ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2018 (IFC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, dispensing, use and handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this chapter for operational usage. Quantities within buildings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

This chapter shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code, except that where specific requirements are provided in other chapters, those specific requirements shall apply in accordance with the applicable chapter. Where a material has multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed.

Exceptions:

  1. In retail or wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  2. Quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  3. Application and release of pesticide and agricultural products and materials intended for use in weed abatement, erosion control, soil amendment, or similar applications where applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and label directions.
  4. The offsite transportation of hazardous materials where in accordance with US Department of Transportation regulations.
  5. Building materials not otherwise regulated by this code.
  6. Refrigeration systems (see Section 606).
  7. Stationary storage battery systems regulated by Section 608.
  8. The display, storage, sale or use of fireworks and explosives in accordance with Chapter 56.
  9. Corrosives utilized in personal and household products in the manufacturer's original consumer packaging in Group M occupancies.
  10. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.
  11. The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids where in accordance with Section 5705.5.
Hazardous materials are those chemicals or substances defined as such in this code. Definitions of hazardous materials shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code.
Mixtures shall be classified in accordance with hazards of the mixture as a whole. Mixtures of hazardous materials shall be classified in accordance with nationally recognized reference standards; by an approved qualified organization, individual, or Safety Data Sheet (SDS); or by other approved methods.
Hazardous materials shall be classified according to hazard categories. The categories include materials regulated by this chapter and materials regulated elsewhere in this code.

The material categories listed in this section are classified as physical hazards. A material with a primary classification as a physical hazard can also pose a health hazard.

  1. Explosives and blasting agents.
  2. Combustible liquids.
  3. Flammable solids, liquids and gases.
  4. Organic peroxide solids or liquids.
  5. Oxidizer, solids or liquids.
  6. Oxidizing gases.
  7. Pyrophoric solids, liquids or gases.
  8. Unstable (reactive) solids, liquids or gases.
  9. Water-reactive materials solids or liquids.
  10. Cryogenic fluids.

The material categories listed in this section are classified as health hazards. A material with a primary classification as a health hazard can also pose a physical hazard.

  1. Highly toxic and toxic materials.
  2. Corrosive materials.
Where approved by the fire code official, buildings and facilities where hazardous materials are stored, used or handled shall be permitted to comply with this section as an alternative to compliance with the other requirements set forth in this chapter and Chapters 51 through 67.
The objective of Section 5001.3 is to protect people and property from the consequences of unauthorized discharge, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.

Performance-based design alternatives are based on the following functional statements:

  1. Provide safeguards to minimize the risk of unwanted releases, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.
  2. Provide safeguards to minimize the consequences of an unsafe condition involving hazardous materials during normal operations and in the event of an abnormal condition.
Where safeguards, systems, documentation, written plans or procedures, audits, process hazards analysis, mitigation measures, engineering controls or construction features are required by Sections 5001.3.3.1 through 5001.3.3.18, the details of the design alternative shall be subject to approval by the fire code official. The details of actions granting the use of the design alternatives shall be recorded and entered in the files of the jurisdiction.
The physical- and health-hazard properties of hazardous materials on site shall be known and shall be made readily available to employees, neighbors and the fire code official.
Equipment and operations involving hazardous materials shall be designed, installed and maintained to ensure that they reliably operate as intended.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of an unintentional reaction or release that could endanger people or property.
Spill containment systems or means to render a spill harmless to people or property shall be provided where a spill is determined to be a plausible event and where such an event would endanger people or property.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing combustible hazardous materials to unintended sources of ignition.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing hazardous materials to a fire or physical damage whereby such exposure could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.
Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of and limit damage from a fire or explosion involving explosive hazardous materials whereby such fire or explosion could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.
Where a release of hazardous materials gas or vapor would cause immediate harm to persons or property, means of mitigating the dangerous effects of a release shall be provided.
Where a power supply is relied upon to prevent or control an emergency condition that could endanger people or property, the power supply shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Where ventilation is required by the applicable building code, it shall be maintained.
Process hazard analyses shall be conducted to ensure reasonably the protection of people and property from dangerous conditions involving hazardous materials.
Written documentation of prestartup safety review procedures shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are initiated in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.
Written documentation of operating procedures and procedures for emergency shut down shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are conducted in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.
A written plan for management of change shall be developed and enforced. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.
A written emergency plan shall be developed to ensure that proper actions are taken in the event of an emergency, and the plan shall be followed if an emergency condition occurs. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.
Written procedures for investigation and documentation of accidents shall be developed, and accidents shall be investigated and documented in accordance with these procedures.
Where an accidental release of hazardous materials could endanger people or property, either on or off-site, an analysis of the expected consequences of a plausible release shall be performed and utilized in the analysis and selection of active and passive hazard mitigation controls.
Safety audits shall be conducted on a periodic basis to verify compliance with the requirements of this section.
For retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and storage in Group S occupancies, see Section 5003.11.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 107.2.

Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP). The HMMP shall include a facility site plan designating the following:

  1. Access to each storage and use area.
  2. Location of emergency equipment.
  3. Location where liaison will meet emergency responders.
  4. Facility evacuation meeting point locations.
  5. The general purpose of other areas within the building.
  6. Location of all above-ground and underground tanks and their appurtenances including, but not limited to, sumps, vaults, below-grade treatment systems and piping.
  7. The hazard classes in each area.
  8. Locations of all control areas and Group H occupancies.
  9. Emergency exits.

The HMMP shall be maintained on-site for use by emergency responders and shall be updated not less than annually.

Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include an HMIS, such as Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) Title III, Tier II Report or other approved statement. The HMIS shall include the following information:

  1. Product name.
  2. Component.
  3. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number.
  4. Location where stored or used.
  5. Container size.
  6. Hazard classification.
  7. Amount in storage.
  8. Amount in use-closed systems.
  9. Amount in use-open systems.

The HMIS shall be maintained on-site or readily available through another means where approved by the fire code official for use by temporary responders, and shall be updated not less than annually.

When a HMMP or HMIS is required, the owner or operator shall provide a repository container (lock box) or other approved means for the storage of items required in Sections 5001.5.1 and 5001.5.2 to be readily available to emergency response personnel.
The repository container (lock box) shall be located, installed and identified in an approved manner.
All repository containers (lock boxes) shall be keyed as required by the fire code official.
Facilities shall be placed out of service in accordance with Sections 5001.6.1 through 5001.6.3.
Facilities that are temporarily out of service shall continue to maintain a permit and be monitored and inspected.
Facilities for which a permit is not kept current or is not monitored and inspected on a regular basis shall be deemed to be permanently out of service and shall be closed in an approved manner. Where required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to close permanently storage, use or handling facilities. The fire code official is authorized to require that such application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3.
Where a facility closure plan is required in accordance with Section 5001.5 to terminate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous materials, it shall be submitted to the fire code official not less than 30 days prior to facility closure. The plan shall demonstrate that hazardous materials that are stored, dispensed, handled or used in the facility will be transported, disposed of or reused in a manner that eliminates the need for further maintenance and any threat to public health and safety.
Teaching and research laboratories in Group B educational occupancies above the 12th grade utilizing Section 428 of the USBC, Part I, Construction, or Section 306.1 of the USBC, Part II, Existing Buildings, shall comply with this section and other applicable requirements of this code. In the case of conflicts between the requirements of Section 430 of the USBC, Part I, Construction, or Section 306.1 of the USBC, Part II, Existing Buildings, and provisions of this code other than those set out in this section, Section 430 of the USBC, Part I, Construction, or Section 306.1 of the USBC, Part II, Existing Buildings, as applicable, shall govern.
Operating and emergency procedures planning and documentation shall be as set out in Sections 5001.3.3.11 through 5001.3.3.17. Such documentation shall be prepared by laboratory safety personnel or special experts and shall be made available in the workplace for reference and review by employees. Copies of such documentation shall be furnished to the fire code official for review upon request.
Receiving, transporting on site, unpacking, and dispensing of hazardous materials shall be carried out by persons trained in proper handling of such materials and shall be performed in accordance with Chapters 50 through 67, as applicable.
Warning signs for other than building components shall be provided in accordance with Section 5003.5.
Maintenance of equipment, machinery, and processes used with hazardous materials shall comply with Section 5003.2.6.
Containers of materials that have the potential to become hazardous during prolonged storage shall be dated when first opened and shall be managed in accordance with NFPA 45, Section 8.2.4.4.1.
Storage, dispensing, use, and handling requirements in the USBC, Part I, Construction, or the USBC, Part II, Existing Buildings, shall be maintained. Operational requirements not affecting the manner of construction shall comply with this chapter and Chapters 51 through 67, as applicable.
Storage, dispensing, use, and handling of hazardous waste shall comply with this chapter and Chapters 51 through 67, as applicable.

The maximum container size for all hazardous materials shall be 5.3 gallons (20 L) for liquids, 50 pounds (23 kg) for solids, 100 cubic feet (2.8. m3) for health hazard gases and 500 cubic feet (14 m3) for all other gases.

Exception: Hazardous waste collection containers, for other than Class I and Class II flammable liquids, are permitted to exceed 5.3 gallons (20 L) where approved.

Quantities of Class I, II, and IIIA combustible or flammable liquids in storage and use within control areas or laboratory suites shall not exceed 8 gallons per 100 square feet (30 L/9.3 m2) of floor area, with not more than 4 gallons per 100 square feet (15 L/9.3 m2) being in use. Quantities of Class I flammable liquids in storage and use shall not exceed 4 gallons per 100 square feet (15 L/9.3 m2) of floor area with not more than 2 gallons (7.5 L) being in use. The maximum in use in open systems is limited to 10 percent of these quantities. Densities shall be reduced by 25 percent on the 4th-floor through 6th-floor levels above grade plane of the building and 50 percent above the 6th-floor level. The density is to be reduced to 50 percent of these values for buildings that are not protected throughout with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system. Regardless of the density, the maximum allowable quantity per control area or laboratory suite shall not be exceeded.

Exception: Density limits may be exceeded in designated hazardous waste collection areas or rooms within a control area or laboratory suite, but stored quantities shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per laboratory suite or control area.

Storage of pyrophorics and Class 4 oxidizers prohibited in existing buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of the USBC, Part I, Construction, shall be allowed within a control area at 25 percent of the limits for a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, with no additional increases allowed, provided that such materials are stored in accordance with all of the following:

  1. Containers shall be completely sealed and stored according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
  2. Storage shall be within approved hazardous materials storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5003.8.7 or shall be located in an inert atmosphere glove box in accordance with NFPA 45, Section 7.11.
  3. The storage cabinet or glove box shall not contain any storage of incompatible materials.

Use of pyrophorics and Class 4 oxidizers prohibited in existing buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of the USBC, Part I, Construction, shall be allowed within a control area at 25 percent of the limits for buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, with no additional increases allowed, provided that such materials are used in accordance with all of the following:

  1. Use shall be within an approved chemical fume hood listed in accordance with UL 1805, or in an inert atmosphere glove box in accordance with NFPA 45, Section 7.11, or other approved equipment designed for the specific hazard of the material.
  2. Combustible materials shall be kept at least 2 feet (610 mm) away from the work area, except for those items directly related to the research.
  3. A portable fire extinguisher appropriate for the specific material shall be provided within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the use in accordance with Section 906.
The storage, use and handling of all hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this section.

The maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code, or Table 5003.1.1(3) and Table 5003.1.1(4) for outdoor control areas.

TABLE 5003.1.1(1)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD

Deleted

TABLE 5003.1.1(2)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD

Deleted

TABLE 5003.1.1(3)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREAa, b, c, d

MATERIAL CLASS STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds)d Gas cubic feet at NTP Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds)d Gas cubic feet at NTP Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds)d
Flammable gas Gaseous Liquefied Not Applicable Not Applicable (300) 3,000 Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable (150) 1,500 Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
Flammable solid Not Applicable 500 Not Applicable Not Applicable 250 Not Applicable Not Applicable 50 Not Applicable
Inert Gas Gaseous Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable
Liquefied Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable
Cryogenic inert Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Limited Not Applicable Not Applicable
Organic peroxide Unclassified Detonable 1 (1) Not Applicable 0.25 (0.25) Not Applicable 0.25 (0.25)
Organic peroxide I 20 (20) 10 (10) 2 (2)
II 200 (200) 100 (100) 20 (20)
III 500 (500) 250 (250) Not 50 (50)
IV 1,000 (1,000) 500 (500) Applicable 100 (100)
V Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Oxidizer 4 2 (2) 1 (1) 0.25 (0.25)
3 40 (40) Not 20 (20) Not 4 (4)
2 1,000 (1,000) Applicable 500 (500) Applicable 100 (100)
1 Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Oxidizing gas Gaseous Liquefied Not Applicable Not Applicable (600) 6,000 Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable (300) 1,500 Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
Pyrophoric materials Not Applicable 8 (8) 100 4 (4) 10 0 0
Unstable (reactive) 4 2 (2) 20 1 (1) 2 0.25 (0.25)
3 20 (20) 200 10 (10) 10 1 (1)
2 200 (200) 1,000 100 (100) 250 10 (10)
1 Not Limited Not Limited 1,500 Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Water reactive 3 20 (20) 10 (10) 1 (1)
2 200 (200) Not 100 (100) Not 10 (10)
1 Not Limited Not Limited Applicable Not Limited Not Limited Applicable Not Limited Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

  1. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
  2. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
  3. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area where such storage is in accordance with Section 5003.11.
  4. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.

TABLE 5003.1.1(4)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A HEALTH HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREAa, b, c, f

MATERIAL STORAGE USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS USE-OPEN SYSTEMS
Solid pounds Liquid gallons (pounds) Gas cubic feet at NTP (pounds) Solid pounds Liquid gallons (pounds) Gas cubic feet at NTP (pounds) Solid pounds Liquid gallons (pounds)
Corrosives 20,000 2,000 Gaseous 1,620 Liquefied (300) 10,000 1,000 Gaseous 810 Liquefied (150) 1,000 100
Highly toxics 20 (20) Gaseous 40d Liquefied (8)d 10 (10) Gaseous 20d Liquefied (4)d 3 (3)
Toxics 1,000 (l,000)e Gaseous 1,620 Liquefied (300) 500 50e Gaseous 810 Liquefied (150) 125 (125)e

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound per square inch absolute = 6.895 kPa,° C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

  1. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
  2. The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
  3. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area where such storage is in accordance with Section 5003.11.
  4. Allowed only where used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or under fume hoods.
  5. The maximum allowable quantity per control area for toxic liquids with vapor pressures in excess of 1 psia at 77°F shall be the maximum allowable quantity per control area listed for highly toxic liquids.
  6. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.
Where quantities are indicated in pounds and where the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the fire code official, a conversion factor of 10 pounds per gallon (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.
The storage, use and handling of hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in the applicable building code shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003. For outdoor control areas, quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Table 5003.1.1(3) or 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
The storage, use and handling of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in the applicable building code shall be approved by the building official in accordance with the applicable building code and maintained in accordance with this chapter. For outdoor control areas, quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Table 5003.1.1(3) or 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with this chapter.
Systems, equipment and processes utilized for storage, dispensing, use or handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.1 through 5003.2.9.

Portable containers and cylinders shall be designed and constructed in accordance with approved standards. Containers, cylinders, and other means used for containment of hazardous materials shall be of an approved type. Pressure vessels not meeting US Department of Transportation requirements for transportation shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

Tanks shall be installed in accordance with the applicable building code and shall be maintained.

Piping, tubing, valves, and fittings conveying hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with ASME B31 or other approved standards in accordance with the applicable building code.
Equipment, machinery and detection and alarm systems associated with the use, storage or handling of hazardous materials shall be listed or approved.
Installation of tanks shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.4.1 through 5003.2.4.2.1. For tanks subject to the State Water Control Board Regulation 9VAC25-91 or 9VAC25-580, see Section 5701.1.1.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, secondary containment for underground tanks shall be maintained. In lieu of secondary containment for an underground tank, an above-ground tank in an underground vault complying with the applicable building code and Section 5704.2.8 shall be permitted.

Above-ground stationary tanks used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements for outdoor storage of the particular material involved.

Exception: Above-ground tanks that are installed in vaults complying with the applicable building code and maintained in accordance with Section 5303.16 or 5704.2.8 shall not be required to comply with location and protection requirements for outdoor storage.

Above-ground stationary tanks shall be marked as required by Section 5003.5.
Empty containers and tanks previously used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be free from residual material and vapor as defined by DOTn, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or other regulating authority or maintained as specified for the storage of hazardous material.
In addition to the requirements of Section 5003.2.3, equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with hazardous materials shall be maintained in an operable condition. Defective containers, cylinders and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired or disposed of in an approved manner. Defective equipment or machinery shall be removed from service and repaired or replaced. Required detection and alarm systems shall be replaced or repaired where defective.
Stationary tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be properly safeguarded or removed in an approved manner. Such tanks shall have the fill line, gauge opening and pump connection secured against tampering. Vent lines shall be properly maintained.
Tanks that are to be placed back in service shall be tested in an approved manner.
Defective containers and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired in accordance with approved standards or disposed of in an approved manner.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, liquid-level limit controls or other approved means to prevent overfilling of atmospheric tanks having a capacity greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) and which contain hazardous material liquids shall be maintained.
Where provided, bracing and anchoring for machinery and equipment utilizing hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

The equipment, devices and systems listed in Section 5003.2.9.1 shall be tested at the time of installation and at one of the intervals listed in Section 5003.2.9.2. Records of the tests conducted or maintenance performed shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 108.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Periodic testing shall not be required where approved written documentation is provided stating that testing will damage the equipment, device or system and the equipment, device or system is maintained as specified by the manufacturer.
  2. Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that fail in a fail-safe manner.
  3. Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that self-diagnose and report trouble. Records of the self-diagnosis and trouble reporting shall be made available to the fire code official.
  4. Periodic testing shall not be required if system activation occurs during the required test cycle for the components activated during the test cycle.
  5. Approved maintenance in accordance with Section 5003.2.6 that is performed not less than annually or in accordance with an approved schedule shall be allowed to meet the testing requirements set forth in Sections 5003.2.9.1 and 5003.2.9.2.

The following equipment, systems, and devices shall be tested in accordance with Sections 5003.2.9 and 5003.2.9.2.

  1. Gas detection systems, alarms, and automatic emergency shutoff valves required by Section 6004.2.2.10 for highly toxic and toxic gases.
  2. Limit control systems for liquid level, temperature and pressure required by Sections 5004.8 and 5005.1.4.
  3. Emergency alarm systems and supervision required by Sections 5004.9 and 5005.4.4.
  4. Monitoring and supervisory systems required by the applicable building code.
  5. Manually activated shutdown controls required by the applicable building code for compressed gas systems conveying pyrophoric gases.

The equipment, systems and devices listed in Section 5003.2.9.1 shall be tested at one of the following frequencies:

  1. Not less than annually.
  2. In accordance with the approved manufacturer's requirements.
  3. In accordance with approved recognized industry standards.
  4. In accordance with an approved schedule.

Hazardous materials in any quantity shall not be released into a sewer, storm drain, ditch, drainage canal, creek, stream, river, lake or tidal waterway or on the ground, sidewalk, street, highway or into the atmosphere.

Exceptions:

  1. The release or emission of hazardous materials is allowed where in compliance with federal, state or local governmental agencies, regulations or permits.
  2. The release of pesticides is allowed where used in accordance with registered label directions.
  3. The release of fertilizer and soil amendments is allowed where used in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.
In the event hazardous materials are released in quantities reportable under state, federal or local regulations, the fire code official shall be notified and the following procedures required in accordance with Sections 5003.3.1.1 through 5003.3.1.4.
Records of the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials by the permittee shall be maintained.
Provisions shall be made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized discharges.
Where an unauthorized discharge caused by primary container failure is discovered, the involved primary container shall be repaired or removed from service.

The person, firm, or corporation responsible for an unauthorized discharge shall institute and complete all actions necessary to remedy the effects of such unauthorized discharge, whether sudden or gradual, at no cost to the jurisdiction. The fire code official may require records and receipts to verify cleanup and proper disposal of unauthorized discharges. When deemed necessary by the fire code official, cleanup may be initiated by the fire department or by an authorized individual or firm. Costs associated with such cleanup shall be the responsibility of the owner, operator, or other person responsible for the unauthorized discharge.

Note: Owners and operators of certain underground and above-ground petroleum storage tanks may have access to the Virginia Petroleum Storage Tank Fund for reimbursement of some cleanup costs associated with petroleum discharges from these tanks. See Article 10 (§62.1-44.34:10 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

Safety Data Sheets (SDS) shall be readily available on the premises for hazardous materials regulated by this chapter. Where a hazardous substance is developed in a laboratory, available information shall be documented.

Exception: Designated hazardous waste.

Unless otherwise exempted by the fire code official, visible hazard identification signs as specified in NFPA 704 for the specific material contained shall be placed on stationary containers and above-ground tanks and at entrances to locations where hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, used or handled in quantities requiring a permit and at specific entrances and locations designated by the fire code official.
Individual containers, cartons or packages shall be conspicuously marked or labeled in an approved manner. Rooms or cabinets containing compressed gases shall be conspicuously labeled: COMPRESSED GAS.
Signs and markings required by Sections 5003.5 and 5003.5.1 shall not be obscured or removed, shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code, shall be durable, and the size, color and lettering shall be approved.
Sources of ignition shall comply with Sections 5003.7.1 through 5003.7.3.

Smoking shall be prohibited and "No Smoking" signs provided as follows:

  1. In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are stored or dispensed or used in open systems in amounts requiring a permit in accordance with Section 5001.5.
  2. Within 25 feet (7620 mm) of outdoor storage, dispensing or open use areas.
  3. Facilities or areas within facilities that have been designated as totally "no smoking" shall have "No Smoking" signs placed at all entrances to the facility or area. Designated areas within such facilities where smoking is permitted either permanently or temporarily, shall be identified with signs designating that smoking is permitted in these areas only.
  4. In rooms or areas where flammable or combustible hazardous materials are stored, dispensed or used.

Signs required by this section shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code and shall comply with Section 310.

Open flames and high-temperature devices shall not be used in a manner that creates a hazardous condition and shall be listed for use with the hazardous materials stored or used.
Powered industrial trucks used in areas designated as hazardous (classified) locations shall be in accordance with Section 309.2.
Buildings, control areas, enclosures and cabinets for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.1 through 5003.8.6.3.
Buildings, or portions thereof, in which hazardous materials are stored, handled or used shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Group H occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in the applicable building code shall be approved by the building official and located in accordance with the applicable building code.

Control areas shall comply with Sections 5003.8.3.1 through 5003.8.3.5.

Exception: Higher education laboratories in accordance with Chapter 38 and the applicable building code.

Fire barriers separating control areas shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 7.

The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area allowed at each floor level within a building shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter and the applicable building code.

TABLE 5003.8.3.2

DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

Deleted

The maximum number of control areas per floor within a building shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter and the applicable building code.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area or a Group S storage area shall comply with this chapter and the applicable building code. The aggregate quantity is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in the applicable building code, without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with Section 5003.11 and the applicable building code.
Where a gas room is provided, it shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 60, this chapter, and the applicable building code.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, fire protection systems and fire-rated separation shall be maintained.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, ventilation systems for gas rooms shall be operated and maintained. Highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with Section 6004.2.2.6 and the applicable building code.
Where an exhausted enclosure is used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area, the exhausted enclosure shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter, Chapter 60, and the applicable building code.
Exhausted enclosures shall be maintained as approved by the applicable building code. Where noncombustible materials were required by the applicable building code, combustible materials are prohibited.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, the ventilation system for exhausted enclosures shall be operated and maintained. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with this chapter, Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 6004.1.3, and the applicable building code.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, fire-extinguishing systems for exhaust enclosures shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9 and the applicable building code.
Where a gas cabinet is used to increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area or where the location of compressed gases in gas cabinets is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the gas cabinet shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.6.1 through 5003.8.6.3.

Gas cabinets shall be constructed with the following:

  1. Not less than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (No. 12 gage) steel.
  2. Self-closing limited access ports or noncombustible windows to give access to equipment controls.
  3. Self-closing doors.
  4. Interiors treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, the ventilation system for gas cabinets shall be operated and maintained. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with this chapter, Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 6004.1.2, and the applicable building code.
The number of cylinders contained in a single gas cabinet shall not exceed three.
Where storage cabinets are used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or to comply with this chapter, such cabinets shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.7.1 and 5003.8.7.2.

The interior of cabinets shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are nonreactive with the hazardous material stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet. Cabinets shall either be listed in accordance with UL 1275 as suitable for the intended storage or constructed in accordance with the following:

  1. Cabinets shall be of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.0478 inch (1.2 mm) (No. 18 gage). The cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled with a 11/2-inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight fitting. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a self-latching device.
  2. The bottoms of cabinets utilized for the storage of liquids shall be liquid tight to a minimum height of 2 inches (51 mm).

Electrical equipment and devices within cabinets used for the storage of hazardous gases or liquids shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

Cabinets shall be clearly identified in an approved manner with red letters on a contrasting background to read:

HAZARDOUS—KEEP FIRE AWAY.

General precautions for the safe storage, handling or care of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.9.1 through 5003.9.10.
Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of fire, leak or spill.
Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be liaison personnel to the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses and identifying the locations where hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site's emergency response procedures.
Storage, dispensing, use and handling areas shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in a manner approved by the fire code official.
Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect storage tanks and connected piping, valves and fittings; dispensing areas; and use areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70.
Where processes or conditions exist where a flammable mixture could be ignited by static electricity, means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of a static charge.
Materials that are sensitive to light shall be stored in containers designed to protect them from such exposure.
Materials that are shock sensitive shall be padded, suspended or otherwise protected against accidental dislodgement and dislodgement during seismic activity.

Incompatible materials in storage and storage of materials that are incompatible with materials in use shall be separated where the stored materials are in containers having a capacity of more than 5 pounds (2 kg), 0.5 gallon (2 L) or any amount of compressed gases. Separation shall be accomplished by:

  1. Segregating incompatible materials in storage by a distance of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).
  2. Isolating incompatible materials in storage by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above and to the sides of the stored material.
  3. Storing liquid and solid materials in hazardous material storage cabinets.
  4. Storing compressed gases in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures in accordance with Sections 5003.8.5 and 5003.8.6.

Materials that are incompatible shall not be stored within the same cabinet or exhausted enclosure.

Shelving shall be of substantial construction and shall comply with the requirements of this chapter and the applicable building code. Shelving shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Shelves shall be provided with a lip or guard when used for the storage of individual containers.

Exceptions:

  1. Storage in hazardous material storage cabinets or laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use.
  2. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not requiring a permit in accordance with Section 5001.5.

Shelf storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in an orderly manner.

Safety cans shall be listed in accordance with UL 30 where used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area of flammable or combustible liquids in accordance with Section 5003.1.1. Safety cans listed in accordance with UL 1313 are allowed for flammable and combustible liquids where not used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area and for other hazardous material liquids in accordance with the listing.
In addition to the requirements of Section 5003.2, the handling and transportation of hazardous materials in corridors or enclosures for stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.10.1 through 5003.10.3.6.
Hazardous material gas containers, cylinders and tanks in transit shall have their protective caps in place. Containers, cylinders and tanks of highly toxic or toxic compressed gases shall have their valve outlets capped or plugged with an approved closure device in accordance with Chapter 53.

Liquids in containers exceeding 5 gallons (19 L) in a corridor or enclosure for a stairway or ramp shall be transported on a cart or truck. Containers of hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 and transported within corridors or interior exit stairways and ramps, shall be on a cart or truck. Where carts and trucks are required for transporting hazardous materials, they shall be in accordance with Section 5003.10.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Two hazardous material liquid containers that are hand carried in acceptable safety carriers.
  2. Not more than four drums not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) each that are transported by suitable drum trucks.
  3. Containers and cylinders of compressed gases that are transported by approved hand trucks, and containers and cylinders not exceeding 25 pounds (11 kg) that are hand carried.
  4. Solid hazardous materials not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) that are transported by approved hand trucks, and a single container not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) that is hand carried.
Carts and trucks required by Section 5003.10.2 to be used to transport hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.10.3.1 through 5003.10.3.6.
Carts and trucks used to transport hazardous materials shall be designed to provide a stable base for the commodities to be transported and shall have a means of restraining containers to prevent accidental dislodgement. Compressed gas cylinders placed on carts and trucks shall be individually restrained.
Carts and trucks shall be provided with a device that will enable the operator to control safely movement by providing stops or speed-reduction devices.
Construction materials for hazardous material carts or trucks shall be compatible with the material transported. The cart or truck shall be of substantial construction.
Carts and trucks transporting liquids shall be capable of containing a spill from the largest single container transported.
Carts and trucks used to transport materials shall not obstruct or be left unattended within any part of a means of egress.
Incompatible materials shall not be transported on the same cart or truck.
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy, or an outdoor control area, or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable control area indicated in Section 5003.1 and the applicable building code when maintained in accordance with Sections 5003.11.1 through 5003.11.3.10.

The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in the applicable building code.

TABLE 5003.11.1

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES-NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS, NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd, e, f

CONDITION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
Materiala Class Solids (pounds) Liquids (gallons)
A. HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
1. Corrosivesb, c Not Applicable 9,750 975
2. Highly Toxics Not Applicable 20b, c 2b, c
3. Toxicsb, c Not Applicable 1,000 100
B. PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
1. Oxidizersb, c 4 Not Allowed Not Allowed
3 1,350g 135
2 2,250h 225
1 18,000i, j 1,800i, j
2. Unstable (Reactives)b, c 4 Not Allowed Not Allowed
3 550 55
2 1,150 115
1 Not Limited Not Limited
3. Water Reactives 3b, c 550 55
2b, c 1,150 115
1 Not Limited Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

  1. Hazard categories are as specified in Section 5001.2.2.
  2. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note c applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  3. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5003.8. Where Note b applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  4. See Table 5003.8.3.2 for design and number of control areas.
  5. Maximum allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 5003.1.
  6. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
  7. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased to 2,250 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
  8. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased to 4,500 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
  9. Quantities are unlimited where protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
  10. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.
The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single outdoor control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.11.1.
Storage and display shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.11.3.1 through 5003.11.3.10.
Storage and display of solids shall not exceed the density of floor area allowed by the applicable building code. Storage and display of liquids shall not exceed the amount per square foot allowed by the applicable building code.

Unless otherwise approved in accordance with the applicable building code, display height shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor in display areas of Group M occupancies.

Storage height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) above the finished floor in storage areas of Group M and Group S occupancies.

Individual containers less than 5 gallons (19 L) or less than 25 pounds (11 kg) shall be stored or displayed on pallets, racks or shelves.
Racks and shelves used for storage or display shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5003.9.9.
Containers shall be approved for the intended use and identified as to their content.
Individual containers shall not exceed 100 pounds (45 kg) for solids or 10 gallons (38 L) for liquids in storage and display areas.
Floors shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5004.12 unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code.
Aisles 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be maintained on three sides of the storage or display area.
Hazard identification signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 5003.5.
A storage plan illustrating the intended storage arrangement, including the location and dimensions of aisles, and storage racks shall be provided.

Outdoor control areas for hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per outdoor control area shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Outdoor control areas shall be kept free from weeds, debris and common combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an outdoor control area shall be kept clear of such materials for not less than 15 feet (4572 mm).
  2. Outdoor control areas shall be located not closer than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a public street, public alley, public way or lot line that can be built on.

    Exceptions:

    1. For solid and liquid hazardous materials, a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall without openings extending not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area shall be allowed in lieu of such distance.
    2. For compressed gas hazardous materials, unless otherwise specified, the minimum required distances shall not apply where fire barriers without openings or penetrations having a minimum fire-resistance rating of 2 hours interrupt the line of sight between the storage and the exposure. The configuration of the fire barrier shall be designed to allow natural ventilation to prevent the accumulation of hazardous gas concentrations.
  3. Where a property exceeds 10,000 square feet (929 m2), a group of two outdoor control areas is allowed where approved and where each control area is separated by a minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  4. Where a property exceeds 35,000 square feet (3252 m2), additional groups of outdoor control areas are allowed where approved and where each group is separated by a minimum distance of 300 feet (91 440 mm).

TABLE 5003.12

OUTDOOR SEPARATION

SEPARATION IS REQUIRED WHERE THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN
Material Class Solids and liquids (tons)a, b Gases (cubic feet)a, b
Explosives Division 1.1 Maximum Allowable Quantity Not Applicable
Division 1.2 Maximum Allowable Quantity
Division 1.3 Maximum Allowable Quantity
Division 1.4 Maximum Allowable Quantity
Division 1.4c 1
Division 1.5 Maximum Allowable Quantity
Division 1.6 Maximum Allowable Quantity
Oxidizers Class 4 Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Unstable (reactives) detonable Class 3 or 4 Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Oxidizer, liquids and solids Class 3 1,200 Not Applicable
Class 2 2,000
Organic peroxides Detonable Maximum Allowable Quantity Not Applicable
Class I Maximum Allowable Quantity
Class II 25
Class III 50
Unstable (reactives) nondetonable Class 3 1 2,000
Class 2 25 10,000
Water reactives Class 3 1 Not Applicable
Class 2 25
Pyrophoric gases Not Applicable Not Applicable 2,000

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 ton = 2000 lbs. = 907.2 kg.

  1. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be in accordance with Section 415.6 of the International Building Code or Chapter 56 based on the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material, whichever is greater.
  2. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 5003.1.1.
  3. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.
Storage of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003, and 5004 and the applicable building code. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003 and the applicable building code. Retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable and noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and Group S storage shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5003.11 and the applicable building code.

Spill control and secondary containment for rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of liquid or solid hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 5004.2.1 through 5004.2.3 and the applicable building code.

Exception: Outdoor storage of containers on approved containment pallets in accordance with Section 5004.2.3.

Where provided or required by the applicable building code, spill control for hazardous materials shall be maintained. For individual vessels having a capacity of more than 55 gallons (208 L), or in which the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L), spill control shall be maintained to prevent the flow of liquids to adjoining areas in accordance with the applicable building code.

Where provided or required by the applicable building code, secondary containment for hazardous materials shall be maintained.

TABLE 5004.2.2

REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS STORAGE

MATERIAL INDOOR STORAGE OUTDOOR STORAGE
Solids Liquids Solids Liquids
1. Physical-hazard materials
Combustible liquids Class II Not Applicable See Chapter 57 Not Applicable See Chapter 57
Class IIIA See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Class IIIB See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Cryogenic fluids See Chapter 55 See Chapter 55
Explosives See Chapter 56 See Chapter 56
Flammable liquids Class IA Not Applicable See Chapter 57 Not Applicable See Chapter 57
Class IB See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Class IC See Chapter 57 See Chapter 57
Flammable solids Not Required Not Applicable Not Required Not Applicable
Organic peroxides Unclassified Detonable Required Required Not Required Not Required
Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Oxidizers Class 4 Required Required Not Required Not Required
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1 Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Pyrophorics Not Required Required Not Required Required
Unstable (reactives) Class 4 Required Required Required Required
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1 Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Water reactives Class 3 Required Required Required Required
Class 2
Class 1 Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
2. Health-hazard materials
Corrosives Not Required Required Not Required Required
Highly toxics Required Required Required Required
Toxics
Facilities, equipment, and method used for containment and drainage of hazardous materials and fire protection water shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter and the applicable building code.
Secondary containment for outdoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest individual vessel. If the area is open to rainfall, secondary containment shall be designed to include the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm and provisions shall be made to drain accumulations of groundwater and rainwater.
An approved monitoring method shall be provided to detect hazardous materials in the secondary containment system. The monitoring method is allowed to be visual inspection of the primary or secondary containment, or other approved means. Where secondary containment is subject to the intrusion of water, a monitoring method for detecting water shall be provided. Where monitoring devices are provided, they shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Drainage systems shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter and the applicable building code.

Where used as an alternative to spill control and secondary containment for outdoor storage in accordance with the exception in Section 5004.2, containment pallets shall comply with all of the following:

  1. A liquid-tight sump with access for visual inspection shall be provided.
  2. The sump shall be designed to contain not less than 66 gallons (250 L).
  3. Exposed surfaces shall be compatible with material stored.
  4. Containment pallets shall be protected to prevent collection of rainwater within the sump.
Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall maintain ventilation in accordance with the applicable building code and shall be operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter. Storage areas for flammable solids shall comply with Chapter 59.
Automatic sprinkler systems for the storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter, Chapter 9, and the applicable building code.
Explosion control for storage rooms, areas and buildings shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter, Chapter 9 and the applicable building code.
Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required to have emergency or standby power systems in accordance with the applicable building code, those power systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70, Section 1203, and this chapter.
Limit controls shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 5004.8.1 and 5004.8.2.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, temperature control devices for materials that must be kept at temperatures other than normal ambient temperatures to prevent a hazardous reaction shall be maintained to keep the temperature within a safe range.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, pressure control devices on stationary tanks and equipment containing hazardous material liquids that can generate pressures exceeding design limits because of exposure fires or internal reaction shall be maintained to relieve excessive internal pressure.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, manual emergency alarm systems in rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9 and the applicable building code.
Where emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems are required by the applicable building code to be electrically supervised, they shall maintain monitoring by an approved supervising station, or when approved, sound an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
The area surrounding an outdoor storage area or tank shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).
Except for surfacing, floors of storage areas shall remain noncombustible where required by the applicable building code.

Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage areas, such storage shall not be considered indoor storage where the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection, as required by the applicable building code.

Exception: Storage of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor storage.

Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005 and the applicable building code. Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003 and the applicable building code.
Except for surfacing, floors of areas where liquid or solid hazardous materials are dispensed or used in open systems shall be maintained as noncombustible, and liquid-tight where required by the applicable building code.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, spill control and secondary containment for hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5004.2 and the applicable building code.
Limit controls shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 5005.1.4.1 through 5005.1.4.4.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, liquid-level limit controls or other approved means to prevent overfilling of open tanks shall be maintained.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, liquid-level limit controls or other approved means to prevent a low-liquid level in a tank from creating a hazardous condition, including but not limited to, overheating of a tank or its contents shall be maintained.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, temperature controls shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5004.8.1.
Where provided or required by the applicable building code, pressure controls shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5004.8.2.
Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required to have emergency or standby power systems in accordance with the applicable building code, those power systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70, Section 1203, and this chapter.
Where emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems are required by the applicable building code to be electrically supervised, they shall maintain monitoring by an approved supervising station, or when approved, sound an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.
Natural or artificial lighting provided for use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter, Chapter 6, and the applicable building code.
Where fire-extinguishing systems for rooms or areas in which hazardous materials are dispensed or used are required by the applicable building code, they shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter, Chapter 9, and the applicable building code.

Where provided or required by the applicable building code, exhaust ventilation for indoor dispensing and use areas shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code and Section 5004.3.

Exception: Ventilation is not required for dispensing and use of flammable solids other than finely divided particles.

Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

  1. From safety cans complying with UL 30.
  2. Through an approved closed piping system.
  3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.
  4. From containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve where the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2. Highly toxic liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.
  5. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.

Exceptions:

  1. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 4 where dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  2. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 where dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 5.3 gallons (20 L).
Indoor dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in buildings complying with the International Building Code and in accordance with Sections 5005.1, 5005.2.1 through 5005.2.1.4, and 5005.2.2.1 through 5005.2.2.4.
Dispensing and use of hazardous materials in open containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.2.1.1 through 5005.2.1.4.

Where gases, liquids or solids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are dispensed or used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided to capture gases, fumes, mists or vapors at the point of generation.

Exception: Gases, liquids or solids that can be demonstrated not to create harmful gases, fumes, mists or vapors.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.6 where an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
Where spill control is provided in accordance with the applicable building code for buildings, rooms, or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed into vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity, it shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter.

Where secondary containment is provided in accordance with the applicable building code for hazardous material liquids, it shall be maintained.

TABLE 5005.2.1.4

REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL LIQUIDS USE

Deleted

Use of hazardous materials in closed containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.2.2.1 through 5005.2.2.4.
Where closed systems are designed to be opened as part of normal operations, ventilation required by the applicable building code shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 5005.2.1.1.

Where provided or required by the applicable building code, explosion control shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5004.6 where an explosive environment exists because of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

Exception: Where process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions based on the most likely failure.

Where provided in accordance with the applicable building code for buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in individual vessels exceeding a 55-gallon (208 L) capacity with the applicable building code, spill control shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5004.2.
Where provided in accordance with the applicable building code, secondary containment for buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5004.2.2.
Dispensing and use of hazardous materials outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.3.1 through 5005.3.9.
Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
Outdoor dispensing and use areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 5004.
Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed in vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with the applicable building code.

Where required, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with the applicable building code where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

  1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).
Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are used in closed systems exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) shall be provided with spill control in accordance with the applicable building code.

Where required, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in closed systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with the applicable building code, where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

  1. Individual vessel or system greater than 55 gallons (208 L).
  2. Multiple vessels or systems greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).
The area surrounding an outdoor dispensing or use area shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 30 feet (9144 mm).

Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material use areas, such use shall not be considered indoor use where the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required in the applicable building code.

Exception: Use of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor use.

Handling of hazardous materials shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 5005.4.1 through 5005.4.4.
Handling of hazardous materials in outdoor locations in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per the applicable building code shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003, 5005.1 and 5005.4.
Handling of hazardous materials in indoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per the applicable building code shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005.1. Handling of hazardous materials in outdoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per Table 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.
Outdoor handling areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 5004.
Hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall not be transported through corridors, interior exit stairways or ramps or exit passageways, unless such areas maintain an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device throughout the transport route in accordance with the applicable building code. Where required by the applicable building code, the signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
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