wiring; nor shall such wiring be installed above the following:
- Pools and the areas extending 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from the inside of the walls of the pool;
- Diving structures; or
- Observation stands, towers, and platforms.
Overhead conductors of network-powered broadband communications systems shall comply with the provisions in Table E4203.5 for conductors operating at 0 to 750 volts to ground.
Utility-owned, -operated and -maintained communications conductors, community antenna system coaxial cables and the supporting messengers shall be permitted at a height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above swimming and wading pools, diving structures, and observation stands, towers, and platforms.
Underground wiring shall not be installed under or within the area extending 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the inside walls of pools and outdoor hot tubs and spas except where the wiring is installed to supply pool, spa or hot tub equipment or where space limitations prevent wiring from being routed 5 feet (1524 mm) or more horizontally from the inside walls. Where installed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the inside walls, the wiring method shall be a complete raceway system of rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit or a nonmetallic raceway system. Metal conduit shall be corrosion resistant and suitable for the location. The minimum cover depth shall be in accordance with Table E4203.7.
MINIMUM BURIAL DEPTHS
|WIRING METHOD||UNDERGROUND WIRING (inches)|
|Rigid metal conduit||6|
|Intermediate metal conduit||6|
|Nonmetallic raceways listed for direct burial and under concrete exterior slab not less than 4 inches in |
thickness and extending not less than 6 inches (162 mm) beyond the underground installation
|Nonmetallic raceways listed for direct burial without concrete encasement||18|
|Other approved racewaysa||18|
The parts of pools, spas, and hot tubs specified in Items 1 through 7 shall be bonded together using insulated, covered or bare solid copper conductors not smaller than 8 AWG or using rigid metal conduit of brass or other identified corrosion-resistant metal. An 8 AWG or larger solid copper bonding conductor provided to reduce voltage gradients in the pool, spa, or hot tub area shall not be required to be extended or attached to remote panelboards, service equipment, or electrodes. Connections shall be made by exothermic welding, by listed pressure connectors or clamps that are labeled as being suitable for the purpose and that are made of stainless steel, brass, copper or copper alloy, machine screw-type fasteners that engage not less than two threads or are secured with a nut, thread-forming machine screws that engage not less than two-threads, or terminal bars. Connection devices or fittings that depend solely on solder shall not be used. Sheet metal screws shall not be used to connect bonding conductors or connection devices:
- 1.1. Structural reinforcing steel. Unencapsulated structural reinforcing steel shall be bonded together by steel tie wires or the equivalent. Where structural reinforcing steel is encapsulated in a nonconductive compound, a copper conductor grid shall be installed in accordance with Item 1.2.
- 1.2.1. It shall be constructed of minimum 8 AWG bare solid copper conductors bonded to each other at all points of crossing.
- 1.2.2. It shall conform to the contour of the pool and the pool deck.
- 1.2.3. It shall be arranged in a 12-inch (305 mm) by 12-inch (305 mm) network of conductors in a uniformly spaced perpendicular grid pattern with a tolerance of 4 inches (102 mm).
- 1.2.4. It shall be secured within or under the pool not more than 6 inches (152 mm) from the outer contour of the pool shell.
- 2.1. Structural reinforcing steel. Structural reinforcing steel shall be bonded in accordance with Item 1.1.
- 2.2.1. At least one minimum 8 AWG bare solid copper conductor shall be provided.
- 2.2.2. The conductors shall follow the contour of the perimeter surface.
- 2.2.3. Splices shall be listed.
- 2.2.4. The required conductor shall be 18 to 24 inches (457 to 610 mm) from the inside walls of the pool.
- 2.2.5. The required conductor shall be secured within or under the perimeter surface 4 to 6 inches (102 mm to 152 mm) below the subgrade.
- Metallic components. All metallic parts of the pool structure, including reinforcing metal not addressed in Item 1.1, shall be bonded. Where reinforcing steel is encapsulated with a nonconductive compound, the reinforcing steel shall not be required to be bonded.
- Metal fittings. All metal fittings within or attached to the pool structure shall be bonded. Isolated parts that are not over 4 inches (102 mm) in any dimension and do not penetrate into the pool structure more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) shall not require bonding.
- 6.1. Double-insulated water pump motors. Where a double-insulated water pump motor is installed under the provisions of this item, a solid 8 AWG copper conductor of sufficient length to make a bonding connection to a replacement motor shall be extended from the bonding grid to an accessible point in the vicinity of the pool pump motor. Where there is no connection between the swimming pool bonding grid and the equipment grounding system for the premises, this bonding conductor shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor of the motor circuit.
- 6.2. Pool water heaters. For pool water heaters rated at more than 50 amperes and having specific instructions regarding bonding and grounding, only those parts designated to be bonded shall be bonded and only those parts designated to be grounded shall be grounded.
- Those separated from the pool by a permanent barrier that prevents contact by a person shall not be required to be bonded.
- Those greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the inside walls of the pool shall not be required to be bonded.
- Those greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) measured vertically above the maximum water level of the pool, or as measured vertically above any observation stands, towers, or platforms, or any diving structures, shall not be required to be bonded.
The following parts of indoor hot tubs and spas shall be bonded together:
- All metal fittings within or attached to the hot tub or spa structure.
- Metal parts of electrical equipment associated with the hot tub or spa water circulating system, including pump motors unless part of a listed self-contained spa or hot tub.
- Metal raceway and metal piping that are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the inside walls of the hot tub or spa and that are not separated from the spa or hot tub by a permanent barrier.
- Electrical devices and controls that are not associated with the hot tubs or spas and that are located less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from such units.
All metal parts associated with the hot tub or spa shall be bonded by any of the following methods:
- The interconnection of threaded metal piping and fittings.
- Metal-to-metal mounting on a common frame or base
- The provision of an insulated, covered or bare solid copper bonding jumper not smaller than 8 AWG.It shall not be the intent to require that the 8 AWG or larger solid copper bonding conductor be extended or attached to any remote panelboard, service equipment, or any electrode, but only that it shall be employed to eliminate voltage gradients in the hot tub or spa area as prescribed.
The following equipment shall be grounded:
- Through-wall lighting assemblies and underwater luminaires other than those low-voltage lighting products listed for the application without a grounding conductor.
- All electrical equipment located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the inside wall of the pool, spa or hot tub.
- All electrical equipment associated with the recirculating system of the pool, spa or hot tub.
- Junction boxes.
- Transformer and power supply enclosures.
- Ground-fault circuit-interrupters.
- Panelboards that are not part of the service equipment and that supply any electrical equipment associated with the pool, spa or hot tub.
Other than listed low-voltage luminaires not requiring grounding, all through-wall lighting assemblies, wet-niche, dry-niche, or no-niche luminaires shall be connected to an insulated copper equipment grounding conductor sized in accordance with Table E3908.12 but not smaller than 12 AWG. The equipment grounding conductor between the wiring chamber of the secondary winding of a transformer and a junction box shall be sized in accordance with the overcurrent device in such circuit. The junction box, transformer enclosure, or other enclosure in the supply circuit to a wet-niche or no-niche luminaire and the field-wiring chamber of a dry-niche luminaire shall be grounded to the equipment grounding terminal of the panelboard. The equipment grounding terminal shall be directly connected to the panelboard enclosure. The equipment grounding conductor shall be installed without joint or splice.
- Where more than one underwater luminaire is supplied by the same branch circuit, the equipment grounding conductor, installed between the junction boxes, transformer enclosures, or other enclosures in the supply circuit to wet-niche luminaires, or between the field-wiring compartments of dry-niche luminaires, shall be permitted to be terminated on grounding terminals.
- Where an underwater luminaire is supplied from a transformer, ground-fault circuit-interrupter, clock-operated switch, or a manual snap switch that is located between the panelboard and a junction box connected to the conduit that extends directly to the underwater luminaire, the equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted to terminate on grounding terminals on the transformer, ground-fault circuit-interrupter, clock-operated switch enclosure, or an outlet box used to enclose a snap switch.
An equipment grounding conductor shall be installed with the feeder conductors between the grounding terminal of the pool equipment panelboard and the grounding terminal of the applicable service equipment or source of a separately derived system. The equipment grounding conductor shall be insulated, shall be sized in accordance with Table E3908.12, and shall be not smaller than 12 AWG.
Exception: An existing feeder between an existing remote panelboard and service equipment shall be permitted to run in flexible metal conduit or an approved cable assembly that includes an equipment grounding conductor within its outer sheath. The equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected to the grounded conductor in the remote panelboard.
Forming shells shall be installed for the mounting of all wet-niche underwater luminaires and shall be equipped with provisions for conduit entries. Conduit shall extend from the forming shell to a suitable junction box or other enclosure located as provided in Section E4206.9. Metal parts of the luminaire and forming shell in contact with the pool water shall be of brass or other approved corrosion-resistant metal.
The end of flexible-cord jackets and flexible-cord conductor terminations within a luminaire shall be covered with, or encapsulated in, a suitable potting compound to prevent the entry of water into the luminaire through the cord or its conductors. If present, the grounding connection within a luminaire shall be similarly treated to protect such connection from the deteriorating effect of pool water in the event of water entry into the luminaire.
Luminaires shall be bonded to and secured to the forming shell by a positive locking device that ensures a low-resistance contact and requires a tool to remove the luminaire from the forming shell.
A junction box connected to a conduit that extends directly to a forming shell or mounting bracket of a no-niche luminaire shall be:
- Listed as a swimming pool junction box;
- Equipped with threaded entries or hubs or a nonmetallic hub;
- Constructed of copper, brass, suitable plastic, or other approved corrosion-resistant material;
- Provided with electrical continuity between every connected metal conduit and the grounding terminals by means of copper, brass, or other approved corrosion-resistant metal that is integral with the box; and
- Located not less than 4 inches (102 mm), measured from the inside of the bottom of the box, above the ground level, or pool deck, or not less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the maximum pool water level, whichever provides the greatest elevation, and shall be located not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the inside wall of the pool, unless separated from the pool by a solid fence, wall or other permanent barrier. Where used on a lighting system operating at the low-voltage contact limit or less, a flush deck box shall be permitted provided that an approved potting compound is used to fill the box to prevent the entrance of moisture; and the flush deck box is located not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the inside wall of the pool.
An enclosure for a transformer, ground-fault circuit-interrupter or a similar device connected to a conduit that extends directly to a forming shell or mounting bracket of a no-niche luminaire shall be:
- Listed and labeled for the purpose, comprised of copper, brass, suitable plastic, or other approved corrosion-resistant material;
- Equipped with threaded entries or hubs or a nonmetallic hub;
- Provided with an approved seal, such as duct seal at the conduit connection, that prevents circulation of air between the conduit and the enclosures;
- Provided with electrical continuity between every connected metal conduit and the grounding terminals by means of copper, brass or other approved corrosion-resistant metal that is integral with the enclosures; and
- Located not less than 4 inches (102 mm), measured from the inside bottom of the enclosure, above the ground level or pool deck, or not less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the maximum pool water level, whichever provides the greater elevation, and shall be located not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the inside wall of the pool, except where separated from the pool by a solid fence, wall or other permanent barrier.
A cord and plug-connected pool filter pump for use with storable pools shall incorporate an approved system of double insulation or its equivalent and shall be provided with means for grounding only the internal and nonaccessible noncurrent-carrying metal parts of the appliance.
The means for grounding shall be an equipment grounding conductor run with the power-supply conductors in a flexible cord that is properly terminated in a grounding-type attachment plug having a fixed grounding contact. Cord and plug-connected pool filter pumps shall be provided with a ground-fault circuit interrupter that is an integral part of the attachment plug or located in the power supply cord within 12 inches (305 mm) of the attachment plug.
A luminaire installed in or on the wall of a storable pool shall be part of a cord and plug-connected lighting assembly. The assembly shall:
- Have a luminaire lamp that is suitable for the use at the supplied voltage;
- Have an impact-resistant polymeric lens, luminaire body, and transformer enclosure;
- Have a transformer meeting the requirements of section E4206.1 with a primary rating not over 150 volts; and
- Have no exposed metal parts.
A lighting assembly without a transformer or power supply, and with the luminaire lamp(s) operating at over the low-voltage contact limit, but not over 150 volts, shall be permitted to be cord and plug-connected where the assembly is listed as an assembly for the purpose and complies with all of the following:
- It has an impact-resistant polymeric lens and luminaire body.
- A ground-fault circuit interrupter with open neutral conductor protection is provided as an integral part of the assembly.
- The luminaire lamp is permanently connected to the ground-fault circuit interrupter with open-neutral protection.
- It complies with the requirements of Section E4206.4.
- It has no exposed metal parts.
The outlet(s) that supplies a self-contained spa or hot tub, or a packaged spa or hot tub equipment assembly, or a field-assembled spa or hot tub with a heater load of 50 amperes or less, shall be protected by a ground-fault circuit-interrupter.
A listed self-contained unit or listed packaged equipment assembly marked to indicate that integral ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection is provided for all electrical parts within the unit or assembly, including pumps, air blowers, heaters, lights, controls, sanitizer generators and wiring, shall not require that the outlet supply be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.