ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2018 (IFC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, use, dispensing, mixing and handling of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 50 and this chapter.

Provisions of the Virginia State Water Control Board regulations 9VAC25-91 and 9VAC25-580 addressing the maintenance and operational aspects of underground and above-ground storage tanks subject to those regulations are hereby incorporated by reference to be an enforceable part of this code. Where differences occur between the provisions of this code and the incorporated provisions of the State Water Control Board regulations, the provisions of the State Water Control Board regulations shall apply.

Note: For requirements for the installation, repair, upgrade and closure of such tanks, see Section 414.6.2 of the USBC, Part I, Construction.

This chapter shall not apply to liquids as otherwise provided in other laws or regulations or chapters of this code, including:

  1. Specific provisions for flammable liquids in motor fuel-dispensing facilities, repair garages, airports and marinas in Chapter 23.
  2. Medicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and commercial, institutional and industrial products containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solution not being flammable, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  3. Quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales or storage occupancies, provided that the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  4. Storage and use of fuel oil in tanks and containers connected to oil-burning equipment. Such storage and use shall be in accordance with Section 603. For abandonment of fuel oil tanks, this chapter applies.
  5. Refrigerant liquids and oils in refrigeration systems (see Section 606).
  6. Storage and display of aerosol products complying with Chapter 51.
  7. Storage and use of liquids that have no fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D92.
  8. Liquids with a flash point greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water and inert (noncombustible) solids content of more than 80 percent by weight, which do not sustain combustion.
  9. Liquids without flash points that can be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons.
  10. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.
The applicable requirements of Chapter 50, other chapters of this code, and the applicable building code pertaining to flammable liquids shall apply.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 107.2.

Flammable and combustible liquids shall be classified in accordance with the definitions in Chapter 2.

When mixed with lower flash-point liquids, Class II or III liquids are capable of assuming the characteristics of the lower flash-point liquids. Under such conditions, the appropriate provisions of this chapter for the actual flash point of the mixed liquid shall apply.

When heated above their flash points, Class II and III liquids assume the characteristics of Class I liquids. Under such conditions, the appropriate provisions of this chapter for flammable liquids shall apply.

Electrical wiring and equipment shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 6, NFPA 70 and the applicable building code.

Where flammable liquids are stored, handled, dispensed or mixed, the extent of classified locations identified in accordance with the applicable building code shall be maintained. The extent of the classified area is allowed to be reduced, or eliminated, where sufficient technical justification is provided to the fire code official that a concentration in the area in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) cannot be generated.

TABLE 5703.1.1

CLASS I ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT LOCATIONS

Deleted

In areas where Class II or III liquids are heated above their flash points, the extent of classified locations identified in accordance with the applicable building code shall be maintained.
The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of the Class I electrical equipment and wiring location when a condition is not regulated by the applicable building code, these requirements or NFPA 70.
Fire protection for the storage, use, dispensing, mixing, handling, and on-site transportation of flammable and combustible liquids shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter, Chapter 9 and the applicable building code.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906. Hose lines shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.
In the event of a spill, leak or discharge from a tank system, a site assessment shall be completed by the owner or operator of such tank system if the fire code official determines that a potential fire or explosion hazard exists. Such site assessments shall be conducted to ascertain potential fire hazards and shall be completed and submitted to the fire department within a time period established by the fire code official, not to exceed 60 days.
Where the maximum allowable quantity per control area is exceeded, and where required by Section 5004.2, rooms, buildings or areas used for storage, dispensing, use, mixing or handling of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.
The fire code official is authorized to require warning signs for the purpose of identifying the hazards of storing or using flammable liquids. Signage for identification and warning such as for the inherent hazard of flammable liquids or smoking shall be provided in accordance with this chapter and Sections 5003.5 and 5003.6.
Warning signs shall be of a durable material. Signs warning of the hazard of flammable liquids shall have white lettering on a red background and shall read: DANGER—FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS. Letters shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height and 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in stroke.
Signs shall be posted in locations as required by the fire code official. Piping containing flammable liquids shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1.
Individual containers, packages and cartons shall be identified, marked, labeled and placarded in accordance with federal regulations and applicable state laws.
Color coding or other approved identification means shall be provided on each loading and unloading riser for flammable or combustible liquids to identify the contents of the tank served by the riser.
Piping systems, and their component parts, for flammable and combustible liquids shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 5703.6.1 through 5703.6.11 and the applicable building code.
The provisions of Section 5703.6 shall not apply to gas or oil well installations; piping that is integral to stationary or portable engines, including aircraft, watercraft and motor vehicles; and piping in connection with boilers and pressure vessels regulated by the applicable building code.

Existing piping shall be tested in accordance with the applicable building code when the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that a leak exists. Piping that could contain flammable or combustible liquids shall not be tested pneumatically. Such tests shall be at the expense of the owner or operator.

Exception: Vapor-recovery piping is allowed to be tested using an inert gas.

Guard posts or other approved means shall be maintained to protect piping, valves or fittings subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.
Where subject to external corrosion, piping, related fluid-handling components and supports for both underground and above-ground applications shall maintain corrosion protection.
Piping systems required to be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction or exposure to fire shall have the support and protection maintained.
Joints shall be maintained liquid tight.
The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in containers and tanks shall be in accordance with this section and the applicable sections of Chapter 50. For tanks subject to the State Water Control Board regulations 9VAC25-91 and 9VAC25-580, see Section 5701.1.1.

The provisions of this section shall apply to:

  1. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in fixed above-ground and underground tanks.
  2. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in fixed above-ground tanks inside of buildings.
  3. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in portable tanks whose capacity exceeds 660 gallons (2498 L).
  4. The installation of such tanks and portable tanks.

Tanks subject to change in contents shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.7. Prior to a change in contents, the fire code official is authorized to require testing of a tank.

Tanks that have previously contained Class I liquids shall not be loaded with Class II or Class III liquids until such tanks and all piping, pumps, hoses and meters connected thereto have been completely drained and flushed.

Labeling and signs for storage tanks and storage tank areas shall comply with Sections 5704.2.3.1 and 5704.2.3.2.
Signs shall be posted in storage areas prohibiting open flames and smoking. Signs shall comply with Section 5703.5.

Tanks more than 100 gallons (379 L) in capacity, which are permanently installed or mounted and used for the storage of Class I, II or III liquids, shall bear a label and placard identifying the material therein. Placards shall be in accordance with NFPA 704.

Exceptions:

  1. Tanks of 300-gallon (1136 L) capacity or less located on private property and used for heating and cooking fuels in single-family dwellings.
  2. Tanks located underground.

Smoking and open flames are prohibited in storage areas in accordance with Section 5003.7.

Exception: Areas designated as smoking and hot work areas, and areas where hot work permits have been issued in accordance with this code.

Explosion control shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9 and the applicable building code.

Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be separated from incompatible materials in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.

Grass, weeds, combustible materials and waste Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall not be accumulated in an unsafe manner at a storage site.

Tanks shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 30. Each tank shall maintain a permanent nameplate or marking indicating the standard used as the basis of design.
Where provided in accordance with the applicable building code, emergency venting for stationary, above-ground tanks shall be maintained.

Filling, emptying and vapor recovery connections to tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be located outside of buildings in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.5.6 at a location free from sources of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) away from building openings or lot lines of property that can be built upon. Such openings shall be properly identified and provided with a liquid-tight cap that shall be closed when not in use.

Filling and emptying connections to indoor tanks containing Class IIIB liquids and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be located at a finished ground level location outside of buildings. Such openings shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap that shall be closed when not in use. A sign in accordance with Section 5003.6 that displays the following warning shall be permanently attached at the filling location:

TRANSFERRING FUEL OTHER THAN
CLASS IIIB COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID TO
THIS TANK CONNECTION IS A VIOLATION
OF THE FIRE CODE AND IS STRICTLY
PROHIBITED

Openings for manual gauging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. Covers shall be kept closed when not gauging. If inside a building, such openings shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or other approved device.
Filling, withdrawal and vapor-recovery connections for Class I, II and IIIA liquids that are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings, not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the finished ground level, in an approved location in close proximity to the parked delivery vehicle. Such location shall be away from sources of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) away from building openings. Such connections shall be closed and liquid tight when not in use and shall be properly identified.
The repair, alteration or reconstruction, including welding, cutting and hot tapping of storage tanks and piping that have been placed in service, shall be in accordance with NFPA 30 and the applicable building code. Hot work, as defined in Section 202, on such tanks shall be conducted in accordance with Section 3510.
A consistent or accidental loss of liquid, or other indication of a leak from a tank system, shall be reported immediately to the fire department, the fire code official and other authorities having jurisdiction.
Leaking tanks shall be promptly emptied, repaired and returned to service, abandoned or removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.13 or 5704.2.14.
There shall be sufficient clearance between the tank and the vault to allow for visual inspection and maintenance of the tank and its appurtenances. Dispensing devices are allowed to be installed on tops of vaults.
Vaults and their tanks shall maintain anchoring in accordance with the applicable building code to withstand uplifting by ground water or flooding, including when the tank is empty.
Vaults shall be resistant to damage from the impact of a motor vehicle, or vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.
Where required by the applicable building code, vaults that contain tanks of Class I liquids provided with an exhaust system shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 5004.3.
Where required by the applicable building code, vaults shall maintain an approved vapor and liquid detection system. Where required by the applicable building code, the following arrangements shall be maintained: The system shall be maintained with on-site audible and visual warning devices with battery backup. Vapor detection systems shall be maintained to sound an alarm when the system detects vapors that reach or exceed 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) of the liquid stored. Where required, liquid detection systems shall be maintained to sound an alarm upon detection of any liquid, including water. Liquid detectors shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Where required, activation of either vapor or liquid detection systems shall cause a signal to be sounded at an approved, constantly attended location within the facility serving the tanks or at an approved location. Where required by the applicable building code, activation of vapor detection systems shall also shut off dispenser pumps.
Means shall be provided to recover liquid from the vault. Where a pump is used to meet this requirement, the pump shall not be permanently installed in the vault. Electric-powered portable pumps shall be suitable for use in Class I, Division 1, or Zone 0 locations, as defined in NFPA 70.
Vaults shall be provided with an approved personnel accessway with a minimum dimension of 30 inches (762 mm) and with a permanently affixed, nonferrous ladder. Accessways shall be designed to be nonsparking. Travel distance from any point inside a vault to an accessway shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm). At each entry point, a warning sign indicating the need for procedures for safe entry into confined spaces shall be posted. Entry points shall be secured against unauthorized entry and vandalism.
The interior of a vault containing a tank that stores a Class I liquid shall be designated a Class I, Division 1, or Zone 0 location, as defined in NFPA 70.
Above-ground storage of flammable and combustible liquids in tanks shall comply with Section 5704.2 and Sections 5704.2.9.1 through 5704.2.9.7.7. For tanks subject to the State Water Control Board regulation 9VAC25-91, see Section 5701.1.1.
Existing aboveground tanks shall be maintained in accordance with the code requirements that were applicable at the time of installation. Above-ground tanks that were installed in violation of code requirements applicable at the time of installation shall be made code compliant or shall be removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14.

Liquids with boilover characteristics shall not be stored in fixed roof tanks larger than 150 feet (45 720 mm) in diameter unless an approved gas enrichment or inerting system is provided on the tank.

Exception: Crude oil storage tanks in production fields with no other exposures adjacent to the storage tank.

Supports, foundations and anchorages for above-ground tanks shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 30 and the applicable building code.
Stairways, platforms and walkways shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 30 and the applicable building code.
Above-ground tanks inside of buildings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code and Sections 5704.2.9.5.1 and 5704.2.9.5.2.
Where required by the applicable building code, above-ground tanks storing Class I, II and IIIA liquids inside buildings shall maintain a device or other means to prevent overflow into the building including, but not limited to: a float valve; a preset meter on the fill line; a valve actuated by the weight of the tank's contents; a low-head pump that is incapable of producing overflow; or a liquid-tight overflow pipe at least one pipe size larger than the fill pipe and discharging by gravity back to the outside source of liquid or to an approved location. Where required, tanks containing Class IIIB liquids and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall maintain a means to prevent overflow into buildings in accordance with the applicable building code.
Where required by the applicable building code, fill pipe connections for tanks storing Class I, II and IIIA liquids and Class IIIB liquids connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5704.2.9.7.7.
Above-ground tanks outside of buildings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Where protected above-ground tanks, piping, electrical conduit or dispensers are subject to vehicular impact, they shall be protected therefrom, either by having the impact protection incorporated into the system design in compliance with the impact test protocol of UL 2085, or by meeting the provisions of Section 312, or where necessary, a combination of both. Where guard posts or other approved barriers are provided, they shall be independent of each above-ground tank.

Protected above-ground tanks shall not be filled in excess of 95 percent of their capacity. Where required by the applicable building code, an overfill prevention system shall be maintained for each tank. During tank-filling operations, the system shall comply with one of the following unless otherwise approved in accordance with the applicable building code:

  1. The system shall:

    1.1.   Provide an independent means of notifying the person filling the tank that the fluid level has reached 90 percent of tank capacity by providing an audible or visual alarm signal, providing a tank level gauge marked at 90 percent of tank capacity, or other approved means; and

    1.2.   Automatically shut off the flow of fuel to the tank when the quantity of liquid in the tank reaches 95 percent of tank capacity. For rigid hose fuel-delivery systems, an approved means shall be provided to empty the fill hose into the tank after the automatic shutoff device is activated.

  2. The system shall reduce the flow rate to not more than 15 gallons per minute (0.95 L/s) so that at the reduced flow rate, the tank will not overfill for 30 minutes, and automatically shut off flow into the tank so that none of the fittings on the top of the tank are exposed to product because of overfilling.
A permanent sign shall be provided at the fill point for the tank, documenting the filling procedure and the tank calibration chart.
The filling procedure shall require the person filling the tank to determine the gallonage (literage) required to fill it to 90 percent of capacity before commencing the fill operation.
Where required by the applicable building code, the fill pipe shall be maintained with a means for making a direct connection to the tank vehicle's fuel delivery hose so that the delivery of fuel is not exposed to the open air during the filling operation.
A spill container having a capacity of not less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be provided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container shall be allowed.
Diked areas shall be kept free from combustible materials, drums and barrels.
Underground storage of flammable and combustible liquids in tanks shall comply with Section 5704.2 and Sections 5704.2.11.1 through 5704.2.11.4.2. For tanks subject to the State Water Control Board regulation 9VAC25-580, see Section 5701.1.1.
The location of flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks located underground, either outside or under buildings, shall be in accordance with the applicable building code.
Fill pipes shall be equipped with a spill container and, where required by the applicable building code, an overfill prevention system in accordance with NFPA 30.
Leak prevention for underground tanks shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code and Sections 5704.2.11.4.1 and 5704.2.11.4.2.
Daily inventory records for underground storage tank systems shall be maintained.
Where required by the applicable building code, underground storage tank systems shall maintain an approved method of leak detection from any component of the system that is designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 30.
Tank testing shall comply with Sections 5704.2.12.1 and 5704.2.12.2.
Prior to being placed into service, tanks shall be tested in accordance with Section 21.5 of NFPA 30.
Before being covered or placed in use, tanks and piping connected to underground tanks shall be tested for tightness in the presence of the fire code official. Piping shall be tested in accordance with the applicable building code. The system shall not be covered until it has been approved.
Tanks taken out of service shall be removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14, or safeguarded in accordance with Sections 5704.2.13.1 through 5704.2.13.2.3 and API 1604.
Underground tanks taken out of service shall comply with Sections 5704.2.13.1.1 through 5704.2.13.1.5.

Underground tanks temporarily out of service shall have the fill line, gauge opening, vapor return and pump connection secure against tampering. Vent lines shall remain open and be maintained in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.4.

Exception: Underground storage tank systems subject to the Virginia State Water Control Board regulation 9VAC25-580 that are out-of-service shall comply with the temporary closure requirements of 9VAC25-580-310.

Underground tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be safeguarded in accordance with all the following or be removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14:

  1. Flammable or combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank.
  2. All piping, including fill line, gauge opening, vapor return and pump connection, shall be capped or plugged and secured from tampering.
  3. Vent lines shall remain open and be maintained in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.4.

Underground tanks that have been out of service for a period of 1 year shall be removed from the ground in accordance with Section 5704.2.14 or abandoned in place in accordance with Section 5704.2.13.1.4.

Exception: Underground storage tank systems subject to the Virginia State Water Control Board regulation 9VAC25-580 that are in compliance with the performance standards of 9VAC25-580-50 and 9VAC25-580-60 are allowed to remain temporarily closed for a period of more than 1 year in accordance with 9VAC25-580-310, as part of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality's program.

Tanks abandoned in place shall be as follows:

  1. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connected piping.
  2. The suction, inlet, gauge, vapor return and vapor lines shall be disconnected.
  3. The tank shall be filled completely with an approved inert solid material.
  4. Remaining underground piping shall be capped or plugged.
  5. A record of tank size, location and date of abandonment shall be retained.
  6. All exterior above-grade fill piping shall be permanently removed when tanks are abandoned or removed.
Tanks that are to be reinstalled for flammable or combustible liquid service shall be approved by the building official.
Above-ground tanks taken out of service shall comply with Sections 5704.2.13.2.1 through 5704.2.13.2.3.

Above-ground tanks temporarily out of service shall have all connecting lines isolated from the tank and be secured against tampering.

Exception: In-place fire protection (foam) system lines.

Above-ground tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be safeguarded in accordance with Section 5704.2.13.1.2 or removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14.

Exceptions:

  1. Tanks and containers connected to oil burners that are not in use during the warm season of the year or are used as a backup heating system to gas.
  2. In-place, active fire protection (foam) system lines.

Above-ground tanks that have been out of service for a period of one year shall be removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14.

Exception: Tanks within operating facilities.

Removal and disposal of tanks shall comply with Sections 5704.2.14.1 and 5704.2.14.2.

Removal of above-ground and underground tanks shall be in accordance with all of the following:

  1. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connected piping.
  2. Piping at tank openings that is not to be used further shall be disconnected.
  3. Piping shall be removed from the ground.

    Exception: Piping is allowed to be abandoned in place where the fire code official determines that removal is not practical. Abandoned piping shall be capped and safeguarded as required by the fire code official.

  4. Tank openings shall be capped or plugged, leaving a 1/8-inch to 1/4-inch-diameter (3.2 mm to 6.4 mm) opening for pressure equalization.
  5. Tanks shall be purged of vapor and inerted prior to removal.
  6. All exterior above-grade fill and vent piping shall be permanently removed.

    Exception: Piping associated with bulk plants, terminal facilities and refineries.

Tanks shall be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local regulations.
Above-ground tanks, connected piping and ancillary equipment shall be maintained in a safe operating condition. Tanks shall be maintained in accordance with their listings. Damage to above-ground tanks, connected piping or ancillary equipment shall be repaired using materials having equal or greater strength and fire resistance or the equipment shall be replaced or taken out of service.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers that do not exceed 60 gallons (227 L) in individual capacity and portable tanks that do not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L) in individual capacity, and limited transfers incidental thereto, shall comply with Sections 5704.3.1 through 5704.3.8.4.
The design, construction and capacity of containers for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with this section and Section 9.4 of NFPA 30.
Where other sections of this code require that liquid containers be stored in storage cabinets, such cabinets and storage shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.2.1 through 5704.3.2.2.
Design and construction of liquid storage cabinets shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.2.1.1 through 5704.3.2.1.4.

Cabinets shall be listed in accordance with UL 1275, or constructed of approved wood or metal in accordance with the following:

  1. Unlisted metal cabinets shall be constructed of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.044 inch (1.12 mm) (18 gage). The cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled with 11/2-inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight fitting.
  2. Unlisted wooden cabinets, including doors, shall be constructed of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) exterior grade plywood. Joints shall be rabbeted and shall be fastened in two directions with wood screws. Door hinges shall be of steel or brass. Cabinets shall be painted with an intumescent-type paint.
Cabinets shall be provided with a conspicuous label in red letters on contrasting background that reads: FLAMMABLE—KEEP FIRE AWAY.
Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a three-point latch.
The bottom of the cabinet shall be liquid tight to a height of not less than 2 inches (51 mm).
The combined total quantity of liquids in a cabinet shall not exceed 120 gallons (454 L).

Storage of flammable and combustible liquids inside buildings in containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.3.1 through 5704.3.3.10.

Exceptions:

  1. Liquids in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, aircraft, boats or portable or stationary engines.
  2. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels or casks.
Approved portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with specific sections of this chapter and Section 906.
Materials that will react with water or other liquids to produce a hazard shall not be stored in the same room with flammable and combustible liquids except where stored in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.
Storage of any liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored near or be allowed to obstruct physically the route of egress.
The storage of empty tanks and containers previously used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids, unless free from explosive vapors, shall be stored as required for filled containers and portable tanks. Portable tanks and containers, when emptied, shall have the covers or plugs immediately replaced in openings.
Shelving shall be of approved construction, adequately braced and anchored. Seismic requirements shall be in accordance with the applicable building code.
Wood of at least 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness is allowed to be used as shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay and similar installations.
Shelf storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be maintained in an orderly manner.
Where storage on racks is allowed by the applicable building code and elsewhere in this code, a minimum 4-foot-wide (1219 mm) aisle shall be maintained between adjacent rack sections and any adjacent storage of liquids unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code.
Solid pile and palletized storage in liquid warehouses shall be arranged so that piles are separated from each other by not less than 4 feet (1219 mm). Aisles shall be provided and arranged so that containers or portable tanks are not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from an aisle. Main aisles shall be not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.
Limited quantities of combustible commodities are allowed to be stored in liquid storage areas where the ordinary combustibles, other than those used for packaging the liquids, are separated from the liquids in storage by not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) horizontally, either by open aisles or by open racks, and where protection is provided in accordance with Chapter 9.
Storage of empty or idle combustible pallets inside an unprotected liquid storage area shall be limited to a maximum pile size of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) and to a maximum storage height of 6 feet (1829 mm). Storage of empty or idle combustible pallets inside a protected liquid storage area shall comply with NFPA 13. Pallet storage shall be separated from liquid storage by aisles that are not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.
Containers in piles shall be stacked in such a manner as to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls. Portable tanks stored more than one tier high shall be designed to nest securely, without dunnage. Material-handling equipment shall be suitable to handle containers and tanks safely at the upper tier level.
Liquid storage quantity limitations shall comply with Sections 5704.3.4.1 through 5704.3.4.4 and the applicable building code.

For occupancies other than Group M wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area indicated in the applicable building code or the additional limitations set forth in this section shall be approved by the building official in accordance with the applicable building code.

For Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area indicated in the applicable building code unless approved by the building official in accordance with the applicable building code.

Storage of hazardous production material flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-5 occupancies shall be in accordance with Chapter 27 and the applicable building code.

TABLE 5704.3.4.1

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIESa

Deleted

The following limits for quantities of stored flammable or combustible liquids shall not be exceeded unless approved by the building official in accordance with the applicable building code:

  1. Group A occupancies: Quantities in Group A occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in the applicable building code.
  2. Group B occupancies: Quantities in drinking, dining, office and school uses within Group B occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in the applicable building code.
  3. Group E occupancies: Quantities in Group E occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in the applicable building code.
  4. Group F occupancies: Quantities in dining, office, and school uses within Group F occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in the applicable building code.
  5. Group I occupancies: Quantities in Group I occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in the applicable building code.
  6. Group M occupancies: Quantities in dining, office, and school uses within Group M occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in the applicable building code. The maximum allowable quantities for storage in wholesale and retail sales areas shall be in accordance with Section 5704.3.4.1.
  7. Group R occupancies: Quantities in Group R occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in the applicable building code.
  8. Group S occupancies: Quantities in dining and office uses within Group S occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in the applicable building code.
Where required by the applicable building code, quantities exceeding those allowed in control areas set forth in Section 5704.3.4.1 shall be in liquid storage rooms or liquid storage warehouses approved by the building official in accordance with Sections 5704.3.7 and 5704.3.8, and the applicable building code.
In all occupancies, quantities of flammable and combustible liquids in excess of 10 gallons (38 L) used for maintenance purposes and the operation of equipment shall be stored in liquid storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5704.3.2. Quantities not exceeding 10 gallons (38 L) are allowed to be stored outside of a cabinet when in approved containers located in private garages or other approved locations.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in control areas shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.5.1 through 5704.3.5.4.
Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be allowed to be stored in basements in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area for use-open systems when approved by the building official in accordance with the applicable building code.
Containers having less than a 30-gallon (114 L) capacity that contain Class I or II liquids shall not be stacked more than 3 feet (914.4 mm) or two containers high, whichever is greater, unless stacked on fixed shelving or otherwise satisfactorily secured. Containers of Class I or II liquids having a capacity of 30 gallons (114 L) or more shall not be stored more than one container high. Containers shall be stored in an upright position.
Piles of containers or portable tanks shall not be stored closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to the nearest beam, chord, girder or other obstruction, and shall be 3 feet (914 mm) below sprinkler deflectors or discharge orifices of water spray or other overhead fire protection system.
In areas that are not open to the public, Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not be stored in the same pile or rack section as ordinary combustible commodities unless such materials are packaged together as kits.
Flammable and combustible liquids in Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.6.1 through 5704.3.6.5, or Sections 10.10.2, 12.3.8, 16.4.1 through 16.4.3, 16.5.1 through 16.5.2.12, Tables 16.5.2.1 through 16.5.2.12, and Figures 16.4.1(a) through 16.14.1(c) of NFPA 30.

Containers for Class I liquids shall be metal.

Exception: In sprinklered buildings, an aggregate quantity of 120 gallons (454 L) of water-miscible Class IB and Class IC liquids is allowed in nonmetallic containers, each having a capacity of 16 ounces (0.473 L) or less.

Containers for Class I liquids shall not exceed a capacity of 5 gallons (19 L).

Exception: Metal containers not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) are allowed to store up to 240 gallons (908 L) of the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Classes IB and IC liquids in a control area. The building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with the applicable building code. The containers shall be provided with plastic caps without cap seals and shall be stored upright. Containers shall not be stacked or stored in racks and shall not be located in areas accessible to the public.

Fire protection and container storage arrangements shall be in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(1) or the following:

  1. Storage on shelves shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, and shelving shall be metal.
  2. Storage on pallets or in piles greater than 4 feet 6 inches (1372 mm) in height, or where the ceiling exceeds 18 feet (5486 mm) in height, shall be protected in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(4), and the storage heights and arrangements shall be limited to those specified in Table 5704.3.6.3(2).
  3. Storage on racks greater than 4 feet 6 inches (1372 mm) in height, or where the ceiling exceeds 18 feet (5486 mm) in height shall be protected in accordance with Tables 5704.3.6.3(5), 5704.3.6.3(6), and 5704.3.6.3(7) as appropriate, and the storage heights and arrangements shall be limited to those specified in Table 5704.3.6.3(3).

Combustible commodities shall not be stored above flammable and combustible liquids.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(1)

MAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHT IN CONTROL AREA

TYPE OF LIQUID NONSPRINKLERED AREA (feet) SPRINKLERED AREAa (feet) SPRINKLERED WITH IN-RACK PROTECTIONa, b (feet)
Flammable liquids:
  Class IA 4 4 4
  Class IB 4 8 12
  Class IC 4 8 12
Combustible liquids:
  Class II 6 8 12
  Class IIIA 8 12 16
  Class IIIB 8 12 20

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 or the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria and fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.
  2. In-rack protection shall be in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(5), 5704.3.6.3(6) or 5704.3.6.3(7).

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(2)

STORAGE ARRANGEMENTS FOR PALLETIZED OR SOLID-PILE STORAGE IN LIQUID STORAGE ROOMS AND WAREHOUSES

CLASS STORAGE LEVEL MAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHT MAXIMUM QUANTITY PER PILE (gallons) MAXIMUM QUANTITY PER ROOMa (gallons)
Drums Containersb(feet) Portable tanksb (feet) Containers Portable tanks Containers Portable tanks
IA Ground floor 1 5 Not Allowed 3,000 Not Allowed 12,000 Not Allowed
Upper floors 1 5 Not Allowed 2,000 Not Allowed 8,000 Not Allowed
Basements 0 Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed
IB Ground floor 1 6.5 7 5,000 20,000 15,000 40,000
Upper floors 1 6.5 7 3,000 10,000 12,000 20,000
Basements 0 Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed
IC Ground floord 1 6.5c 7 5,000 20,000 15,000 40,000
Upper floors 1 6.5c 7 3,000 10,000 12,000 20,000
Basements 0 Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed Not Allowed
II Ground floord 3 10 14 10,000 40,000 25,000 80,000
Upper floors 3 10 14 10,000 40,000 25,000 80,000
Basements 1 5 7 7,500 20,000 7,500 20,000
III Ground floor 5 20 14 15,000 60,000 50,000 100,000
Upper floors 5 20 14 15,000 60,000 50,000 100,000
Basements 3 10 7 10,000 20,000 25,000 40,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. See Section 5704.3.8.1 for unlimited quantities in liquid storage warehouses.
  2. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 or the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria and fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.
  3. These height limitations are allowed to be increased to 10 feet for containers having a capacity of 5 gallons or less.
  4. For palletized storage of unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) in relieving-style metal containers with 50 percent or less by weight Class IC or II liquid and no Class IA or IB liquid, height and pile quantity limits shall be permitted to be 10 feet and 15,000 gallons, respectively, provided that such storage is protected by sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 30 and that the UPR storage area is not located in the same containment area or drainage path for other Class I or II liquids.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(3)

STORAGE ARRANGEMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE IN LIQUID STORAGE ROOMS AND WAREHOUSES

CLASS TYPE RACK STORAGE LEVEL MAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHTb (feet) MAXIMUM QUANTITY PER ROOMa (gallons)
Containers Containers
IA Double row or Single row Ground floor 25 7,500
Upper floors 15 4,500
Basements Not Allowed Not Allowed
IB Double row or Single row Ground floor 25 15,000
Upper floors 15 9,000
Basements Not Allowed Not Allowed
II Double row or Single row Ground floor 25 24,000
Upper floors 25 24,000
Basements 15 9,000
III Multirow Ground floor 40 48,000
Double row Upper floors 20 48,000
Single row Basements 20 24,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. See Section 5704.3.8.1 for unlimited quantities in liquid storage warehouses.
  2. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 or the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria and fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(4)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTION FOR SOLID-PILE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS AND PORTABLE TANKSa

STORAGE CONDITIONS CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND MINIMUM HOSE STREAM DEMAND (gpm) MINIMUM DURATION SPRINKLERS AND HOSE STREAMS (hours)
Class liquid Container size and arrangement Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Maximum spacing (square feet)
High-temperature sprinklers Ordinary temperature sprinklers
IA 5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or solid pileb 0.30 3,000 5,000 100 750 2
Containers greater than 5 gallons, on end or side, palletized or solid pile 0.60 5,000 8,000 80 750
IB, IC and II 5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or solid pileb 0.30 3,000 5,000 100 500 2
Containers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile, one high 0.25 5,000 8,000 100
II Containers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile, more than one high, on end or side 0.60 5,000 8,000 80 750 2
IB, IC and II Portable tanks, one high 0.30 3,000 5,000 100 500 2
II Portable tanks, two high 0.60 5,000 8,000 80 750 2
III 5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or solid pile 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 500 1
Containers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile, on end or sides, up to three high 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 500 1
Containers greater than 5 gallons, on pallets or solid pile, on end or sides, up to 18 feet high 0.35 3,000 5,000 100 750 2
Portable tanks, one high 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 500 1
Portable tanks, two high 0.50 3,000 5,000 80 750 2

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. The design area contemplates the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where Class I standpipe systems are used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 percent without revising density.
  2. For storage heights above 4 feet or ceiling heights greater than 18 feet, an approved engineering design shall be provided in accordance with Section 104.7.2.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(5)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 5-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESS WITH OR WITHOUT CARTONS ON CONVENTIONAL WOOD PALLETSa

CLASS LIQUID CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMAND MINIMUM HOSE STREAM DEMAND (gpm) MINIMUM DURATION SPRINKLER AND HOSE STREAM (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Maximum spacing Racks up to 9 feet deep Racks more than 9 feet to 12 feet deep 30 psi(standardorifice) Number of sprinklers operating
High-temperature sprinklers Ordinary temperature sprinklers 14 psi (large orifice)
I (maximum 25-foot height) Option 1 0.40 3,000 5,000 80 ft2/head
  1. Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing
  2. One line sprinklers above each level of storage
  3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical
  4. Shields required where multiple-level
  1. Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing
  2. One line sprinklers above each level of storage
  3. Locate in transverse flue spaces, staggered vertical and within 20 inches of aisle
  4. Shields required where multiple-level
30 psi (0.5- inch orifice)
  1. Eight sprinklers if only one level
  2. Six sprinklers each on two levels if only two levels
  3. Six sprinklers each on top three levels, if three or more levels
  4. Hydraulically most remote
750 2
I (maximum 25-foot height) Option 2 0.55 2,000b Not Applicable 100 ft2/head
  1. Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing
  2. See 2 above
  3. See 3 above
  4. See 4 above
  1. Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing
  2. See 2 above
  3. See 3 above
  4. See 4 above
14 psi (0.53-inch orifice) See 1 through 4 above 500 2
I and II (maximum 14-foot storage height) (maximum three tiers) 0.55c 2,000d Not Applicable 100 ft2/head Not Applicable None for maximum 6-foot-deep racks Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable 500 2
II (maximum 25-foot height) 0.30 3,000 5,000 100 ft2/head
  1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally
  2. One line sprinklers between levels at nearest 10-foot vertical intervals
  3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical
  4. Shields required where multiple-level
  1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally
  2. Two lines between levels at nearest 10-foot vertical intervals
  3. Locate in transverse flue spaces, staggered vertical and within 20 inches of aisle
  4. Shields required where multiple-level
30 psi Hydraulically most remote—six sprinklers at each level, up to a maximum of three levels 750 2
III (40-foot height) 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 ft2/head Same as for Class II liquids Same as for Class II liquids 30 psi Same as for Class II liquids 500 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. The design area contemplates the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where Class I standpipe systems are used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 percent without revising density.
  2. Using listed or approved extra-large orifices, high-temperature quick-response or standard element sprinklers under a maximum 30-foot ceiling with minimum 7.5-foot aisles.
  3. For friction lid cans and other metal containers equipped with plastic nozzles or caps, the density shall be increased to 0.65 gpm per square foot using listed or approved extra-large orifice, high-temperature quick-response sprinklers.
  4. Using listed or approved extra-large orifice, high-temperature quick-response or standard element sprinklers under a maximum 18-foot ceiling with minimum 7.5-foot aisles and metal containers.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(6)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS GREATER THAN 5-GALLON CAPACITYa

CLASS LIQUID CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMAND MINIMUM HOSE STREAM DEMAND (gpm) MINIMUM DURATION SPRINKLER AND HOSE STREAM (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Maximum spacing On-side storage racks up to 9-foot-deep racks On-end storage (on pallets) up to 9-foot-deep racks Minimum nozzle pressure Number of sprinklers operating
High-temperature sprinklers Ordinary temperature sprinklers
IA (maximum 25-foot height) 0.60 3,000 5,000 80 ft2/head
  1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally
  2. One line sprinklers above each tier of storage
  3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical
  4. Shields required where multiple-level
  1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally
  2. One line sprinklers above each tier of storage
  3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical
  4. Shields required where multiple-level
30 psi Hydraulically most remote—six sprinklers at each level 1,000 2
IB, IC and II (maximum 25-foot height) 0.60 3,000 5,000 100 ft2/head
  1. See 1 above
  2. One line sprinklers every three tiers of storage
  3. See 3 above
  4. See 4 above
  1. See 1 above
  2. See 2 above
  3. See 3 above
  4. See 4 above
30 psi Hydraulically most remote—six sprinklers at each level 750 2
III (maximum 40-foot height) 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 ft2/head
  1. See 1 above
  2. One line sprinklers every sixth level (maximum)
  3. See 3 above
  4. See 4 above
  1. See 1 above
  2. One line sprinklers every third level (maximum)
  3. See 3 above
  4. See 4 above
15 psi Hydraulically most remote—six sprinklers at each level 500 1

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. The design assumes the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where a Class I standpipe system is used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 percent without revising density.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(7)

AUTOMATIC AFFF WATER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS GREATER THAN 5-GALLON CAPACITYa, b

CLASS LIQUID CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMANDc DURATION AFFF SUPPLY (minimum) DURATION WATER SUPPLY (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) On-end storage of drums on pallets, up to 25 feet Minimum nozzle pressure (psi) Number of sprinklers operating Hose stream demandd (gpm)
High-temperature sprinklers Ordinary temperature sprinklers
IA, IB, IC and II 0.30 1,500 2,500
  1. Ordinary temperature sprinkler up to 10 feet apart horizontally
  2. One line sprinklers above each level of storage
  3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertically
  4. Shields required for multiple-level
30 Three sprinklers per level 500 15 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. System shall be a closed-head wet system with approved devices for proportioning aqueous film-forming foam.
  2. Except as modified herein, in-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
  3. The height of storage shall not exceed 25 feet.
  4. Hose stream demand includes 11/2-inch inside hose connections, where required.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(8)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CLASS I LIQUID STORAGE IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 1-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESS WITH UNCARTONED OR CASE-CUT SHELF DISPLAY UP TO 6.5 FEET, AND PALLETIZED STORAGE ABOVE IN A DOUBLE-ROW RACK ARRAYa

STORAGE HEIGHT CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMAND MINIMUM HOSE STREAM DEMAND (gpm) MINIMUM DURATION SPRINKLERS AND HOSE STREAM (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Maximum spacing Racks up to 9 feet deep Racks 9 to 12 feet Minimum nozzle pressure Number of sprinklers operating
High temperature Ordinary temperature
Maximum 20-foot storage height 0.60 2,000b Not Applicable 100 ft2/head
  1. Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing
  2. One line of sprinklers at the 6-foot level and the 11.5-foot level of storage
  3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical
  4. Shields required where multiple-level
Not Applicable 30 psi (standard orifice) or 14 psi (large orifice)
  1. Six sprinklers each on two levels
  2. Hydraulically most remote 12 sprinklers
500 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. This table shall not apply to racks with solid shelves.
  2. Using extra-large orifice sprinklers under a ceiling 30 feet or less in height. Minimum aisle width is 7.5 feet.
Cans, containers and vessels containing flammable liquids or flammable liquid compounds or mixtures offered for sale shall be provided with a warning indicator, painted or printed on the container and stating that the liquid is flammable, and shall be kept away from heat and an open flame.
Where required by fire the code official, aisle and storage plans shall be submitted in accordance with Chapter 50.
Quantities of liquids exceeding those set forth in the applicable building code for storage in control areas shall be stored in a liquid storage room complying with the applicable building code.
The quantity limits and storage arrangements in liquid storage rooms shall be in accordance with Tables 5704.3.6.3(2) and 5704.3.6.3(3) and Sections 5704.3.7.2.1 through 5704.3.7.2.3.

Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a pile or rack section, both of the following shall apply:

  1. The quantity in that pile or rack shall not exceed the smallest of the maximum quantities for the classes of liquids stored in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(2) or 5704.3.6.3(3).
  2. The height of storage in that pile or rack shall not exceed the smallest of the maximum heights for the classes of liquids stored in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(2) or 5704.3.6.3(3).

Unless otherwise approved in accordance with the applicable building code, separation and aisles shall comply with this section.

Piles shall be separated from each other by at least 4-foot (1219 mm) aisles. Aisles shall be provided so that all containers are 20 feet (6096 mm) or less from an aisle. Where the storage of liquids is on racks, a minimum 4-foot-wide (1219 mm) aisle shall be provided between adjacent rows of racks and adjacent storage of liquids. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.

Additional aisles shall be maintained for access to doors, required windows and ventilation openings, standpipe connections, mechanical equipment and switches. Such aisles shall be at least 3 feet (914 mm) in width, unless greater widths are required for separation of piles or racks, in which case the greater width shall be provided.

Containers and piles shall be separated by pallets or dunnage to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress to container walls. Portable tanks stored over one tier shall be designed to nest securely without dunnage.

Requirements for portable tank design shall be in accordance with Chapters 9 and 12 of NFPA 30. Shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay and similar installations shall be of noncombustible construction or of wood not less than a 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness. Adequate material-handling equipment shall be available to handle tanks safely at upper tier levels.

Where provided or required by the applicable building code, liquid storage rooms shall maintain spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2 and the applicable building code.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, liquid storage rooms shall be ventilated in accordance with Section 5004.3 and the applicable building code.
Fire protection for liquid storage rooms shall comply with the applicable building code and Sections 5704.3.7.5.1 and 5704.3.7.5.2.

Fire-extinguishing systems for liquid storage rooms shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9 and the applicable building code.

TABLE 5704.3.7.5.1

AUTOMATIC AFFF-WATER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR SOLID-PILE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 5-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESSa, b

PACKAGE TYPE CLASS LIQUID CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMAND STORAGE HEIGHT (feet) HOSE DEMAND (gpm)c DURATION AFFF SUPPLY (minimum) DURATION WATER SUPPLY (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Temperature rating Maximum spacing Orifice size (inch)
Cartoned IB, IC, II and III 0.40 2,000 286°F 100 ft2/head 0.531 11 500 15 2
Uncartoned IB, IC, II and III 0.30 2,000 286°F 100 ft2/head 0.5 or 0.531 12 500 15 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

  1. System shall be a closed-head wet system with approved devices for proportioning aqueous film-forming foam.
  2. Maximum ceiling height of 30 feet.
  3. Hose stream demand includes 11/2-inch inside hose connections, where required.

Not less than one approved portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) or more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any Class I or II liquid storage area located outside of a liquid storage room.

Not less than one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from, the door opening into a liquid storage room.

Buildings used for storage of flammable or combustible liquids in quantities exceeding those set forth in Section 5704.3.4 for control areas and Section 5704.3.7 for liquid storage rooms shall be approved by the building official in accordance with the applicable building code.
The total quantities of liquids in a liquid storage warehouse shall not be limited unless otherwise limited by the applicable building code. Unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code, the arrangement of storage shall be in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(2) or 5704.3.6.3(3).
Mixed storage shall be in accordance with Section 5704.3.7.2.1 unless otherwise required by the applicable building code.
Separation and aisles shall be in accordance with Section 5704.3.7.2.2 unless otherwise required by the applicable building code.
Ventilation for liquid storage warehouses storing containers greater than 5 gallons (19 L) in capacity shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, in liquid storage warehouses either 11/2-inch (38 mm) lined or 1-inch (25 mm) hard rubber hand hose lines shall be maintained in sufficient number to reach all liquid storage areas and shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers and portable tanks outside of buildings shall be in accordance with Section 5703 and Sections 5704.4.1 through 5704.4.8. Capacity limits for containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with Section 5704.3.
Storage shall be in accordance with approved plans.

Outdoor storage of liquids in containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with Table 5704.4.2. Storage of liquids near buildings located on the same lot shall be in accordance with this section.

TABLE 5704.4.2

OUTDOOR LIQUID STORAGE IN CONTAINERS AND PORTABLE TANKS

CLASS OF LIQUID CONTAINER STORAGE—MAXIMUM PER PILE PORTABLE TANK STORAGE—MAXIMUM PER PILE MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN PILES OR RACKS (feet) MINIMUM DISTANCE TO LOT LINE OF PROPERTY THAT CAN BE BUILT UPONc, d(feet) MINIMUM DISTANCE TO PUBLIC STREET, PUBLIC ALLEY OR PUBLIC WAYd (feet)
Quantitya, b(gallons) Height (feet) Quantitya, b(gallons) Height (feet)
IA 1,100 10 2,200 7 5 50 10
IB 2,200 12 4,400 14 5 50 10
IC 4,400 12 8,800 14 5 50 10
II 8,800 12 17,600 14 5 25 5
III 22,000 18 44,000 14 5 10 5

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon 3.785 L.

  1. For mixed class storage, see Section 5704.4.2.
  2. For storage in racks, the quantity limits per pile do not apply, but the rack arrangement shall be limited to not more than 50 feet in length and two rows or 9 feet in depth.
  3. If protection by a public fire department or private fire brigade capable of providing cooling water streams is not available, the distance shall be doubled.
  4. Where the total quantity stored does not exceed 50 percent of the maximum allowed per pile, the distances are allowed to be reduced 50 percent, but not less than 3 feet.
Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a single pile, the quantity in the pile shall not exceed the smallest of maximum quantities for the classes of material stored.
Storage of containers or portable tanks shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Chapter 5.
The storage area shall be protected against tampering or trespassers where necessary and shall be kept free from weeds, debris and other combustible materials not necessary to the storage.

Not more than 1,100 gallons (4163 L) of liquids stored in closed containers and portable tanks is allowed adjacent to a building located on the same premises and under the same management, provided that one of the following requirements is met:

  1. The building does not exceed one story in height. Such building shall be of fire-resistance-rated construction with noncombustible exterior surfaces or noncombustible construction and shall be used principally for the storage of liquids.
  2. The exterior building wall adjacent to the storage area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, having no openings to above-grade areas within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such storage and no openings to below-grade areas within 50 feet (15 240 mm) horizontally of such storage.

The quantity of liquids stored adjacent to a building protected in accordance with Item 2 is allowed to exceed 1,100 gallons (4163 L), provided that the maximum quantity per pile does not exceed 1,100 gallons (4163 L) and each pile is separated by a 10-foot-minimum (3048 mm) clear space along the common wall.

Where the quantity stored exceeds 1,100 gallons (4163 L) adjacent to a building complying with Item 1, or the provisions of Item 1 cannot be met, a minimum distance in accordance with Table 5704.4.2, column 7 ("Minimum Distance to Lot Line of Property That Can Be Built Upon") shall be maintained between buildings and the nearest container or portable tank.

Where provided in accordance with the applicable building code, spill control and secondary containment for storage areas shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5703.4 and the applicable building code.

Exception: Containers stored on approved containment pallets in accordance with Section 5004.2.3 and containers stored in cabinets and lockers with integral spill containment.

Storage areas shall be protected against tampering or trespassers by fencing or other approved control measures.
Guard posts or other means shall be provided to protect exterior storage tanks from vehicular damage. Where guard posts are installed, the posts shall be installed in accordance with Section 312.
The storage area shall be kept free from weeds, debris and combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an exterior storage area shall be kept clear of such materials for a minimum distance of 15 feet (4572 mm).
Weather protection for outdoor storage shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5004.13.and the applicable building code.
The storage of empty tanks and containers previously used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids, unless free from explosive vapors, shall be stored as required for filled containers and tanks. Tanks and containers when emptied shall have the covers or plugs immediately replaced in openings.

Dispensing, use, mixing and handling of flammable liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5703 and this section. Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading and other special operations shall be in accordance with Section 5706.

Exception: Containers of organic coatings having no fire point and which are opened for pigmentation are not required to comply with this section.

Liquid transfer equipment and methods for transfer of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be approved and be in accordance with Sections 5705.2.1 through 5705.2.6.
Where positive-displacement pumps are used, they shall be provided with pressure relief discharging back to the tank, pump suction or other approved location, or shall be provided with interlocks to prevent overpressure.

Where gases are introduced to provide for transfer of Class I liquids, or Class II and III liquids transferred at temperatures at or above their flash points by pressure, only inert gases shall be used. Controls, including pressure relief devices, shall be provided to limit the pressure so that the maximum working pressure of tanks, containers and piping systems cannot be exceeded. Where devices operating through pressure within a tank or container are used, the tank or container shall be a pressure vessel approved for the intended use. Air or oxygen shall not be used for pressurization.

Exception: Air transfer of Class II and III liquids at temperatures below their flash points.

Piping, hoses and valves used in liquid transfer operations shall be approved or listed for the intended use.

Class I liquids or, when heated to or above their flash points, Class II and Class III liquids, shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

  1. From safety cans complying with UL 30.
  2. Through an approved closed piping system.
  3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.
  4. For Class IB, IC, II and III liquids, from containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve where the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5703.4. Class IA liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.
  5. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.

Exception: Liquids in original shipping containers not exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity.

Class I liquids or Class II and Class III liquids that are heated up to or above their flash points shall not be transferred into containers unless the nozzle and containers are electrically interconnected. Acceptable methods of electrical interconnection include either of the following:

  1. Metallic floor plates on which containers stand while filling, where such floor plates are electrically connected to the fill stem.
  2. Where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling by means of a bond wire.
Container-filling operations for Class I liquids involving conveyor belts or other automatic-feeding operations shall be designed to prevent static accumulations.
Indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5705.2 and Sections 5705.3.1 through 5705.3.5.3.

Vessels used for mixing or blending of Class I liquids and Class II or III liquids heated up to or above their flash points shall be provided with self-closing, tight-fitting, noncombustible lids that will control a fire within such vessel.

Exception: Where such devices are impractical, approved automatic or manually controlled fire-extinguishing devices shall be provided.

Where differences of potential could be created, vessels containing Class I liquids or liquids handled at or above their flash points shall be electrically connected by bond wires, ground cables, piping or similar means to a static grounding system to maintain equipment at the same electrical potential to prevent sparking.

Heating, lighting and cooking appliances that utilize Class I liquids shall not be operated within a building or structure.

Exception: Operation in single-family dwellings.

Processing vessels shall be located with respect to distances to lot lines of adjoining property that can be built on, in accordance with Tables 5705.3.4(1) and 5705.3.4(2).

Exception: Where the exterior wall facing the adjoining lot line is a blank wall having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 4 hours, the fire code official is authorized to modify the distances. The distance shall be not less than that set forth in the International Building Code, and where Class IA or unstable liquids are involved, explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 911.

TABLE 5705.3.4(1)

SEPARATION OF PROCESSING VESSELS FROM LOT LINES

PROCESSING VESSELS WITH EMERGENCY RELIEF VENTINGLOCATIONa
Stable liquidsUnstable liquids
Not in excess of 2.5 psigTable 5705.3.4(2)2.5 times Table 5705.3.4(2)
Over 2.5 psig1.5 times Table 5705.3.4(2)4 times Table 5705.3.4(2)

For SI: 1 pound per square inch gauge = 6.895 kPa.

  1. Where protection of exposures by a public fire department or private fire brigade capable of providing cooling water streams on structures is not provided, distances shall be doubled.

TABLE 5705.3.4(2)

REFERENCE TABLE FOR USE WITH TABLE 5705.3.4(1)

TANK CAPACITY (gallons)MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE OF A LOT THAT IS OR CAN BE BUILT UPON, INCLUDING THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF A PUBLIC WAY (feet)MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST SIDE OF ANY PUBLIC WAY OR FROM NEAREST IMPORTANT BUILDING ON THE SAME PROPERTY (feet)
275 or less55
276 to 750105
751 to 12,000155
12,001 to 30,000205
30,001 to 50,0003010
50,001 to 100,0005015
100,001 to 500,0008025
500,001 to 1,000,00010035
1,000,001 to 2,000,00013545
2,000,001 to 3,000,00016555
3,000,001 or more17560

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

Liquid use quantity limitations shall comply with Sections 5705.3.5.1 through 5705.3.5.3.

Indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Section 5003.1.1 and shall not exceed the additional limitations set forth in Section 5705.3.5.

Use of hazardous production material flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-5 occupancies shall be in accordance with Chapter 27.

Exception: Cleaning with Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5705.3.6.

The following limits for quantities of flammable and combustible liquids used, dispensed or mixed based on occupancy classification shall not be exceeded:

Exception: Cleaning with Class I, II, or IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5705.3.6.

  1. Group A occupancies: Quantities in Group A occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Section 5003.1.1.
  2. Group B occupancies: Quantities in drinking, dining, office and school uses within Group B occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Section 5003.1.1.
  3. Group E occupancies: Quantities in Group E occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Section 5003.1.1.
  4. Group F occupancies: Quantities in dining, office and school uses within Group F occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Section 5003.1.1.
  5. Group I occupancies: Quantities in Group I occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Section 5003.1.1.
  6. Group M occupancies: Quantities in dining, office and school uses within Group M occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Section 5003.1.1.
  7. Group R occupancies: Quantities in Group R occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Section 5003.1.1.
  8. Group S occupancies: Quantities in dining and office uses within Group S occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Section 5003.1.1.

Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Sections 5705.3.5.1 and 5705.3.5.2 shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. For open systems, indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be within a room or building complying with the International Building Code and Sections 5705.3.7.1 through 5705.3.7.5.3.
  2. For closed systems, indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be within a room or building complying with the International Building Code and Sections 5705.3.7 through 5705.3.7.4 and Section 5705.3.7.6.

Cleaning with Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.6.1 through 5705.3.6.2.7.

Exceptions:

  1. Dry cleaning shall be in accordance with Chapter 21.
  2. Spray-nozzle cleaning shall be in accordance with Section 2403.3.5.

Class IA liquids shall not be used for cleaning. Cleaning with Class IB, IC or II liquids shall be conducted as follows:

  1. In a room or building, Section 5705.3.7; or
  2. In a parts cleaner listed, labeled and approved for the purpose, Section 5705.3.6.2.

Exception: Materials used in commercial and industrial process-related cleaning operations in accordance with other provisions of this code and not involving facilities maintenance cleaning operations.

Parts cleaning and degreasing conducted in listed and approved machines in accordance with Section 5705.3.6.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.6.2.1 through 5705.3.6.2.7.
Solvents shall be classified and shall be compatible with the machines within which they are used.
The quantity of solvent shall not exceed the listed design capacity of the machine for the solvent being used with the machine.
Solvent quantities shall be limited in accordance with the applicable building code.
Work areas of machines with remote solvent reservoirs shall not be used for immersion soaking of parts.
Multiple machines shall be separated from each other by a distance of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or by a fire barrier with a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating.
Machines shall be located in areas adequately ventilated to prevent accumulation of vapors.
Machines shall be installed in accordance with their listings.
Where required by Section 5705.3.5.3 or 5705.3.6.1, rooms or buildings used for the use, dispensing or mixing of flammable and combustible liquids in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.7.1 through 5705.3.7.6.3.
Rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the International Building Code as Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies based on use, dispensing or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.
In rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the International Building Code as Group H-2 or H-3, dispensing or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids shall not be conducted in basements.
Rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the International Building Code as Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies shall be equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9.
Interior doors to rooms or portions of such buildings shall be self-closing fire doors in accordance with the International Building Code.
Use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids in open systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.7.5.1 through 5705.3.7.5.3.

Continuous mechanical ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cfm per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area over the design area. Provisions shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner to include all floor areas or pits where vapors can collect. Local or spot ventilation shall be provided where needed to prevent the accumulation of hazardous vapors. Ventilation system design shall comply with the International Building Code and International Mechanical Code.

Exception: Where natural ventilation can be shown to be effective for the materials used, dispensed or mixed.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 911.
Spill control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5703.4 where Class I, II or IIIA liquids are dispensed into containers exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or mixed or used in open containers or systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity. Spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with Section 5703.4 where the capacity of an individual container exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple containers or tanks exceeds 100 gallons (378.5 L).
Use or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids in closed systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.7.6.1 through 5705.3.7.6.3.
Closed systems designed to be opened as part of normal operations shall be provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 5705.3.7.5.1.

Explosion control shall be provided where an explosive environment can occur as a result of the mixing or use process. Explosion control shall be designed in accordance with Section 911.

Exception: Where process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions considering the most likely failure.

Spill control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5703.4 where flammable or combustible liquids are dispensed into containers exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or mixed or used in open containers or systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity. Spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with Section 5703.4 where the capacity of an individual container exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple containers or tanks exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L).

Outside use, dispensing and handling shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.8.1 through 5705.3.8.4.

Dispensing of liquids into motor vehicle fuel tanks at motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Chapter 23.

Outside use, dispensing and handling areas shall be provided with spill control as set forth in Section 5703.4.

Dispensing activities that exceed the quantities set forth in Table 5705.3.8.2 shall not be conducted within 15 feet (4572 mm) of buildings or combustible materials or within 25 feet (7620 mm) of building openings, lot lines, public streets, public alleys or public ways. Dispensing activities that exceed the quantities set forth in Table 5705.3.8.2 shall not be conducted within 15 feet (4572 mm) of storage of Class I, II or III liquids unless such liquids are stored in tanks that are listed and labeled as 2-hour protected tank assemblies in accordance with UL 2085.

Exceptions:

  1. The requirements shall not apply to areas where only the following are dispensed: Class III liquids; liquids that are heavier than water; water-miscible liquids; and liquids with viscosities greater than 10,000 centipoise (cp) (10 Pa s).
  2. Flammable and combustible liquid dispensing in refineries, chemical plants, process facilities, gas and crude oil production facilities and oil-blending and packaging facilities, terminals and bulk plants.

TABLE 5705.3.8.2

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITIES FOR DISPENSING FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREASa, b

CLASS OF LIQUID QUANTITY (gallons)
Flammable
  Class IA 10
  Class IB 15
  Class IC 20
  Combination Class IA, IB and IC 30c
Combustible
  Class II 30
  Class IIIA 803,300
  Class IIIB

For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. For definition of "Outdoor Control Area," see Section 202.
  2. The fire code official is authorized to impose special conditions regarding locations, types of containers, dispensing units, fire control measures and other factors involving fire safety.
  3. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of each individual class.

Processing vessels shall be located with respect to distances to lot lines that can be built on in accordance with Table 5705.3.4(1).

Exception: In refineries and distilleries.

Weather protection for outdoor use shall be in accordance with Section 5005.3.9.

Solvent distillation units used to recycle Class I, II or IIIA liquids having a distillation chamber capacity of 60 gallons (227 L) or less shall be listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 5705.4 and UL 2208.

Exceptions:

  1. Solvent distillation units used in continuous through-put industrial processes where the source of heat is remotely supplied using steam, hot water, oil or other heat transfer fluids, the temperature of which is below the auto-ignition point of the solvent.
  2. Approved research, testing and experimental processes.
Solvent distillation units used to recycle Class I, II or IIIA liquids, having a distillation chamber capacity exceeding 60 gallons (227 L) shall be used in locations that comply with the use and mixing requirements of Section 5705 and other applicable provisions in this chapter.

Class I, II and IIIA liquids that are classified as unstable (reactive) shall not be processed in solvent distillation units.

Exception: Appliances listed for the distillation of unstable (reactive) solvents.

A permanent label shall be affixed to the unit by the manufacturer. The label shall indicate the capacity of the distillation chamber, and the distance the unit shall be placed away from sources of ignition. The label shall indicate the products for which the unit has been listed for use or refer to the instruction manual for a list of the products.
An instruction manual shall be provided. The manual shall be readily available for the user and the fire code official. The manual shall include installation, use and servicing instructions. It shall identify the liquids for which the unit has been listed for distillation purposes along with each liquid's flash point and auto-ignition temperature. For units with adjustable controls, the manual shall include directions for setting the heater temperature for each liquid to be instilled.
Solvent distillation units shall be used in locations in accordance with the listing. Solvent distillation units shall not be used in basements.
Distilled liquids and liquids awaiting distillation shall be stored in accordance with Section 5704.
Hazardous residue from the distillation process shall be stored in accordance with Section 5704 and Chapter 50.
Approved portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906. Not less than one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 40-B shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from any solvent distillation unit.

The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids shall be in accordance with all of the following:

  1. The maximum capacity of each dispenser shall be 68 ounces (2 L).
  2. The minimum separation between dispensers shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).
  3. The dispensers shall not be installed above, below, or closer than 1 inch (25 mm) to an electrical receptacle, switch, appliance, device or other ignition source. The wall space between the dispenser and the floor or intervening countertop shall be free of electrical receptacles, switches, appliances, devices or other ignition sources.
  4. Dispensers shall be mounted so that the bottom of the dispenser is not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) and not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the finished floor.
  5. Dispensers shall not release their contents except when the dispenser is manually activated. Facilities shall be permitted to install and use automatically activated "touch free" alcohol-based hand-rub dispensing devices with the following requirements:

    5.1.   The facility or persons responsible for the dispensers shall test the dispensers each time a new refill is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's care and use instructions.

    5.2.   Dispensers shall be designed and must operate in a manner that ensures accidental or malicious activations of the dispensing device are minimized. At a minimum, all devices subject to or used in accordance with this section shall have the following safety features:

    5.2.1.   Any activations of the dispenser shall only occur when an object is placed within 4 inches (98 mm) of the sensing device.

    5.2.2.   The dispenser shall not dispense more than the amount required for hand hygiene consistent with label instructions as regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA).

    5.2.3.   An object placed within the activation zone and left in place will cause only one activation.

  6. Storage and use of alcohol-based hand rubs shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 5704 and 5705.
  7. Dispensers installed in occupancies with carpeted floors shall only be allowed in smoke compartments or fire areas equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 or NFPA 13R or the applicable building code.

Where wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs are installed in corridors, they shall be in accordance with all of the following:

  1. Level 2 and 3 aerosol containers shall not be allowed in corridors.
  2. The maximum capacity of each Class I or II liquid dispenser shall be 41 ounces (1.21 L) and the maximum capacity of each Level 1 aerosol dispenser shall be 18 ounces (0.51 kg).
  3. The maximum quantity allowed in a corridor within a control area shall be 10 gallons (37.85 L) of Class I or II liquids or 1,135 ounces (32.2 kg) of Level 1 aerosols, or a combination of Class I or II liquids and Level 1 aerosols not to exceed, in total, the equivalent of 10 gallons (37.85 L) or 1,135 ounces (32.2 kg) such that the sum of the ratios of the liquid and aerosol quantities divided by the allowable quantity of liquids and aerosols, respectively, shall not exceed one.
  4. The minimum corridor width shall be 72 inches (1829 mm).
  5. Projections into a corridor shall be in accordance with the applicable building code.

This section shall cover the provisions for special operations that include, but are not limited to, storage, use, dispensing, mixing or handling of flammable and combustible liquids. The following special operations shall be in accordance with Sections 5701, 5703, 5704 and 5705, except as provided in Section 5706.

  1. Storage and dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids on farms and construction sites.
  2. Well drilling and operating.
  3. Bulk plants or terminals.
  4. Bulk transfer and process transfer operations utilizing tank vehicles and tank cars.
  5. Tank vehicles and tank vehicle operation.
  6. Refineries.
  7. Vapor recovery and vapor-processing systems.

Permanent and temporary storage and dispensing of Class I and II liquids for private use on farms and rural areas and at construction sites, earth-moving projects, gravel pits or borrow pits shall be in accordance with Sections 5706.2.1 through 5706.2.8.1.

Exception: Storage and use of fuel oil and containers connected with oil-burning equipment regulated by Section 603 and the International Mechanical Code.

Storage areas shall be kept free from weeds and extraneous combustible material. Open flames and smoking are prohibited in flammable or combustible liquid storage areas.
Tanks and containers for the storage of liquids above ground shall be conspicuously marked with the name of the product that they contain and the words: FLAMMABLE—KEEP FIRE AND FLAME AWAY. Tanks shall bear the additional marking: KEEP 50 FEET FROM BUILDINGS.

Metal containers used for storage of Class I or II liquids shall be in accordance with DOTn requirements or shall be of an approved design.

Discharge devices shall be of a type that do not develop an internal pressure on the container. Pumping devices or approved self-closing faucets used for dispensing liquids shall not leak and shall be well-maintained. Individual containers shall not be interconnected and shall be kept closed when not in use.

Containers stored outside of buildings shall be in accordance with Section 5704 and the International Building Code.

The capacity of permanent above-ground tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall not exceed 1,100 gallons (4164 L). The capacity of temporary above-ground tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall not exceed 10,000 gallons (37 854 L). Tanks shall be of the single-compartment design.

Exception: Permanent above-ground tanks of greater capacity that meet the requirements of Section 5704.2.

Fill openings shall be equipped with a locking closure device. Fill openings shall be separate from vent openings.

Tanks shall be provided with a method of normal and emergency venting. Normal vents shall be in accordance with the applicable building code.

Emergency vents shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.4. Emergency vents shall be arranged to discharge in a manner that prevents localized overheating or flame impingement on any part of the tank in the event that vapors from such vents are ignited.

Tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall be kept outside and not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from buildings and combustible storage. Additional distance shall be provided where necessary to ensure that vehicles, equipment and containers being filled directly from such tanks will not be less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from structures, haystacks or other combustible storage.
The storage of Class I and II liquids in above-ground tanks is prohibited within the limits established by law as the limits of districts in which such storage is prohibited [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY].
Tanks shall be provided with top openings only or shall be elevated for gravity discharge.

Tanks with top openings shall be mounted in accordance with either of the following:

  1. On well-constructed metal legs connected to shoes or runners designed so that the tank is stabilized and the entire tank and its supports can be moved as a unit.
  2. For stationary tanks, on a stable base of timbers or blocks approximately 6 inches (152 mm) in height that prevents the tank from contacting the ground.
Tanks with top openings only shall be equipped with a tightly and permanently attached, approved pumping device having an approved hose of sufficient length for filling vehicles, equipment or containers to be served from the tank. Either the pump or the hose shall be equipped with a padlock to its hanger to prevent tampering. An effective antisiphoning device shall be included in the pump discharge unless a self-closing nozzle is provided. Siphons or internal pressure discharge devices shall not be used.

Tanks with a connection in the bottom or the end for gravity-dispensing liquids shall be mounted and equipped as follows:

  1. Supports to elevate the tank for gravity discharge shall be designed to carry all required loads and provide stability.
  2. Bottom or end openings for gravity discharge shall be equipped with a valve located adjacent to the tank shell that will close automatically in the event of fire through the operation of an effective heat-activated releasing device. Where this valve cannot be operated manually, it shall be supplemented by a second, manually operated valve.

The gravity discharge outlet shall be provided with an approved hose equipped with a self-closing valve at the discharge end of a type that can be padlocked to its hanger.

Where provided or required by the applicable building code, indoor storage and dispensing areas shall be maintained with spill control and drainage control as set forth in Section 5703.4. Where provided or required by the applicable building code, outdoor storage areas shall be maintained with drainage control or diking as set forth in Section 5704.2.10.
Portable fire extinguishers with a minimum rating of 20-B:C and complying with Section 906 shall be provided where required by the fire code official.

Where approved, liquids used as fuels are allowed to be transferred from tank vehicles into the tanks of motor vehicles or special equipment, provided that:

  1. The tank vehicle's specific function is that of supplying fuel to motor vehicle fuel tanks.
  2. The dispensing hose does not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm) in length.
  3. The dispensing nozzle is an approved type.
  4. The dispensing hose is properly placed on an approved reel or in a compartment provided before the tank vehicle is moved.
  5. Signs prohibiting smoking or open flames within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the vehicle or the point of refueling are prominently posted on the tank vehicle.
  6. Electrical devices and wiring in areas where fuel dispensing is conducted are in accordance with NFPA 70.
  7. Tank vehicle-dispensing equipment is operated only by designated personnel who are trained to handle and dispense motor fuels.
  8. Provisions are made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized discharges.
Dispensing from tank vehicles shall be conducted not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from structures or combustible storage.
Wells for oil and natural gas shall be drilled and operated in accordance with Sections 5706.3.1 through 5706.3.8.
The location of wells shall comply with Sections 5706.3.1.1 through 5706.3.1.3.2.

Storage tanks or boilers, fired heaters, open-flame devices or other sources of ignition shall not be located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of well heads. Smoking is prohibited at wells or tank locations except as designated and in approved posted areas.

Exception: Engines used in the drilling, production and serving of wells.

Wells shall not be drilled within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of any dedicated public street, highway or nearest rail of an operating railway.
Wells shall not be drilled within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of buildings not necessary to the operation of the well.
Wells shall not be drilled within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of buildings with an occupancy in Group A, E or I.
Where wells are existing, buildings shall not be constructed within the distances set forth in Section 5706.3.1 for separation of wells or buildings.
Control of waste materials associated with wells shall comply with Sections 5706.3.2.1 and 5706.3.2.2.
Liquids containing crude petroleum or its products shall not be discharged into or on streets, highways, drainage canals or ditches, storm drains or flood control channels.
The surface of the ground under, around or near wells, pumps, boilers, oil storage tanks or buildings shall be kept free from oil, waste oil, refuse or waste material.
Sumps associated with wells shall comply with Sections 5706.3.3.1 through 5706.3.3.3.
Sumps or other basins for the retention of oil or petroleum products larger than 6 feet by 6 feet by 6 feet (1829 mm by 1829 mm by 1829 mm) shall not be maintained longer than 60 days after the cessation of drilling operations.
Sumps, diversion ditches and depressions used as sumps shall be securely fenced or covered.
Protection shall be provided to control and prevent the blowout of a well. Protection equipment shall meet federal, state and other applicable jurisdiction requirements.
Storage of flammable or combustible liquids in tanks shall be in accordance with Section 5704. Oil storage tanks or groups of tanks shall have posted in a conspicuous place, on or near such tank or tanks, an approved sign with the name of the owner or operator, or the lease number and the telephone number where a responsible person can be reached at any time.
Where soundproofing material is required during oil field operations, such material shall be noncombustible.
Well locations shall have posted in a conspicuous place on or near such tank or tanks an approved sign with the name of the owner or operator, name of the leasee or the lease number, the well number and the telephone number where a responsible person can be reached at any time. Such signs shall be maintained on the premises from the time materials are delivered for drilling purposes until the well is abandoned.
Field-loading racks shall be in accordance with Section 5706.5.
Portions of properties where flammable and combustible liquids are received by tank vessels, pipelines, tank cars or tank vehicles and stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distribution by tank vessels, pipelines, tanks cars, tank vehicles or containers shall be in accordance with Sections 5706.4.1 through 5706.4.10.4.
Buildings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Rooms in which liquids are stored, used or transferred by pumps shall have means of egress maintained in accordance with Chapter 10 and the applicable building code to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire.
Rooms in which Class I liquids are stored or used shall be heated only by means not constituting a source of ignition, such as steam or hot water. Rooms containing heating appliances involving sources of ignition shall be located and arranged to prevent entry of flammable vapors.
Ventilation for rooms, buildings and enclosures in which Class I liquids are pumped, used or transferred shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code. When natural ventilation is inadequate, mechanical ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the applicable building code.
Class I liquids shall not be stored or used within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors can travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.
Containers of Class I liquids shall not be drawn from or filled within buildings unless a provision is made to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors in hazardous concentrations. Where mechanical ventilation is required, it shall be kept in operation while flammable vapors could be present.
Storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquids in bulk plants shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 5704.
Manual and automatic systems shall be provided to prevent overfill during the transfer of Class I and II liquids from mainline pipelines and marine vessels in accordance with API 2350.

This section shall apply to all wharves, piers, bulkheads and other structures over or contiguous to navigable water having a primary function of transferring liquid cargo in bulk between shore installations and tank vessels, ships, barges, lighter boats or other mobile floating craft.

Exception: Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities in accordance with Chapter 23.

Handling packaged cargo of liquids, including full and empty drums, bulk fuel and stores, over a wharf during cargo transfer shall be subject to the approval of the wharf supervisor and the senior deck officer on duty.
Wharves at which liquid cargoes are to be transferred in bulk quantities to or from tank vessels shall be not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm) from any bridge over a navigable waterway; or from an entrance to, or superstructure of, any vehicular or railroad tunnel under a waterway. The termination of the fixed piping used for loading or unloading at a wharf shall be not less than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a bridge or from an entrance to, or superstructures of, a tunnel.
Superstructure and decking shall be designed for the intended use. Decking shall be constructed of materials that will afford the desired combination of flexibility, resistance to shock, durability, strength and fire resistance.
Tanks used exclusively for ballast water or Class II or III liquids are allowed to be installed on suitably designed wharves.
Loading pumps capable of building up pressures in excess of the safe working pressure of cargo hose or loading arms shall be provided with bypasses, relief valves or other arrangements to protect the loading facilities against excessive pressure. Relief devices shall be tested not less than annually to determine that they function satisfactorily at their set pressure.
Piping, valves and fittings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Loading or discharging shall not commence until the wharf superintendent and officer in charge of the tank vessel agree that the tank vessel is properly moored and connections are properly made.
Mechanical work shall not be performed on the wharf during cargo transfer, except under special authorization by the fire code official based on a review of the area involved, methods to be employed and precautions necessary.
Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall not be used, drawn or dispensed where flammable vapors can reach a source of ignition. Smoking shall be prohibited except in designated locations. "No Smoking" signs complying with Section 310 shall be conspicuously posted where a hazard from flammable vapors is normally present.
Loading and unloading areas shall be maintained with drainage control in accordance with Section 5704.2.10 and the applicable building code.
Fire protection for bulk plants or terminals shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9, Sections 5706.4.10.1 through 5706.4.10.4 and the applicable building code.
Portable fire extinguishers with a rating of not less than 20-B and complying with Section 906 shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of hose connections, pumps and separator tanks.
Where piped water is available, ready-connected fire hose in a size appropriate for the water supply shall be provided in accordance with Section 905 so that manifolds where connections are made and broken can be reached by not less than one hose stream.
Material shall not be placed on wharves in such a manner that would obstruct access to fire-fighting equipment or important pipeline control valves.
Where the wharf is designed for vehicular traffic, an unobstructed fire apparatus access road to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 5.
Bulk transfer and process transfer operations shall be approved and be in accordance with Sections 5706.5.1 through 5706.5.4.5. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Chapter 23.
The provisions of Sections 5706.5.1.1 through 5706.5.1.18 shall apply to bulk transfer and process transfer operations; Sections 5706.5.2 and 5706.5.2.1 shall apply to bulk transfer operations; Sections 5706.5.3 through 5706.5.3.3 shall apply to process transfer operations and Sections 5706.5.4 through 5706.5.4.5 shall apply to dispensing from tank vehicles and tank cars.

Bulk transfer and process transfer operations shall be conducted in approved locations. Tank cars shall be unloaded only on private sidings or railroad-siding facilities equipped for transferring flammable or combustible liquids. Tank vehicles and tank cars engaged in bulk transfer or process transfer operations shall be separated from buildings, above-ground tanks, combustible materials, lot lines, public streets, public alleys or public ways by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) for Class I liquids and 15 feet (4572 mm) for Class II and IIIA liquids measured from the nearest loading or unloading valve on the tank vehicle or tank car.

Exception: Buildings for pumps and shelters for personnel supporting transfer operations shall not be required to be separated from tank vehicles and tank cars engaged in bulk transfer or process transfer operations.

Where weather protection canopies are provided, they shall be approved by the building official and maintained in accordance with Section 5004.13 and the applicable building code.
Ventilation shall be operated and maintained to prevent accumulation of vapors in accordance with the applicable building code.
Sources of ignition shall be controlled or eliminated in accordance with Section 5003.7.
Areas where transfer operations are located shall be maintained with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with the applicable building code.
Fire protection shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9, Section 5703.2 and the applicable building code.

Static protection shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of static charges during transfer operations. Bonding facilities shall be provided during the transfer through open domes where Class I liquids are transferred, or where Class II and III liquids are transferred into tank vehicles or tank cars that could contain vapors from previous cargoes of Class I liquids.

Protection shall consist of a metallic bond wire permanently electrically connected to the fill stem. The fill pipe assembly shall form a continuous electrically conductive path downstream from the point of bonding. The free end of such bond wire shall be provided with a clamp or equivalent device for convenient attachment to a metallic part in electrical contact with the cargo tank of the tank vehicle or tank car. For tank vehicles, protection shall consist of a flexible bond wire of adequate strength for the intended service and the electrical resistance shall not exceed 1 megohm. For tank cars, bonding shall be provided where the resistance of a tank car to ground through the rails is 25 ohms or greater.

Such bonding connection shall be fastened to the vehicle, car or tank before dome covers are raised and shall remain in place until filling is complete and all dome covers have been closed and secured.

Exceptions:

  1. Where vehicles and cars are loaded exclusively with products not having a static-accumulating tendency, such as asphalt, cutback asphalt, most crude oils, residual oils and water-miscible liquids.
  2. Where Class I liquids are not handled at the transfer facility and the tank vehicles are used exclusively for Class II and III liquids.
  3. Where vehicles and cars are loaded or unloaded through closed top or bottom connections whether the hose is conductive or nonconductive.

Filling through open domes into the tanks of tank vehicles or tank cars that contain vapor-air mixtures within the flammable range, or where the liquid being filled can form such a mixture, shall be by means of a downspout that extends to near the bottom of the tank.

Tank car loading facilities where Class I, II or IIIA liquids are transferred through open domes shall be protected against stray currents by permanently bonding the pipe to not less than one rail and to the transfer apparatus. Multiple pipes entering the transfer areas shall be permanently electrically bonded together. In areas where excessive stray currents are known to exist, all pipes entering the transfer area shall be provided with insulating sections to isolate electrically the transfer apparatus from the pipelines.

When top loading a tank vehicle with Class I and II liquids without vapor control, valves used for the final control of flow shall be of the self-closing type and shall be manually held open except where automatic means are provided for shutting off the flow when the tank is full. Where used, automatic shutoff systems shall be provided with a manual shutoff valve located at a safe distance from the loading nozzle to stop the flow if the automatic system fails.

When top loading a tank vehicle with vapor control, flow control shall be in accordance with Section 5706.5.1.10. Self-closing valves shall not be tied or locked in the open position.

When bottom loading a tank vehicle or tank car with or without vapor control, a positive means shall be provided for loading a predetermined quantity of liquid, together with an automatic secondary shutoff control to prevent overfill. The connecting components between the transfer equipment and the tank vehicle or tank car required to operate the secondary control shall be functionally compatible.
When bottom loading a tank vehicle, the coupling between the liquid loading hose or pipe and the truck piping shall be a dry disconnect coupling.
When bottom loading a tank vehicle or tank car that is equipped for vapor control and vapor control is not used, the tank shall be vented to the atmosphere to prevent pressurization of the tank. Such venting shall be at a height equal to or greater than the top of the cargo tank.
Connections to the plant vapor control system shall be designed to prevent the escape of vapor to the atmosphere when not connected to a tank vehicle or tank car.
Vapor-processing equipment shall be separated from above-ground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings, transfer facilities or nearest lot line of adjoining property that can be built on by a distance of not less than 25 feet (7620 mm). Vapor-processing equipment shall be protected from physical damage by remote location, guard rails, curbs or fencing.
Tank vehicles or tank cars that have previously contained Class I liquids shall not be loaded with Class II or III liquids until such vehicles and all piping, pumps, hoses and meters connected thereto have been completely drained and flushed.
Where provided, loading racks, stairways or platforms shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Buildings for pumps or for shelter of loading personnel are allowed to be part of the loading rack. Wiring and electrical equipment located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of any portion of the loading rack shall be in accordance with Section 5703.1.1.