CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Plumbing Code 2012 (IPC 2012)

Copyright

Preface

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect/Special Waste

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps, Interceptors and Separators

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 13 Nonpotable Water Systems

Chapter 14 Referenced Standards

Appendix B Rates of Rainfall for Various Cities

Appendix D Degree Day and Design Temperatures

Appendix E Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix F Structural Safety

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary drainage systems.
Buildings in which plumbing fixtures are installed and premises having drainage piping shall be connected to a public sewer, where available, or an approved private sewage disposal system in accordance with the International Private Sewage Disposal Code.
A building having plumbing fixtures installed and intended for human habitation, occupancy or use on premises abutting on a street, alley or easement in which there is a public sewer shall have a separate connection with the sewer. Where located on the same lot, multiple buildings shall not be prohibited from connecting to a common building sewer that connects to the public sewer.
Sewage or other waste from a plumbing system that is deleterious to surface or subsurface waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any waterway unless it has first been rendered innocuous through subjection to an approved form of treatment.
Wastes detrimental to the public sewer system or to the functioning of the sewage-treatment plant shall be treated and disposed of in accordance with Section 1003 as directed by the code official.
The sanitary drainage system shall be tested in accordance with Section 312.
Direct connection of a steam exhaust, blowoff or drip pipe shall not be made with the building drainage system. Waste water where discharged into the building drainage system shall be at a temperature not greater than 140°F (60°C). Where higher temperatures exist, approved cooling methods shall be provided.
Engineered sanitary drainage systems shall conform to the provisions of Sections 316 and 714.

(Section deleted)

Above-ground soil, waste and vent pipe shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 702.1.

TABLE 702.1

ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

MATERIALSTANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS) plastic pipe in IPS
diameters, including Schedule
40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24
(PS 140); with a solid, cellular
core or composite wall
ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628;
ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
Brass pipeASTM B 43
Cast-iron pipeASTM A 74; ASTM A 888;
CISPI 301
Copper or copper-alloy pipeASTM B 42; ASTM B 302
Copper or copper-alloy tubing
(Type K, L, M or DWV)
ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88;
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
Galvanized steel pipeASTM A 53
Glass pipeASTM C 1053
Polyolefin pipeASTM F 1412;
CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic
pipe in IPS diameters, incluing
schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200),
and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or
composite wall
ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891;
ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.2
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic pipe with a 3.25-inch
O.D. and a solid, cellular
core or composite wall
ASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488
Polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF) plastic pipe
ASTM F 1673; CSA B181.3
Stainless steel drainage
systems, Types 304 and 316L
ASME A112.3.1

Underground building sanitary drainage and vent pipe shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 702.2.

TABLE 702.2

UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

MATERIALSTANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS) plastic pipe in IPS
diameters, including schedule
40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR
24 (PS 140); with a solid,
cellular core, or composite wall
ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628;
ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
Asbestos-cement pipeASTM C 428
Cast-iron pipeASTM A 74; ASTM A 888;
CISPI 301
Copper or copper-alloy tubing
(Type K, L, M or DWV)
ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88;
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
Polyolefin pipeASTM F 1412;
CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic pipe in IPS diameters,
including schedule 40, DR 22
(PS 200) and DR 24 (PS
140); with a solid, cellular
core, or composite wall
ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891;
ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.2
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic pipe with a 3.25-inch
O.D. and a solid, cellular
core, or composite wall
ASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488
Polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF) plastic pipe
ASTM F 1673;
CSA B181.3
Stainless steel drainage
systems, Type 316L
ASME A112.3.1

Building sewer pipe shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 702.3.

TABLE 702.3

BUILDING SEWER PIPE

MATERIALSTANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS) plastic pipe in IPS
diameters, including schedule
40, DR 22 (PS 200) and
DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid,
cellular core or composite
wall
ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628;
ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
(ABS) plastic pipe in sewer
and drain diameters, including
SDR 42 (PS 20), PS 35,
SDR 35 (PS 45), PS 50, PS
100, PS 140, SDR 23.5 (PS
150) and PS 200; with a solid,
cellular core or composite
wall
ASTM F 1488; ASTM D 2751
Asbestos-cement pipeASTM C 428
Cast-iron pipeASTM A 74; ASTM A 888;
CISPI 301
Concrete pipeASTM C 14; ASTM C 76;
CSA A257.1M;
CSA A257.2M
Copper or copper-alloy tubing
(Type K or L)
ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88;
ASTM B 251
Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe
(SDR-PR)
ASTM F 714
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic pipe in IPS diameters,
including schedule 40, DR 22
(PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140);
with a solid, cellular core or
composite wall
ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891;
ASTM F 1488
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic pipe in sewer and
drain diameters, including PS
25, SDR 41 (PS 28), PS 35,
SDR 35 (PS 46), PS 50, PS
100, SDR 26 (PS 115), PS
140 and PS 200; with a solid,
cellular core or composite
wall
ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488;
ASTM D 3034; CSA B181.2;
CSA B182.4
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic pipe with a 3.25-inch
O.D. and a solid, cellular core
or composite wall.
ASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488
Polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF) plastic pipe
ASTM F 1673;
CSA B181.3
Stainless steel drainage
systems, Types 304 and 316L
ASME A112.3.1
Vitrified clay pipeASTM C 4; ASTM C 700

Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping material installed and shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Table 702.4.

TABLE 702.4

PIPE FITTINGS

MATERIALSTANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene
styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in
IPS diameters
ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628;
CSA B181.1
Acrylonotrile butadiene
styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in
sewer and drain diameters
ASTM D 2751
Asbestos cementASTM C 428
Cast ironASME B 16.4; ASME B 16.12;
ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888;
CISPI 301
Copper or copper alloyASME B 16.15; ASME B 16.18;
ASME B 16.22; ASME B 16.23;
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29
GlassASTM C 1053
Gray iron and ductile ironAWWA C 110/A21.10
Malleable ironASME B 16.3
PolyolefinASTM F 1412;
CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic in IPS diameters
ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 1866
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic pipe in sewer and drain
diameters
ASTM D 3034
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
plastic pipe with a 3.25-inch O.D.
ASTM D 2949
Polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF) plastic pipe
ASTM F 1673;
CSA B181.3
Stainless steel drainage
systems, Types 304 and 316L
ASME A 112.3.1
SteelASME B 16.9; ASME B 16.11;
ASME B 16.28
Vitrified clayASTM C 700

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

A chemical waste system shall be completely separated from the sanitary drainage system. The chemical waste shall be treated in accordance with Section 803.2 before discharging to the sanitary drainage system. Separate drainage systems for chemical wastes and vent pipes shall be of an approved material that is resistant to corrosion and degradation for the concentrations of chemicals involved.
Lead bends and traps shall not be less than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) wall thickness.
Where the building sewer is installed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the water service, the installation shall comply with the provisions of Section 603.2.
Where a building sewer or building drain is installed on filled or unstable ground, the drainage pipe shall conform to one of the standards for ABS plastic pipe, cast-iron pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, or PVC plastic pipe listed in Table 702.3.
Where separate systems of sanitary drainage and storm drainage are installed in the same property, the sanitary and storm building sewers or drains shall be permitted to be laid side by side in one trench.
Existing building sewers and drains shall connect with new building sewer and drainage systems only where found by examination and test to conform to the new system in quality of material. The code official shall notify the owner to make the changes necessary to conform to this code.
Cleanouts on building sewers shall be located as set forth in Section 708.
Nonmetallic sanitary sewer piping that discharges to public systems shall be locatable. An insulated copper tracer wire, 18 AWG minimum in size and suitable for direct burial or an equivalent product, shall be utilized. The wire shall be installed in the same trench as the sewer within 12 inches (305 mm) of the pipe and shall be installed to within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the building wall to the point where the building sewer intersects with the public system. At a minimum, one end of the wire shall terminate above grade in an accessible location that is resistant to physical damage, such as with a cleanout or at the building wall.

Horizontal drainage piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform slopes. The slope of a horizontal drainage pipe shall be not less than that indicated in Table 704.1.

TABLE 704.1

SLOPE OF HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE PIPE

SIZE
(inches)
MINIMUM SLOPE
(inch per foot)
21/2 or less1/4
3 to 61/8
8 or larger1/16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m.

The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) water closet connection shall not be considered as a reduction in size.
Horizontal branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the stack. Horizontal branches shall connect to horizontal stack offsets at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the upper stack.
Drainage piping for future fixtures shall terminate with an approved cap or plug.
This section contains provisions applicable to joints specific to sanitary drainage piping.
Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.2.1 through 705.2.3.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall be installed only in underground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 or CSA B181.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between asbestos-cement pipe or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring conforming to ASTM D 1869.
Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.4.1 through 705.4.4.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal.
Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.5.1 through 705.5.3.
Joints for hub and spigot pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead shall be poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25 mm). The lead shall not recede more than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be caulked tight. Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and acid-proof cement shall be permitted.
Compression gaskets for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to ASTM C 564 and shall be tested to ASTM C 1563. Gaskets shall be compressed when the pipe is fully inserted.
Mechanical joint couplings for hubless pipe and fittings shall comply with CISPI 310, ASTM C 1277 or ASTM C 1540. The elastomeric sealing sleeve shall conform to ASTM C 564 or CSA B602 and shall be provided with a center stop. Mechanical joint couplings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joints between concrete pipe and fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1173, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602.
Joints between coextruded composite pipe with an ABS outer layer or ABS fittings shall comply with Sections 705.7.1 and 705.7.2.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 or CSA B181.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Joints between coextruded composite pipe with a PVC outer layer or PVC fittings shall comply with Sections 705.8.1 and 705.8.2.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 3212. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B137.3, CSA B181.2 or CSA B182.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.9.1 through 705.9.5.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Solder joints shall be made in accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.10.1 through 705.10.3.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Solder joints shall be made in accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.
Glass-to-glass connections shall be made with a bolted compression-type stainless steel (300 series) coupling with contoured acid-resistant elastomeric compression ring and a fluorocarbon polymer inner seal ring; or with caulked joints in accordance with Section 705.11.1.
Lead-caulked joints for hub and spigot soil pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp and filled with molten lead not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in depth and not to recede more than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) below the rim of the hub. Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and acidproof cement shall be permitted.
Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.12.1 and 705.12.2.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between lead pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.13.1 and 705.13.2.
Burned joints shall be uniformly fused together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the joint shall be at least as thick as the lead being joined. The filler metal shall be of the same material as the pipe.
Joints shall be fully wiped, with an exposed surface on each side of the joint not less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm). The joint shall be not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick at the thickest point.
Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.14.1 through 705.14.3.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B137.3, CSA B181.2 or CSA B182.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between vitrified clay pipe or fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1173 or CSA B602.
Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and fittings shall be underground and shall comply with Section 705.16.1 or 705.16.2.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be cut, heated to melting temperature and joined using tools specifically designed for the operation. Joints shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657 and the manufacturer’s instructions.
Mechanical joints in drainage piping shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between polyolefin plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections 705.17.1 and 705.17.2.
Heat-fusion joints for polyolefin pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polyolefin fittings or electrofusion polyolefin fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1412 or CSA B181.3.
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between polyvinylidene plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections 705.18.1 and 705.18.2.
Heat-fusion joints for polyvinylidene fluoride pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polyvinylidene fluoride fittings or electrofusion polyvinylidene fittings and couplings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1673.
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1461. Connectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1440, ASTM D 1869, ASTM F 477, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602, or as required in Sections 705.19.1 through 705.19.7. Joints between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a brass ferrule or compression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing shall be soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and the ferrule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass converter fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe.
Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or brass pipe shall be made by either caulked or threaded joints or with an approved adapter fitting.
Joints between different types of plastic pipe or between plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.
Joints between lead pipe and other piping material shall be made by a wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or bushing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting.
Joints between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made with adapters having a TFE seal and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and other piping materials shall be made with approved mechanical couplings.
Slip joints shall comply with Section 405.8.

Ferrules shall be of red brass and shall be in accordance with Table 705.21.

TABLE 705.21

CAULKING FERRULE SPECIFICATIONS

PIPE SIZES
(inches)
INSIDE
DIAMETER
(inches)
LENGTH
(inches)
MINIMUM WEIGHT
EACH
221/441/21 pound
331/441/21 pound 12 ounces
441/441/22 pounds 8 ounces

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

Soldering bushings shall be of red brass and shall be in accordance with Table 705.22.

TABLE 705.22

SOLDERING BUSHING SPECIFICATIONS

PIPE SIZES
(inches)
MINIMUM WEIGHT
EACH
11/46 ounces
11/28 ounces
214 ounces
21/21 pound 6 ounces
32 pounds
43 pounds 8 ounces

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

O-ring joints for stainless steel drainage systems shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal.
All connections and changes in direction of the sanitary drainage system shall be made with approved drainage fittings. Connections between drainage piping and fixtures shall conform to Section 405.
The fittings shall not have ledges, shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed drainage type. This section shall not be applicable to tubular waste fittings used to convey vertical flow upstream of the trap seal liquid level of a fixture trap.

Fittings shall be installed to guide sewage and waste in the direction of flow. Change in direction shall be made by fittings installed in accordance with Table 706.3. Change in direction by combination fittings, side inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table 706.3 based on the pattern of flow created by the fitting. Double sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the discharge of back-to-back water closets and fixtures or appliances with pumping action discharge.

Exception: Back-to-back water closet connections to double sanitary tees shall be permitted where the horizontal developed length between the outlet of the water closet and the connection to the double sanitary tee pattern is 18 inches (457 mm) or greater.

TABLE 706.3

FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION

TYPE OF FITTING
PATTERN
CHANGE IN DIRECTION
Horizontal to
vertical
Vertical to
horizontal
Horizontal to
horizontal
Sixteenth bendXXX
Eighth bendXXX
Sixth bendXXX
Quarter bendXXaXa
Short sweepXXa,bXa
Long sweepXXX
Sanitary teeXc
WyeXXX
Combination wyeand eighth bendXXX

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain.
  2. Three inches or larger.
  3. For a limitation on double sanitary tees, see Section 706.3.
Heel-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection, except where the quarter bend serves a water closet. A low-heel inlet shall not be used as a wet-vented connection. Side-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection for drainage, wet venting and stack venting arrangements.

The following types of joints and connections shall be prohibited:

  1. Cement or concrete joints.
  2. Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints.
  3. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific installation.
  4. Joints between different diameter pipes made with elastomeric rolling O-rings.
  5. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic pipe.
  6. Saddle-type fittings.
This section shall govern the size, location, installation and maintenance of drainage pipe cleanouts.
Cleanout plugs shall be brass or plastic, or other approved materials. Brass cleanout plugs shall be utilized with metallic drain, waste and vent piping only, and shall conform to ASTM A 74, ASME A112.3.1 or ASME A112.36.2M. Cleanouts with plate-style access covers shall be fitted with corrosion-resisting fasteners. Plastic cleanout plugs shall conform to the requirements of Section 702.4. Plugs shall have raised square or countersunk square heads. Countersunk heads shall be installed where raised heads are a trip hazard. Cleanout plugs with borosilicate glass systems shall be of borosilicate glass.
Cleanouts shall be located in accordance with Sections 708.3.1 through 708.3.6.
All horizontal drains shall be provided with cleanouts located not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) apart.
Building sewers shall be provided with cleanouts located not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) apart measured from the upstream entrance of the cleanout. For building sewers 8 inches (203 mm) and larger, manholes shall be provided and located not more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from the junction of the building drain and building sewer, at each change in direction and at intervals of not more than 400 feet (122 m) apart. Manholes and manhole covers shall be of an approved type.
Cleanouts shall be installed at each change of direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) in the building sewer, building drain and horizontal waste or soil lines. Where more than one change of direction occurs in a run of piping, only one cleanout shall be required for each 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of the drainage piping.
A cleanout shall be provided at the base of each waste or soil stack.
There shall be a cleanout near the junction of the building drain and the building sewer. The cleanout shall be either inside or outside the building wall and shall be brought up to the finished ground level or to the basement floor level. An approved two-way cleanout is allowed to be used at this location to serve as a required cleanout for both the building drain and building sewer. The cleanout at the junction of the building drain and building sewer shall not be required if the cleanout on a 3-inch (76 mm) or larger diameter soil stack is located within a developed length of 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building drain and building sewer connection. The minimum size of the cleanout at the junction of the building drain and building sewer shall comply with Section 708.7.
Manholes serving a building drain shall have secured gas-tight covers and shall be located in accordance with Section 708.3.2.
Cleanouts on concealed piping or piping under a floor slab or in a crawl space of less than 24 inches (610 mm) in height or a plenum shall be extended through and terminate flush with the finished wall, floor or ground surface or shall be extended to the outside of the building. Cleanout plugs shall not be covered with cement, plaster or any other permanent finish material. Where it is necessary to conceal a cleanout or to terminate a cleanout in an area subject to vehicular traffic, the covering plate, access door or cleanout shall be of an approved type designed and installed for this purpose.
Every cleanout shall be installed to open to allow cleaning in the direction of the flow of the drainage pipe or at right angles thereto.
Cleanout openings shall not be utilized for the installation of new fixtures, except where approved and where another cleanout of equal access and capacity is provided.

Cleanouts shall be the same nominal size as the pipe they serve up to 4 inches (102 mm). For pipes larger than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal size, the size of the cleanout shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. “P” trap connections with slip joints or ground joint connections, or stack cleanouts that are not more than one pipe diameter smaller than the drain served, shall be permitted.
  2. Cast-iron cleanout sizing shall be in accordance with referenced standards in Table 702.4, ASTM A 74 for hub and spigot fittings or ASTM A 888 or CISPI 301 for hubless fittings.
Cleanouts on 6-inch (153 mm) and smaller pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 18 inches (457 mm) for rodding. Cleanouts on 8-inch (203 mm) and larger pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) for rodding.
Access shall be provided to all cleanouts.

Drainage fixture unit values as given in Table 709.1 designate the relative load weight of different kinds of fixtures that shall be employed in estimating the total load carried by a soil or waste pipe, and shall be used in connection with Tables 710.1(1) and 710.1(2) of sizes for soil, waste and vent pipes for which the permissible load is given in terms of fixture units.

TABLE 709.1

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURES AND GROUPS

FIXTURE TYPEDRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT
VALUE AS LOAD FACTORS
MINIMUM SIZE OF TRAP
(inches)
Automatic clothes washers, commerciala,g32
Automatic clothes washers, residentialg22
Bathroom group as defined in Section 202
(1.6 gpf water closet)f
5
Bathroom group as defined in Section 202
(water closet flushing greater than 1.6 gpf)f
6
Bathtubb (with or without overhead shower or whirpool attachments)211/2
Bidet111/4
Combination sink and tray211/2
Dental lavatory111/4
Dental unit or cuspidor111/4
Dishwashing machinec, domestic211/2
Drinking fountain1/211/4
Emergency floor drain02
Floor drainsh2h2
Floor sinksNote h2
Kitchen sink, domestic211/2
Kitchen sink, domestic with food waste grinder and/or dishwasher211/2
Laundry tray (1 or 2 compartments)211/2
Lavatory111/4
Shower (based on the total flow rate through showerheads and body sprays)
Flow rate:
5.7 gpm or less
Greater than 5.7 gpm to 12.3 gpm
Greater than 12.3 gpm to 25.8 gpm
Greater than 25.8 gpm to 55.6 gpm
2
3
5
6
11/2
2
3
4
Service sink211/2
Sink211/2
Urinal4Note d
Urinal, 1 gallon per flush or less2eNote d
Urinal, nonwater supplied1/2Note d
Wash sink (circular or multiple) each set of faucets211/2
Water closet, flushometer tank, public or private4eNote d
Water closet, private (1.6 gpf)3eNote d
Water closet, private (flushing greater than 1.6 gpf)4eNote d
Water closet, public (1.6 gpf)4eNote d
Water closet, public (flushing greater than 1.6 gpf)6eNote d

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, gpf = gallon per flushing cycle, gpm = gallon per minute.

  1. For traps larger than 3 inches, use Table 709.2.
  2. A showerhead over a bathtub or whirlpool bathtub attachment does not increase the drainage fixture unit value.
  3. See Sections 709.2 through 709.4.1 for methods of computing unit value of fixtures not listed in this table or for rating of devices with intermittent flows.
  4. Trap size shall be consistent with the fixture outlet size.
  5. For the purpose of computing loads on building drains and sewers, water closets and urinals shall not be rated at a lower drainage fixture unit unless the lower values are confirmed by testing.
  6. For fixtures added to a bathroom group, add the dfu value of those additional fixtures to the bathroom group fixture count.
  7. See Section 406.3 for sizing requirements for fixture drain, branch drain, and drainage stack for an automatic clothes washer standpipe.
  8. See Sections 709.4 and 709.4.1.

Fixtures not listed in Table 709.1 shall have a drainage fixture unit load based on the outlet size of the fixture in accordance with Table 709.2. The minimum trap size for unlisted fixtures shall be the size of the drainage outlet but not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm).

TABLE 709.2

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURE DRAINS OR TRAPS

FIXTURE DRAIN OR TRAP SIZE
(inches)
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT
VALUE
11/41
11/22
23
21/24
35
46

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

Drainage fixture unit values for continuous and semicontinuous flow into a drainage system shall be computed on the basis that 1 gpm (0.06 L/s) of flow is equivalent to two fixture units.
The drainage fixture unit load of an indirect waste receptor receiving the discharge of indirectly connected fixtures shall be the sum of the drainage fixture unit values of the fixtures that discharge to the receptor, but not less than the drainage fixture unit value given for the indirect waste receptor in Table 709.1 or 709.2.
Where waste receptors such as floor drains, floor sinks and hub drains receive only clear-water waste from display cases, refrigerated display cases, ice bins, coolers and freezers, such receptors shall have a drainage fixture unit value of one-half.

The maximum number of drainage fixture units connected to a given size of building sewer, building drain or horizontal branch of the building drain shall be determined using Table 710.1(1). The maximum number of drainage fixture units connected to a given size of horizontal branch or vertical soil or waste stack shall be determined using Table 710.1(2).

TABLE 710.1(1)

BUILDING DRAINS AND SEWERS

DIAMETER OF
PIPE (inches)
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS
CONNECTED TO ANY PORTION OF THE BUILDING
DRAIN OR THE BUILDING SEWER, INCLUDING
BRANCHES OF THE BUILDING DRAINa
Slope per foot
1/16 inch1/8 inch1/4 inch1/2 inch
11/411
11/233
22126
21/22431
3364250
4180216250
5390480575
67008401,000
81,4001,6001,9202,300
102,5002,9003,5004,200
123,9004,6005,6006,700
157,0008,30010,00012,000

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m.

  1. The minimum size of any building drain serving a water closet shall be 3 inches.

TABLE 710.1(2)

HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCHES AND STACKSa

DIAMETER OF
PIPE (inches)
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS
(dfu)
Total for
horizontal
branch
Stacksb
Total
discharge
into one
branch
interval
Total for stack
of three
branch
Intervals or
less
Total for stack
greater than
three branch
intervals
11/23248
2661024
21/21292042
320204872
416090240500
53602005401,100
66203509601,900
81,4006002,2003,600
102,5001,0003,8005,600
123,9001,5006,0008,400
157,000Note cNote cNote c

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Does not include branches of the building drain. Refer to Table 710.1(1).
  2. Stacks shall be sized based on the total accumulated connected load at each story or branch interval. As the total accumulated connected load decreases, stacks are permitted to be reduced in size. Stack diameters shall not be reduced to less than one-half of the diameter of the largest stack size required.
  3. Sizing load based on design criteria.
Horizontal stack offsets shall be sized as required for building drains in accordance with Table 710.1(1), except as required by Section 711.3.
Vertical stack offsets shall be sized as required for straight stacks in accordance with Table 710.1(2), except where required to be sized as a building drain in accordance with Section 711.1.1.
Where provision is made for the future installation of fixtures, those provided for shall be considered in determining the required sizes of drain pipes.
If a horizontal branch connects to the stack within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below a vertical stack offset, and the offset is located more than four branch intervals below the top of the stack, the offset shall be vented in accordance with Section 906.
Vents for vertical offsets required by Section 711.1 shall not be required where the stack and its offset are sized as a building drain [see Table 710.1(1)].

A stack with a horizontal offset located more than four branch intervals below the top of the stack shall be vented in accordance with Section 907 and sized as follows:

  1. The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as for a vertical stack based on the total number of drainage fixture units above the offset.
  2. The offset shall be sized in accordance with Section 710.1.1.
  3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as for the offset or based on the total number of drainage fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger [see Table 710.1(2), Column 5].
Vents for horizontal stack offsets required by Section 711.2 shall not be required where the stack and its offset are one pipe size larger than required for a building drain [see Table 710.1(1)] and the entire stack and offset are not less in cross-sectional area than that required for a straight stack plus the area of an offset vent as provided for in Section 907.
Where a vertical offset occurs in a soil or waste stack below the lowest horizontal branch, a change in diameter of the stack because of the offset shall not be required. If a horizontal offset occurs in a soil or waste stack below the lowest horizontal branch, the required diameter of the offset and the stack below it shall be determined as for a building drain in accordance with Table 710.1(1).
Building subdrains that cannot be discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged into a tightly covered and vented sump from which the liquid shall be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drainage system by automatic pumping equipment or other approved method. In other than existing structures, the sump shall not receive drainage from any piping within the building capable of being discharged by gravity to the building sewer.
A check valve and a full open valve located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be installed in the pump or ejector discharge piping between the pump or ejector and the gravity drainage system. Access shall be provided to such valves. Such valves shall be located above the sump cover required by Section 712.1 or, where the discharge pipe from the ejector is below grade, the valves shall be accessibly located outside the sump below grade in an access pit with a removable access cover.
The sump pump, pit and discharge piping shall conform to the requirements of Sections 712.3.1 through 712.3.5.
The sump pump capacity and head shall be appropriate to anticipated use requirements.
The sump pit shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in diameter and not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in depth, unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and located such that all drainage flows into the pit by gravity. The sump pit shall be constructed of tile, concrete, steel, plastic or other approved materials. The pit bottom shall be solid and provide permanent support for the pump. The sump pit shall be fitted with a gas-tight removable cover adequate to support anticipated loads in the area of use. The sump pit shall be vented in accordance with Chapter 9.
Discharge pipe and fittings serving sump pumps and ejectors shall be constructed of materials in accordance with Sections 712.3.3.1 and 712.3.3.2 and shall be approved.
Pipe and fitting materials shall be constructed of brass, copper, CPVC, ductile iron, PE, or PVC.
Pipe and fittings shall be rated for the maximum system operating pressure and temperature. Pipe fitting materials shall be compatible with the pipe material. Where pipe and fittings are buried in the earth, they shall be suitable for burial.
The effluent level control shall be adjusted and maintained to at all times prevent the effluent in the sump from rising to within 2 inches (51 mm) of the invert of the gravity drain inlet into the sump.
Pumps connected to the drainage system shall connect to a building sewer, building drain, soil stack, waste stack or horizontal branch drain. Where the discharge line connects into horizontal drainage piping, the connection shall be made through a wye fitting into the top of the drainage piping and such wye fitting shall be located not less than 10 pipe diameters from the base of any soil stack, waste stack or fixture drain.
A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall automatically discharge the contents of the sump to the building drainage system.
Macerating toilet systems shall comply with CSA B45.9 or ASME A112.3.4 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall have the capacity and head for the application requirements. Pumps or ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 2 inches (51 mm). Other pumps or ejectors shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 1 inch (25.4 mm). The capacity of a pump or ejector based on the diameter of the discharge pipe shall be not less than that indicated in Table 712.4.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Grinder pumps or grinder ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets shall have a discharge opening of not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm).
  2. Macerating toilet assemblies that serve single water closets shall have a discharge opening of not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm).

TABLE 712.4.2

MINIMUM CAPACITY OF SEWAGE PUMP OR SEWAGE EJECTOR

DIAMETER OF THE DISCHARGE
PIPE (inches)
CAPACITY OF PUMP OR EJECTOR
(gpm)
221
21/230
346

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

This section shall govern those aspects of health care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform to this section in addition to the other requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall apply to the special devices and equipment installed and maintained in the following occupancies: nursing homes; homes for the aged; orphanages; infirmaries; first aid stations; psychiatric facilities; clinics; professional offices of dentists and doctors; mortuaries; educational facilities; surgery, dentistry, research and testing laboratories; establishments manufacturing pharmaceutical drugs and medicines; and other structures with similar apparatus and equipment classified as plumbing.
Bedpan washers and clinical sinks shall connect to the drainage and vent system in accordance with the requirements for a water closet. Bedpan washers shall also connect to a local vent.
All sterilizers, steamers and condensers shall discharge to the drainage through an indirect waste pipe by means of an air gap. Where a battery of not more than three sterilizers discharges to an individual receptor, the distance between the receptor and a sterilizer shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). The indirect waste pipe on a bedpan steamer shall be trapped.
Ready access shall be provided to vacuum system station receptacles. Such receptacles shall be built into cabinets or recesses and shall be visible.
Vacuum (fluid suction) systems intended for collecting, removing and disposing of blood, pus or other fluids by the bottle system shall be provided with receptacles equipped with an overflow prevention device at each vacuum outlet station.
All central vacuum (fluid suction) systems shall provide continuous service. Systems equipped with collecting or control tanks shall provide for draining and cleaning of the tanks while the system is in operation. In hospitals, the system shall be connected to the emergency power system. The exhausts from a vacuum pump serving a vacuum (fluid suction) system shall discharge separately to open air above the roof.
Where the waste from a central vacuum (fluid suction) system of the barometric-lag, collection-tank or bottle-disposal type is connected to the drainage system, the waste shall be directly connected to the sanitary drainage system through a trapped waste.
The piping of a central vacuum (fluid suction) system shall be of corrosion-resistant material with a smooth interior surface. A branch shall not be less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) nominal pipe size for one outlet and shall be sized in accordance with the number of vacuum outlets. A main shall not be less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal pipe size. The pipe sizing shall be increased in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions as stations are increased.
The velocity of airflow in a central vacuum (fluid suction) system shall be less than 5,000 feet per minute (25 m/s).
Connections between local vents serving bedpan washers or sterilizer vents serving sterilizing apparatus and normal sanitary plumbing systems are prohibited. Only one type of apparatus shall be served by a local vent.
Bedpan washers shall be vented to open air above the roof by means of one or more local vents. The local vent for a bedpan washer shall not be less than a 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) pipe. A local vent serving a single bedpan washer is permitted to drain to the fixture served.
Where bedpan washers are located above each other on more than one floor, a local vent stack is permitted to be installed to receive the local vent on the various floors. Not more than three bedpan washers shall be connected to a 2-inch (51 mm) local vent stack, not more than six to a 3-inch (76 mm) local vent stack and not more than 12 to a 4-inch (102 mm) local vent stack. In multiple installations, the connections between a bedpan washer local vent and a local vent stack shall be made with tee or tee-wye sanitary pattern drainage fittings installed in an upright position.
The bottom of the local vent stack, except where serving only one bedpan washer, shall be drained by means of a trapped and vented waste connection to the sanitary drainage system. The trap and waste shall be the same size as the local vent stack.
A water supply pipe not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in diameter shall be taken from the flush supply of each bedpan washer on the discharge or fixture side of the vacuum breaker, shall be trapped to form not less than a 3-inch (76 mm) water seal, and shall be connected to the local vent stack on each floor. The water supply shall be installed so as to provide a supply of water to the local vent stack for cleansing and drain trap seal maintenance each time a bedpan washer is flushed.
Multiple installations of pressure and nonpressure sterilizers shall have the vent connections to the sterilizer vent stack made by means of inverted wye fittings. Access shall be provided to vent connections for the purpose of inspection and maintenance.
The connection between sterilizer vent or exhaust openings and the sterilizer vent stack shall be designed and installed to drain to the funnel or basket-type waste fitting. In multiple installations, the sterilizer vent stack shall be drained separately to the lowest sterilizer funnel or basket-type waste fitting or receptor.
Sterilizer vent stack sizes shall comply with Sections 713.11.1 through 713.11.4.

The minimum size of a sterilizer vent serving a bedpan steamer shall be 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. Multiple installations shall be sized in accordance with Table 713.11.1.

TABLE 713.11.1

STACK SIZES FOR BEDPAN STEAMERS AND BOILING-TYPE STERILIZERS (Number of Connections of Various Sizes Permitted to Various-sized Sterilizer Vent Stacks)

STACK SIZE
(inches)
CONNECTION SIZE
11/2"2"
11/2a1or0
2a2or1
2b1and1
3a4or2
3b2and2
4a8or4
4b4and4

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Total of each size.
  2. Combination of sizes.
The size of a sterilizer vent stack shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter where serving a utensil sterilizer and not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter where serving an instrument sterilizer. Combinations of boiling-type sterilizer vent connections shall be sized in accordance with Table 713.11.1.

Pressure sterilizer vent stacks shall be 21/2 inches (64 mm) minimum. Those serving combinations of pressure sterilizer exhaust connections shall be sized in accordance with Table 713.11.3.

TABLE 713.11.3

STACK SIZES FOR PRESSURE STERILIZERS (Number of Connections of Various Sizes Permitted To Various-sized Vent Stacks)

STACK SIZE
(inches)
CONNECTION SIZE
3/4"1"11/4"11/2"
11/2a3 or2 or1
11/2b2 and1
2a6 or3 or2 or1
2b3 and2
2b2 and1 and1
2b1 and1 and1
3a15 or7 or5 or3
3b1 and1 and 5 and2 and21

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

  1. Total of each size.
  2. Combination of sizes.
The diameter of a sterilizer vent stack serving an instrument washer sterilizer shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm). Not more than two sterilizers shall be installed on a 2-inch (51 mm) stack, and not more than four sterilizers shall be installed on a 3-inch (76 mm) stack.
The sizing, design and layout of the drainage system shall be permitted to be designed by approved computer design methods.
The load shall be computed from the simultaneous or sequential discharge conditions from fixtures, appurtenances and appliances or the peak usage design condition.
The discharge profiles for flow rates versus time from fixtures and appliances shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
Pipe shall be sized to prevent full-bore flow.
Pipe size calculations shall be conducted with the pipe wall roughness factor (ks), in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and as modified for aging roughness factors with deposits and corrosion.
Horizontal drainage piping shall be designed and installed at slopes in accordance with Table 704.1.
Where plumbing fixtures are installed on a floor with a finished floor elevation below the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer, such fixtures shall be protected by a backwater valve installed in the building drain, or horizontal branch serving such fixtures. Plumbing fixtures installed on a floor with a finished floor elevation above the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the publicsewer shall not discharge through a backwater valve.
All bearing parts of backwater valves shall be of corrosion-resistant material. Backwater valves shall comply with ASME A112.14.1, CSA B181.1 or CSA B181.2.
Backwater valves shall be so constructed as to provide a mechanical seal against backflow.
Backwater valves, when fully opened, shall have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they are installed.
Backwater valves shall be installed so that access is provided to the working parts for service and repair.
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