CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Plumbing Code 2012 (IPC 2012)

Copyright

Preface

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings

Chapter 5 Water Heaters

Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 8 Indirect/Special Waste

Chapter 9 Vents

Chapter 10 Traps, Interceptors and Separators

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage

Chapter 12 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 13 Nonpotable Water Systems

Chapter 14 Referenced Standards

Appendix B Rates of Rainfall for Various Cities

Appendix D Degree Day and Design Temperatures

Appendix E Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix F Structural Safety

The provisions of Chapter 13 shall govern the materials, design, construction, and installation of nonpotable water systems subject to this code. In addition to the applicable provision of this section, reclaimed water shall comply with the requirements of Section 1304.
All portions of nonpotable water systems subject to this code shall be constructed using the same standards and requirements for the potable water systems or drainage systems as provided for in this code unless otherwise specified in this chapter.
Makeup water shall be provided for all nonpotable water supply systems. The makeup water system shall be designed and installed to provide supply of water in the amounts and at the pressures specified in this code. The makeup water supply shall be potable and be protected against backflow in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 608.
Potable water shall be provided as makeup water for reclaimed water systems. Nonpotable water shall be permitted to serve as makeup water for gray water and rainwater systems.
A full-open valve shall be provided on the makeup water supply line.
Makeup water systems shall be fitted with a warning mechanism that alerts the user to a failure of the inlet control valve to close correctly. The alarm shall activate before the water within the storage tank begins to discharge into the overflow system.
Nonpotable water distribution systems shall be designed and sized for peak demand in accordance with approved engineering practice methods that comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 6.

All nonpotable water outlets, other than water closets and urinals, such as hose connections, open ended pipes, and faucets shall be identified at the point of use for each outlet with signage that reads as follows: “Nonpotable water is utilized for (insert application name). Caution: nonpotable water. DO NOT DRINK.” The words shall be legibly and indelibly printed on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant waterproof material or shall be indelibly printed on the fixture. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inches (12.7 mm) in height and in colors in contrast to the background on which they are applied. The pictograph shown in Figure 1301.4 shall appear on the signage required by this section.

FIGURE 1301.4

Pictograph DO NOT DRINK

Where a potable water supply system is connected to a nonpotable water system, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 608.
Where a nonpotable water system is connected and supplies water to another nonpotable water system, the nonpotable water system that supplies water shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 608.
Piping, plumbing components, and materials used in the nonpotable water drainage and distribution systems shall be approved for the intended application and compatible with the water and any disinfection or treatment systems used.
Nonpotable water systems shall be protected to prevent the entrance of insects and vermin into storage and piping systems. Screen materials shall be compatible with system material and shall not promote corrosion of system components.
Nonpotable water systems shall be protected from freezing in accordance with the applicable provisions of Chapter 3.
Nonpotable water storage tanks shall be approved for the intended application and comply with Sections 1301.10.1 through 1301.10.12.
The holding capacity of storage tanks shall be sized for the intended use.
Storage tank inlets shall be designed to introduce water into the tank and avoid agitating the contents of the storage tank. The water supply to storage tanks shall be controlled by fill valves or other automatic supply valves designed to stop the flow of incoming water before the tank contents reach the overflow pipes.
Outlets shall be located at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the bottom of the storage tank and shall not skim water from the surface.
Storage tanks shall be constructed of material compatible with treatment systems used to treat water. Above grade storage vessels shall be constructed using opaque, UV-resistant materials such as tinted plastic, lined metal, concrete, or wood or painted to prevent algae growth. Above grade storage tanks shall be protected from direct sunlight unless their design specifically incorporates the use of the sunlight heat transfer. Wooden storage tanks shall be provided with a flexible liner. Storage tanks and their manholes shall not be located directly under soil or waste piping or sources of contamination.
Storage tanks shall be supported on a firm base capable of withstanding the storage tank’s weight when filled to capacity. Storage tanks shall be supported in accordance with the applicable provisions of the International Building Code.
Where the soil can become saturated, an underground storage tank shall be ballasted, or otherwise secured, to prevent the effects of buoyancy. The combined weight of the tank and hold down ballast shall meet or exceed the buoyancy force of the tank. Where the installation requires a foundation, the foundation shall be flat and shall be designed to support the storage tank weight when full, consistent with the bearing capability of adjacent soil.
Where installed below grade, storage tank installations shall be designed to withstand earth and surface structural loads without damage.
The storage tank shall be equipped with an overflow pipe having a diameter not less than that shown in Table 606.5.4. The overflow outlet shall discharge at a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the roof or roof drain, floor or floor drain, or over an open water-supplied fixture. The overflow outlet shall terminate through a check valve. Overflow pipes shall not be directed on walkways. The overflow drain shall not be equipped with a shutoff valve. A minimum of one cleanout shall be provided on each overflow pipe in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 708.

A minimum of one access opening shall be provided to allow inspection and cleaning of the tank interior. Access openings shall have an approved locking device or other approved method of securing access. Below grade storage tanks, located outside of the building, shall be provided with either a manhole not less than 24 inches (610 mm) square or a manhole with an inside diameter not less than 24 inches (610 mm). The design and installation of access openings shall prohibit surface water from entering the tank. Each manhole cover shall have an approved locking device or other approved method of securing access.

Exception: Storage tanks under 800 gallons (3028 L) in volume installed below grade shall not be required to be equipped with a manhole, but shall have an access opening not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter to allow inspection and cleaning of the tank interior.

Storage tanks shall be vented. Vents shall not be connected to sanitary drainage system. Vents shall be at least equal in size to the internal diameter of the drainage inlet pipe or pipes connected to the tank. Where installed at grade, vents shall be protected from contamination by means of a U-bend installed with the opening directed downward. Vent outlets shall extend a minimum of 12 inches (304.8 mm) above grade, or as necessary to prevent surface water from entering the storage tank. Vent openings shall be protected against the entrance of vermin and insects. Vents serving gray water tanks shall terminate in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 903 and 1301.8.
Where drains are provided they shall be located at the lowest point of the storage tank. The tank drain pipe shall discharge as required for overflow pipes and shall not be smaller in size than specified in Table 606.5.7. A minimum of one cleanout shall be provided on each drain pipe in accordance with Section 708.
Each nonpotable water storage tank shall be labeled with its rated capacity and the location of the upstream bypass valve. Underground and otherwise concealed storage tanks shall be labeled at all access points. The label shall read: “CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER – DO NOT DRINK.” Where an opening is provided that could allow the entry of personnel, the opening shall be marked with the words: “DANGER – CONFINED SPACE.” Markings shall be indelibly printed on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant waterproof material mounted on the tank or shall be indelibly printed on the tank. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inches (12.7 mm) in height and shall be of a color in contrast with the background on which they are applied.

Storage tanks shall be tested in accordance with the following:

  1. Storage tanks shall be filled with water to the overflow line prior to and during inspection. All seams and joints shall be left exposed and the tank shall remain watertight without leakage for a period of 24 hours.
  2. After 24 hours, supplemental water shall be introduced for a period of 15 minutes to verify proper drainage of the overflow system and verify that there are no leaks.
  3. Following a successful test of the overflow, the water level in the tank shall be reduced to a level that is at 2 inches (50.8 mm) below the makeup water offset point. The tank drain shall be observed for proper operation. The makeup water system shall be observed for proper operation, and successful automatic shutoff of the system at the refill threshold shall be verified. Water shall not be drained from the overflow at any time during the refill test.
  4. Air tests shall be permitted in lieu of water testing as recommended by the tank manufacturer or the tank standard.
Storage tanks shall meet the applicable structural strength requirements of the International Building Code.

Underground nonpotable water system piping shall be horizontally separated from the building sewer and potable water piping by 5 feet (1524 m) of undisturbed or compacted earth. Nonpotable water system piping shall not be located in, under, or above sewage systems cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drainage fields, or seepage pits. Buried nonpotable system piping shall comply with the requirements of this code for the piping material installed.

Exceptions:

  1. The required separation distance shall not apply where the bottom of the nonpotable water pipe within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the sewer is equal to or greater than 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point of the sewer and the pipe materials conform to Table 702.3.
  2. The required separation distance shall not apply where the bottom of the potable water service pipe within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the nonpotable water pipe is a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point of the nonpotable water pipe and the pipe materials comply with the requirements of Table 605.4.
  3. Nonpotable water pipe is permitted to be located in the same trench with building sewer piping, provided that such sewer piping is constructed of materials that comply with the requirements of Table 702.2.
  4. The required separation distance shall not apply where a nonpotable water pipe crosses a sewer pipe, provided that the pipe is sleeved to at least 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the sewer pipe centerline on both sides of such crossing with pipe materials that comply with Table 702.2.
  5. The required separation distance shall not apply where a potable water service pipe crosses a nonpotable water pipe provided that the potable water service pipe is sleeved for a distance of at least 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the centerline of the nonpotable pipe on both sides of such crossing with pipe materials that comply with Table 702.2.
Sillcocks, hose bibs, wall hydrants, yard hydrants, and other outdoor outlets that are supplied by nonpotable water shall be located in a locked vault or shall be operable only by means of a removable key.
Nonpotable drainage and vent pipe and fittings shall comply with the applicable material standards and installation requirements in accordance with provisions of Chapter 7.
Identification of nonpotable drainage and vent piping shall not be required.
Mechanical equipment, including pumps, valves, and filters, shall be accessible and removable in order to perform repair, maintenance, and cleaning. The minimum flow rate and flow pressure delivered by the pumping system shall be designed for the intended application in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 604.
Where the water pressure supplied by the pumping system exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) static, a pressure-reducing valve shall be installed to reduce the pressure in the nonpotable water distribution system piping to 80 psi (552 kPa) static or less. Pressure-reducing valves shall be specified and installed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 604.8.
Distribution piping utilized in nonpotable water stems shall comply with Sections 1301.16.1 through 1301.16.4.
Distribution piping and fittings shall comply with the applicable material standards and installation requirements in accordance with applicable provisions of Chapter 6.
Distribution piping shall be designed and sized in accordance with the applicable provisions of Chapter 6.
Distribution piping labeling and marking shall comply with Section 608.8.
Backflow preventers shall be installed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 608.
Tests and inspections shall be performed in accordance with Sections 1301.17.1 through 1301.17.5.
Drain, waste, and vent piping used for gray water and rainwater nonpotable water systems shall be tested in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 312.
Storage tanks shall be tested in accordance with Section 1301.10.11.
Nonpotable distribution piping shall be tested in accordance with Section 312.5.
The testing of backflow preventers and backwater valves shall be conducted in accordance with Section 312.10.
Inlets and vent terminations shall be visually inspected to verify that each termination is installed in accordance with Section 1301.10.8.

Operations and maintenance materials for nonpotable water systems shall be provided as prescribed by the system component manufacturers and supplied to the owner to be kept in a readily accessible location.

This code is applicable to the plumbing fixtures, piping or piping systems, storage tanks, drains, appurtenances, and appliances that are part of the distribution system for gray water within buildings and to storage tanks and associated piping that are part of the distribution system for gray water outside of buildings. This code does not regulate equipment used for, or the methods of, processing, filtering, or treating gray water, that may be regulated by the Virginia Department of Health or the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.
Gray water nonpotable water systems, unless approved otherwise under the permit from the Virginia Department of Health, shall be separate from the potable water system of a building with no cross connections between the two systems except as permitted by the Virginia Department of Health.
Each application of gray water reuse shall meet the minimum water quality requirements set forth in Sections 1302.2.1 through 1302.2.4 unless otherwise superseded by other state agencies.
Where the intended use or reuse application for nonpotable water requires disinfection or other treatment or both, it shall be disinfected as needed to ensure that the required water quality is delivered at the point of use or reuse.
Where chlorine is used for disinfection, the nonpotable water shall contain not more than 4 parts per million (4 mg/L) of free chlorine, combined chlorine, or total chlorine. Where ozone is used for disinfection, the nonpotable water shall not exceed 0.1 parts per million (by volume) of ozone at the point of use.
Water collected for reuse shall be filtered as required for the intended end use. Filters shall be accessible for inspection and maintenance. Filters shall utilize a pressure gauge or other approved method to indicate when a filter requires servicing or replacement. Shutoff valves installed immediately upstream and downstream of the filter shall be included to allow for isolation during maintenance
Gray water utilized for water closet and urinal flushing applications shall be filtered by a 100 micron or finer filter.
Storage tanks utilized in gray water nonpotable water systems shall comply with Section 1301.10.
Untreated gray water shall be retained in storage tanks for a maximum of 24 hours.

Storage tanks shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between various elements as indicated in Table 1302.5.1.

TABLE 1302.5.1

LOCATION OF NONPOTABLE GRAY WATER REUSE STORAGE TANKS

ELEMENTMINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE
FROM STORAGE TANK (feet)
Lot line adjoining private lots5
Sewage systems5
Septic tanks5
Water wells50
Streams and lakes50
Water service5
Public water main10
Valves shall be supplied on gray water nonpotable water drainage systems in accordance with Sections 1302.6.1 and 1302.6.2.
One three-way diverter valve certified to NSF 50 or other approved device shall be installed on collection piping upstream of each storage tank, or drainfield, as applicable, to divert untreated gray water to the sanitary sewer to allow servicing and inspection of the system. Bypass valves shall be installed downstream of fixture traps and vent connections. Bypass valves shall be labeled to indicate the direction of flow, connection, and storage tank or drainfield connection. Bypass valves shall be provided with access for operation and maintenance. Two shutoff valves shall not be installed to serve as a bypass valve.
Backwater valves shall be installed on each overflow and tank drain pipe to prevent unwanted water from draining back into the storage tank. If the overflow and drain piping arrangement is installed to physically not allow water to drain back into the tank, such as in the form of an air gap, backwater valves shall not be required. Backwater valves shall be constructed and installed in accordance with Section 715.
The provisions of this section shall govern the design, construction, installation, alteration, and repair of rainwater nonpotable water systems for the collection, storage, treatment, and distribution of rainwater for nonpotable applications.
Each application of rainwater reuse shall meet the minimum water quality requirements set forth in Sections 1303.2.1 through 1303.2.4 unless otherwise superseded by other state agencies.
Where the intended use or reuse application for nonpotable water requires disinfection or other treatment or both, it shall be disinfected as needed to ensure that the required water quality is delivered at the point of use or reuse.
Where chlorine is used for disinfection, the nonpotable water shall contain not more than 4 parts per million (4 mg/L) of free chlorine, combined chlorine, or total chlorine. Where ozone is used for disinfection, the nonpotable water shall not exceed 0.1 parts per million (by volume) of ozone at the point of use.
Water collected for reuse shall be filtered as required for the intended end use. Filters shall be accessible for inspection and maintenance. Filters shall utilize a pressure gauge or other approved method to indicate when a filter requires servicing or replacement. Shutoff valves installed immediately upstream and downstream of the filter shall be included to allow for isolation during maintenance.
Rainwater utilized for water closet and urinal flushing applications shall be filtered by a 100 micron or finer filter.
Rainwater shall be collected only from aboveground impervious roofing surfaces constructed from approved materials. Overflow or discharge piping from appliances or equipment, or both, including but not limited to evaporative coolers, water heaters, and solar water heaters shall not discharge onto rainwater collection surfaces.
At a minimum, the first 0.04 inches (1.016 mm) of each rain event of 25 gallons (94.6 L) per 1,000 square feet (92.9 m2) shall be diverted from the storage tank by automatic means and not require the operation of manually operated valves or devices. Diverted water shall not drain onto other collection surfaces that are discharging to the rainwater system or to the sanitary sewer. Such water shall be diverted from the storage tank and discharged in an approved location.
Downspouts, conductors, and leaders shall be connected to a pre-tank filtration device. The filtration device shall not permit materials larger than 0.015 inches (0.4 mm).
Gutters and downspouts shall be constructed of materials that are compatible with the collection surface and the rainwater quality for the desired end use. Joints shall be made watertight.

Roof gutters, leaders, and rainwater collection piping shall slope continuously toward collection inlets. Gutters and downspouts shall have a slope of not less than 1 unit in 96 units along their entire length and shall not permit the collection or pooling of water at any point.

Exception: Siphonic roof drainage systems installed in accordance with Chapter 11 shall not be required to have slope.

Gutters and downspouts shall be installed and sized in accordance with Section 1106.6 and local rainfall rates.
Cleanouts or other approved openings shall be provided to permit access to all filters, flushes, pipes, and downspouts.
Storage tanks utilized in rainwater nonpotable water systems shall comply with Section 1301.10.

Storage tanks shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between various elements as indicated in Table 1303.8.1.

TABLE 1303.8.1

LOCATION OF RAINWATER STORAGE TANKS

ELEMENTMINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE
FROM STORAGE TANK (feet)
Lot line adjoining private lot5
Sewage systems5
Septic tanks5
Valves shall be installed in collection and conveyance drainage piping of rainwater nonpotable water systems in accordance with Sections 1303.9.1 and 1303.9.2.
A means shall be provided to divert storage tank influent to allow maintenance and repair of the storage tank system.
Backwater valves shall be installed on each overflow and tank drain pipe to prevent unwanted water from draining back into the storage tank. If the overflow and drain piping arrangement is installed to physically not allow water to drain back into the tank, such as in the form of an air gap, backwater valves shall not be required. Backwater valves shall be constructed and installed in accordance with Section 715.
Tests and inspections shall be performed in accordance with Sections 1303.10.1 through 1303.10.2.
Roof gutters shall be inspected to verify that the installation and slope is in accordance with Section 1303.6.1. Gutters shall be tested by pouring a minimum of 1 gallon (3.8 L) of water into the end of the gutter opposite the collection point. The gutter being tested shall not leak and shall not retain standing water.
A collection surface diversion test shall be performed by introducing water into the gutters or onto the collection surface area. Diversion of the first quantity of water in accordance with the requirements of Section 1303.4 shall be verified.
(Section deleted)
Reclaimed water, water reclamation systems, reclaimed water distribution systems and allowable nonpotable reuses of reclaimed water are as defined or specified in and governed by the Virginia Water Reclamation and Reuse Regulation (9VAC25-740). Permits from the Virginia State Water Control Board are required for such systems and reuses. The provisions of Section 1304 shall govern the design, construction, installation, alterations, and repair of plumbing fixtures, piping or piping systems, storage tanks, drains, appurtenances and appliances that are part of the distribution system for reclaimed water within buildings and to storage tanks for reclaimed water as defined in the Virginia Water Reclamation and Reuse Regulation (9VAC25-740) and associated piping outside of buildings that deliver reclaimed water into buildings. Where conflicts occur between this code and the Virginia Water Reclamation and Reuse Regulation (9VAC25-740), the provisions of the Virginia Water Reclamation and Reuse Regulation (9VAC25-740) shall apply unless determined otherwise by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and DHCD through a memorandum of agreement.

The design of reclaimed water systems shall conform to applicable requirements of Section 1301.

Exception: The design of reclaimed water systems shall conform to applicable requirements of the Virginia Water Reclamation and Reuse Regulation (9VAC25-740) for the following:

  1. Identification, labeling, and posting of signage for reclaimed water systems in lieu of signage requirements described in Section 1301.4.
  2. Sizing of system storage as defined in the Virginia Water Reclamation and Reuse Regulation (9VAC25-740), in addition to storage sizing requirements described in Section 1301.10.1.
  3. Signage and labeling for reclaimed water storage in addition to labeling and signage requirements described in Section 1301.10.10.
  4. Minimum separation distances and configurations for in-ground reclaimed water distribution piping in lieu of trenching requirements for nonpotable water systems described in Section 1301.11.
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