ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2018 (IFC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The operation and maintenance of semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas classified as Group H-5 shall comply with this chapter. The use, storage and handling of hazardous materials in Group H-5 shall comply with this chapter, other applicable provisions of this code and requirements of the applicable building code.
The requirements set forth in this chapter are requirements specific only to Group H-5 and shall be applied as exceptions or additions to applicable requirements set forth elsewhere in this code.
Where a material poses multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed in accordance with Section 5001.1.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 107.2.
An emergency control station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2703.1.1 through 2703.1.3.
The emergency control station shall be located on the premises at an approved location outside the fabrication area.
Trained personnel shall continuously staff the emergency control station.

Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, the emergency control station shall receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm and detections systems include, but are not limited to, the following where such equipment or systems are required by the applicable building code:

  1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems.
  2. Manual fire alarm systems.
  3. Emergency alarm systems.
  4. Continuous gas detection systems.
  5. Smoke detection systems.
  6. Emergency power systems.
  7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required by Section 2705.2.3.4.
  8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required by Section 2705.2.3.4.
Systems, equipment and processes shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.2.1 through 2703.2.3.2.
Systems, equipment and processes shall include, but not be limited to, containers, cylinders, tanks, piping, tubing, valves and fittings.
In addition to the requirements in Section 2703.2, systems, equipment and other processes shall also comply with Section 5003.2, other applicable provisions of this code and the applicable building code.
In addition to the requirements in Section 2703.2, HPM supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids shall comply with this section.
The requirements set forth in Section 5003.2.2.2 shall apply to supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids.
Supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections located within a ventilation enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment provided for connections if the material is a liquid.
Pass-throughs in exit access corridors shall comply with the applicable building code.
Hazardous production materials (HPM) rooms shall comply with the applicable building code.
Exhausted enclosures shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5003.8.5 and remain in accordance with the applicable building code.
Gas rooms shall be maintained in accordance with Section 5003.8.4 and remain in accordance with the applicable building code.
Service corridors shall comply with Section 2705.3 and remain in accordance with the applicable building code.
Cabinets in fabrication areas containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reactive liquids in containers or in amounts greater than 1/2 gallon (2 L) shall comply with Section 2705.2.3.4.
An emergency plan shall be established as set forth in Section 403.7.1.
Maintenance of equipment, machinery and processes shall comply with Section 5003.2.6.
Areas shall be secured in accordance with Section 5003.9.2.
Electrical wiring and equipment in HPM facilities shall comply with Sections 2703.7.1 through 2703.7.3.
Electrical wiring and equipment in fabrication areas shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable provisions of NFPA 70 and remain in accordance with the applicable building code.

Electrical equipment and devices within 5 feet (1524 mm) of workstations in which flammable or pyrophoric gases or flammable liquids are used shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable provisions of NFPA 70 for hazardous locations. Workstations shall not be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 2703.14.

Exception: Not required when the air removal from the workstation or dilution will prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors and fumes on a continuous basis.

Electrical wiring and equipment in HPM rooms, gas rooms, and liquid storage rooms shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable provisions of NFPA 70 and remain in accordance with the applicable building code.
Where required by the applicable building code, automatic sprinkler systems shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.

Where the horizontal surface of a combustible tool is obstructed from ceiling sprinkler discharge, automatic sprinkler protection that covers the horizontal surface of the tool shall be provided.

Exceptions:

  1. An automatic gaseous fire-extinguishing local surface application system shall be allowed as an alternative to sprinklers. Gaseous-extinguishing systems shall be actuated by infrared (IR) or ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) optical detectors.
  2. Tools constructed of materials that are listed as Class 1 or Class 2 in accordance with UL 2360 or approved for use without internal fire-extinguishing system protection.
Control valves provided for sprinklers installed in exhaust ducts shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Drainage provided to remove sprinkler water discharged in exhaust ducts shall be maintained.
Access to sprinklers in exhaust ducts shall be provided for periodic inspection and maintenance.
Automatic sprinkler systems, associated electronic supervision and alarms shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9. Where required by the applicable building code, automatic sprinkler system alarm and supervisory signals shall also remain transmitted to the emergency control station.
Where provided, a manual fire alarm system shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9 and remain throughout buildings containing a Group H-5 occupancy in accordance with the applicable building code. Where required by the applicable building code, activation of the alarm system shall also be maintained to transmit a signal to the emergency control station.
Emergency alarm systems shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9 and remain in accordance with the applicable building code. Where required by the applicable building code, emergency alarm systems shall also remain transmitted to the emergency control station.
Where required by the applicable building code, a continuous gas detection system shall be maintained for HPM gases. Such a system shall remain in accordance with the applicable building code where the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is at a higher level than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases.
A gas detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms where HPM gas is used in the room.

Where HPM gases are transported in piping placed within the space defined by the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the corridor, a gas detection system shall be provided where piping is located and in the corridor.

Exception: A gas detection system is not required for occasional transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor.

Where required by the applicable building code, a continuous gas detection system shall be maintained capable of monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or below all the following gas concentrations:

  1. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) values when the monitoring point is within an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  2. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels when the monitoring point is in an area outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  3. For flammable gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) when the monitoring is within or outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  4. Except as noted in this section, monitoring for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.
The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.

The gas detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for which gas is detected when a short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following:

  1. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
  2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
  3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the compressed gas container of the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

Exception: Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.

Exhaust ventilation systems and materials for exhaust ducts utilized for the exhaust of HPM shall be maintained and operated in accordance with this chapter, other applicable provisions of this code, and remain in accordance with the applicable building code.

Exhaust ventilation systems shall be maintained in the following locations in accordance with the requirements of this section and the applicable building code:

  1. Fabrication areas: Exhaust ventilation for fabrication areas shall comply with the applicable building code.
  2. Workstations: A ventilation system shall be maintained to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations.
  3. Liquid storage rooms: Exhaust ventilation for liquid storage rooms shall comply with the applicable building code.
  4. HPM rooms: Exhaust ventilation for HPM rooms shall comply with the applicable building code.
  5. Gas cabinets: Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets shall comply with Section 5003.8.6.2. The gas cabinet ventilation system is allowed to connect to a workstation ventilation system. Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.
  6. Exhausted enclosures: Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclosures shall comply with Section 5003.8.5.2. Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclosures containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.
  7. Gas rooms: Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall comply with Section 5003.8.4.2 and the applicable building code. Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.
  8. Cabinets containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reactive liquids: Exhaust ventilation for cabinets in fabrication areas containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reactive liquids shall be as required in Section 2705.2.3.4.
Treatment systems for highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with Chapter 60.
Where required by the applicable building code, an emergency power system shall be maintained in accordance with Section 604.

Where provided or required by the applicable building code, emergency power shall be maintained for electrically operated equipment and connected control circuits including but not limited to the following systems in accordance with the applicable building code:

  1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems.
  2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems.
  3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems.
  4. HPM gas room ventilation systems.
  5. HPM gas detection systems.
  6. Emergency alarm systems.
  7. Manual fire alarm systems.
  8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm systems.
  9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in Section 2705.2.3.4.
  10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in Section 2705.2.3.4.
  11. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in this code or in the applicable building code that are applicable to the use, storage or handling of HPM.
Where permitted by the applicable building code, exhaust ventilation systems are allowed to be maintained to operate at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power system when it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere.
Subatmospheric pressure gas systems (SAGS) shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable provisions of NFPA 318 and the applicable building code.
Storage of hazardous materials shall comply with Section 2703 and this section and other applicable provisions of this code.
Hazardous materials storage and the maximum quantities of hazardous materials in use and storage allowed in fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 2704.2.1 through 2704.2.2.1.

Storage of HPM in fabrication areas shall be maintained within approved or listed storage cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or within a workstation as follows.

  1. Flammable and combustible liquid storage cabinets shall comply with Section 5704.3.2.
  2. Hazardous materials storage cabinets shall comply with Chapter 50.
  3. Gas cabinets shall comply with Chapter 50. Gas cabinets for highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.
  4. Exhausted enclosures shall comply with Chapter 50. Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.
  5. Workstations shall comply with Section 2705.2.3.

The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored or used in a single fabrication area shall be limited as specified in this section.

Exception: Fabrication areas containing quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Sections 5003.1.1, 5704.3.4 and 5704.3.5.

The maximum quantities of hazardous materials stored or used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 2704.2.2.1 unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code.

TABLE 2704.2.2.1

QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5a

HAZARD CATEGORY SOLIDS (pounds/square foot) LIQUIDS (gallons/square foot) GAS (cubic feet @ NTP/square foot)
Physical-hazard materials
Combustible dust Note b Not Applicable Not Applicable
Combustible fiber

Loose

Baled


Note b

Notes b and c


Not Applicable


Not Applicable
Combustible liquid

Class II

Class IIIA

Class IIIB

Combination Class I, II and IIIA




Not Applicable


0.01

0.02

Not Limited

0.04




Not Applicable
Cryogenic gas

Flammable

Oxidizing


Not Applicable


Not Applicable


Note d

1.25
Explosives Note b Note b Note b
Flammable gas

Gaseous

Liquefied


Not Applicable


Not Applicable


Note d

Note d
Flammable liquid

Class IA

Class IB

Class IC

Combination Class IA, IB and IC

Combination Class I, II and IIIA




Not Applicable


0.0025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.04




Not Applicable
Flammable solid 0.001 Not Applicable Not Applicable
Organic peroxide

Unclassified detonable

Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV

Class V


Note b

Note b

0.025

0.1

Not Limited

Not Limited






Not Applicable






Not Applicable
Oxidizing gas

Gaseous

Liquefied

Combination of Gaseous and

Liquefied




Not Applicable




Not Applicable


1.25

1.25

1.25
Oxidizer

Class 4

Class 3

Class 2

Class 1

Combination oxidizer Class 1, 2, 3


Note b

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003


Note b

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03




Not Applicable
Pyrophoric 0.01 0.00125 Notes d and e
Unstable reactive

Class 4

Class 3

Class 2

Class 1


Note b

0.025

0.1

Not Limited


Note b

0.0025

0.01

Not Limited


Note b

Note b

Note b

Not Limited
Physical-hazard materials
Water reactive

Class 3

Class 2

Class 1


Note b

0.25

Not Limited


0.00125

0.025

Not Limited


Not Applicable
Health-hazard materials
Corrosives Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Highly toxics Not Limited Not Limited Note d
Toxics Not Limited Not Limited Note d

For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m3@ NTP/m2, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

  1. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.
  2. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Section 5003.1.1.
  3. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
  4. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed the greater of 0.2 cubic feet at NTP/square foot or 9,000 cubic feet at NTP.
  5. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.8.2.
The indoor storage of hazardous materials outside of fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 2704.3.1 through 2704.3.3.
The indoor storage of HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Sections 5003.1.1 and 5704.3.4 shall be approved by the building official and located in a room complying with the requirements of the applicable building code and this code for a liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room, as appropriate for the materials stored.
The indoor storage of other hazardous materials shall comply with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5004 and other applicable provisions of this code.
Incompatible hazardous materials in storage shall be separated from each other in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.
The use and handling of hazardous materials shall comply with this section, Section 2703, and other applicable provisions of this code to the extent that such requirements are operational in nature and do not affect how a building is constructed.
The use of hazardous materials in fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.2.1 through 2705.2.3.4.

The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials in a single fabrication area shall comply with Section 2704.2.2, and Table 2704.2.2.1. The quantity of HPM in use at a workstation shall not exceed the quantities listed in Table 2705.2.2.

TABLE 2705.2.2

MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF HPM AT A WORKSTATIONd

HPM CLASSIFICATION STATE MAXIMUM QUANTITY
Flammable, highly toxic, pyrophoric and toxic combined Gas Combined aggregate volume of all cylinders at a workstation shall not exceed an internal cylinder volume of 39.6 gallons or 5.29 cubic feet
Flammable Liquid Solid 15 gallonsa, b 5 poundsa, b
Corrosive Gas Combined aggregate volume of all cylinders at a workstation shall not exceed an internal cylinder volume of 39.6 gallons or 5.29 cubic feet
Liquid Use-open system: 25 gallonsb Use-closed system: 150 gallonsb, e
Solid 20 poundsa, b
Highly toxic Liquid Solid 15 gallonsa 5 poundsa
Oxidizer Gas Combined aggregate volume of all cylinders at a workstation shall not exceed an internal cylinder volume of 39.6 gallons or 5.29 cubic feet
Liquid Use-open system: 12 gallonsb Use-closed system: 60 gallonsb
Solid 20 poundsa, b
Pyrophoric Liquid Solid 0.5 gallonc, f 4.4 poundsc, f
Toxic Liquid Use-open system: 15 gallonsb Use-closed system: 60 gallonsb
Solid 5 poundsa, b
Unstable reactive Class 3 Liquid Solid 0.5 gallona, b 5 poundsa, b
Water-reactive Class 3 Liquid Solid 0.5 gallonc, fSee Table 2704.2.2.1

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent for closed system operations. Where Note b applies, the increase for both notes shall be allowed.
  2. Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 100 percent where workstations are internally protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing or suppression system complying with Chapter 9. Where Note a applies, the increase for both notes shall be allowed. Where Note e applies, the maximum increase allowed for both Notes b and e shall not exceed 100 percent.
  3. Allowed only in workstations that are internally protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing or fire protection system complying with Chapter 9 and compatible with the reactivity of materials in use at the workstation.
  4. The quantity limits apply only to materials classified as HPM.
  5. Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 100 percent for nonflammable, noncombustible corrosive liquids where the materials of construction for workstations are listed or approved for use without internal fire-extinguishing or suppression system protection. Where Note b applies, the maximum increase allowed for both Notes b and e shall not exceed 100 percent.
  6. A maximum quantity of 5.3 gallons of liquids and 44 pounds of total liquids and solids shall be allowed at a workstation where conditions are in accordance with Section 2705.2.3.4.
Workstations in fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.2.3.1 through 2705.2.3.4.
Workstations in fabrication areas shall be constructed of materials compatible with the materials used and stored at the workstation. The portion of the workstation that serves as a cabinet for HPM gases, Class I flammable liquids or Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquids shall be noncombustible and, if of metal, shall be not less than 0.0478-inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) steel.

Vessels containing hazardous materials located in or connected to a workstation shall be protected as follows:

  1. HPM: Vessels containing HPM shall be protected from physical damage and shall not project from the workstation.
  2. Compressed gases: Protection for compressed gas vessels shall also comply with Section 5303.5.
  3. Cryogenic fluids: Protection for cryogenic fluid vessels shall also comply with Section 5503.5.

Each workstation utilizing HPM liquids shall have all of the following:

  1. Drainage piping systems connected to a compatible system for disposition of such liquids.
  2. The work surface provided with a slope or other means for directing spilled materials to the containment or drainage system.
  3. An approved means of containing or directing spilled or leaked liquids to the drainage system.

Pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids in containers greater than 0.5-gallon (2 L) but not exceeding 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity and pyrophoric solids in containers greater than 4.4 pounds (2 kg) but not exceeding 44 pounds (20 kg) shall be allowed at workstations where located inside cabinets and the following conditions are met:

  1. Maximum amount per cabinet: The maximum amount per cabinet shall be limited to 5.3 gallons (20 L) of liquids and 44 pounds (20 kg) of total liquids and solids.
  2. Cabinet construction: Cabinets shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

    2.1.   Cabinets shall be constructed of not less than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (12 gage) steel.

    2.2.   Cabinets shall be permitted to have self-closing limited access ports or noncombustible windows that provide access to equipment controls.

    2.3.   Cabinets shall be provided with self- or manual-closing doors. Manual-closing doors shall be equipped with a door switch that will initiate local audible and visual alarms when the door is in the open position.

  3. Cabinet exhaust ventilation system: An exhaust ventilation system shall be provided for cabinets and shall comply with the following:

    3.1.   The system shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area.

    3.2.   The system shall be equipped with monitoring equipment to ensure that required exhaust flow or static pressure is provided.

    3.3.   Low-flow or static pressure conditions shall send an alarm to the on-site emergency control station. The alarm shall be both visual and audible.

  4. Cabinet spill containment: Spill containment shall be provided in each cabinet, with the spill containment capable of holding the contents of the aggregate amount of liquids in containers in each cabinet.
  5. Valves: Valves in supply piping between the product containers in the cabinet and the workstation served by the containers shall fail in the closed position upon power failure, loss of exhaust ventilation and upon actuation of the fire control system.
  6. Fire detection system: Each cabinet shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system complying with the following conditions:

    6.1.   Automatic detection system: UV/IR, high-sensitivity smoke detection (HSSD) or other approved detection systems shall be provided inside each cabinet.

    6.2.   Automatic shutoff: Activation of the detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valves at the source on the liquid supply.

    6.3.   Alarms and signals: Activation of the detection system shall initiate a local alarm within the fabrication area and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. The alarms and signals shall be both visual and audible.

The transportation and handling of hazardous materials shall comply with Sections 2705.3.1 through 2705.3.4.1 and other applicable provisions of this code.
Corridors and enclosures for exit stairways and ramps in new fabrication areas shall not contain HPM, except as permitted in corridors by Section 2705.3.2 and the applicable building code.
Transport in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.3.2.1 through 2705.3.3.
Where existing fabrication areas are not required by the applicable building code to utilize approved service corridors, HPM is allowed to be handled and transported in accordance with Section 5003.10.
Nonproduction HPM is allowed to be transported in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps where utilized for maintenance, lab work and testing when the transportation is in accordance with Section 5003.10.
Where service corridors are required by the applicable building code and it is necessary to transport HPM from a liquid storage room, HPM room, gas room or from the outside of a building to the perimeter wall of a fabrication area, such transport shall be through approved service corridors.
Carts and trucks used to transport HPM in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps shall comply with Section 5003.10.3.
Carts and trucks shall be marked to indicate the contents.
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