ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2018 (IFC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

This chapter shall apply to locations or areas where any of the following activities are conducted:

  1. The application of flammable finishes to articles or materials by means of spray apparatus.
  2. The application of flammable finishes by dipping or immersing articles or materials into the contents of tanks, vats or containers of flammable or combustible liquids for coating, finishing, treatment or similar processes.
  3. The application of flammable finishes by applying combustible powders to articles or materials utilizing powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, fluidized beds or electrostatic fluidized beds.
  4. Floor surfacing or finishing operations using Class I or II liquids in areas exceeding 350 square feet (32.5 m2).
  5. The application of flammable finishes consisting of dual-component coatings or Class I or II liquids where applied by brush or roller in quantities exceeding 1 gallon (4 L).

This chapter shall not apply to spray finishing utilizing flammable or combustible liquids that do not sustain combustion, including:

  1. Liquids that do not have a fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D92.
  2. Liquids with a flashpoint greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water and inert (noncombustible) solids content of more than 80 percent by weight.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 107.2.
Operations covered by this chapter shall be protected as required by Sections 2403.2 through 2403.4.4.
Protection against sources of ignition shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2403.2.1 through 2403.2.8.
Electrical wiring and equipment shall be maintained in accordance with this chapter, the applicable building code, the applicable provisions of NFPA 70, and Chapter 6.
Electrical wiring and equipment in flammable vapor areas shall be of an explosion-proof type approved for use in such hazardous locations as classified by the applicable building code and shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable provisions of NFPA 70 and Chapter 6.

Electrical equipment, flammable vapor areas, or drying operations that are subject to splashing or dripping of liquids shall be specifically approved for locations containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors.

Exceptions:

  1. The provision shall not apply to wiring in rigid conduit, threaded boxes, or fittings not containing taps, splices, or terminal connections.
  2. This provision shall not apply to electrostatic equipment allowed by Section 2407.

In resin application areas, electrical wiring and equipment that is subject to deposits of combustible residues shall be listed for such exposure and shall be installed as required for hazardous (classified) locations. Electrical wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combustible residues shall be installed as required for ordinary hazard locations.

Unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code, electrical wiring and equipment located outside of, but within 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally and 3 feet (914 mm) vertically of, openings in a spray booth or a spray room shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

Electrical equipment in flammable vapor areas located such that deposits of combustible residues could readily accumulate thereon shall be specifically approved for locations containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors in accordance with NFPA 70.

Exceptions:

  1. Wiring in rigid conduit.
  2. Boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or terminal connections.
  3. Equipment allowed by Sections 2404 and 2407 and Chapter 30.

Open flames and spark-producing devices shall not be located in flammable vapor areas and shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of such areas unless separated by a permanent partition.

Exception: Drying and baking apparatus complying with Section 2404.6.1.2.

Heated surfaces having a temperature sufficient to ignite vapors shall not be located in flammable vapor areas. Space-heating appliances, steam pipes or hot surfaces in a flammable vapor area shall be located such that they are not subject to accumulation of deposits of combustible residues.

Exception: Drying apparatus complying with Section 2404.6.1.2.

Equipment or apparatus that is capable of producing sparks or particles of hot metal that would fall into a flammable vapor area shall be totally enclosed.
Metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts, and piping systems conveying Class I or II liquids shall be electrically grounded in accordance with NFPA 70. Metallic parts located in resin application areas, including exhaust ducts, ventilation fans, spray application equipment, workpieces, and piping, shall be electrically grounded.
Smoking shall be prohibited in flammable vapor areas and hazardous materials storage rooms associated with flammable finish processes. "No Smoking" signs complying with Section 310 shall be conspicuously posted in such areas.

Welding, cutting and similar spark-producing operations shall not be conducted in or adjacent to flammable vapor areas or dipping or coating operations unless precautions have been taken to provide safety. Conspicuous signs with the following warning shall be posted in the vicinity of flammable vapor areas, dipping operations and paint storage rooms:

NO WELDING THE USE OF WELDING OR CUTTING EQUIPMENT IN OR NEAR THIS AREA IS DANGEROUS BECAUSE OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS. WELDING AND CUTTING SHALL BE DONE ONLY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE PERSON IN CHARGE.

Powered industrial trucks used in electrically classified areas shall be listed for such use.
The storage, use and handling of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 57.
Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be of a closed type or provided with metal covers that are kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on noncombustible supports or suspended by wire cables. Containers supplying spray nozzles by gravity flow shall not exceed 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity.
Containers and piping to which a hose or flexible connection is attached shall be provided with a shutoff valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept shut when hoses are not in use.
Where flammable or combustible liquids are supplied to spray nozzles by positive displacement pumps, pump discharge lines shall be provided with an approved relief valve discharging to pump suction or a safe detached location.
Where a flammable mixture is transferred from one portable container to another, a bond shall be provided between the two containers. Not less than one container shall be grounded. Piping systems for Class I and II liquids shall be permanently grounded.
Class I liquids used as solvents shall be used in spray gun and equipment cleaning machines that have been listed and approved for such purpose or shall be used in spray booths or spray rooms in accordance with Sections 2403.3.5.1 and 2403.3.5.2.
Cleaning machines for spray guns and equipment shall not be located in areas open to the public and shall be separated from ignition sources in accordance with their listings or by a distance of 3 feet (914 mm), whichever is greater. The quantity of solvent used in a machine shall not exceed the design capacity of the machine.
Where solvents are used for cleaning spray nozzles and auxiliary equipment within spray booths and spray rooms, the ventilating equipment shall be operated during cleaning.
Solvents used outside of spray booths, spray rooms or listed and approved spray gun and equipment cleaning machines shall be restricted to Class II and III liquids.
Flammable vapor areas, exhaust fan blades and exhaust ducts shall be kept free from the accumulation of deposits of combustible residues. Where excessive residue accumulates in such areas, spraying operations shall be discontinued until conditions are corrected.
Scrapers, spuds and other tools used for cleaning purposes shall be constructed of nonsparking materials.
Residues removed during cleaning and debris contaminated with residue shall be immediately removed from the premises and properly disposed.
Approved metal waste cans equipped with self-closing lids shall be provided wherever rags or waste are impregnated with finishing material. Such rags and waste shall be deposited therein immediately after being utilized. The contents of waste cans shall be properly disposed of not less than once daily and at the end of each shift.
Solvent distillation equipment used to recycle and clean dirty solvents shall comply with Section 5705.4.
The application of flammable or combustible liquids by means of spray apparatus in continuous or intermittent processes shall be in accordance with the requirements of Sections 2403 and 2404.

Unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code, spray finishing operations shall not be conducted in buildings used for Group A, E, I, or R occupancies except where approved in accordance with the applicable building code. In other occupancies, spray-finishing operations shall be conducted in a spray room, spray booth, or spraying space approved for such use where required by the applicable building code.

Exceptions:

  1. Automobile undercoating spray operations and spray-on automotive lining operations conducted in areas with approved natural or mechanical ventilation shall be exempt from the provisions of Section 2404 when approved and where utilizing Class IIIA or IIIB combustible liquids.
  2. In buildings other than Group A, E, I, or R occupancies, approved limited spraying space in accordance with Section 2404.9.
  3. Resin application areas used for manufacturing of reinforced plastics complying with Section 2409 shall not be required to be located in a spray room, spray booth, or spraying space.
Design and construction of spray rooms, spray booths, and spray spaces shall be in accordance with the applicable building code. These areas shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 2404.3 through 2404.3.3.
Spray rooms shall be maintained in accordance with this section and remain in accordance with the applicable building code.
Combustible floor construction in spray rooms shall be covered by approved, noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where combustible coverings, including thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray rooms.
The design and construction of spray booths shall be in accordance with the applicable building code and maintained in accordance with Sections 2404.3.3.1 through 2403.3.6 and Sections 2404.4 through 2404.8 and the applicable sections of NFPA 33.
The interior surfaces of spray booths shall be smooth; shall be maintained so as to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning; and shall be maintained to confine residues within the booth. Aluminum shall not be used unless approved by the applicable building code.
Combustible floor construction in spray booths shall be covered by approved, noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where combustible coverings, including thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray booths.
Means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code and Chapter 10.

Spray booths shall be maintained so that all parts of the booth are readily accessible for cleaning. Unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code, a clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) shall be maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This clear space shall be kept free of any storage or combustible construction. If approved in accordance with the applicable building code, the following exceptions may apply:

  1. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or directly against an interior partition, wall, or floor and ceiling assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, provided the spray booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
  2. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an exterior wall or a roof assembly, provided the wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible material and the spray booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.
The design and construction of spray booths shall be in accordance with the applicable building code and maintained in accordance with Section 2404.3.3.1 and Sections 2404.4 through 2404.8.
Combustible floor construction in spraying spaces shall be covered by approved, noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where combustible coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spraying spaces.
Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, spray booths and spray rooms shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the requirements of the applicable building code and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be provided for spraying areas in accordance with the requirements for an extra (high) hazard occupancy.
Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3, 2403.4, 2404.5.1 and 2404.5.2.
Spray booths, spray rooms and spraying spaces shall not be alternately utilized for different types of coating materials where the combination of materials is conducive to spontaneous ignition, unless all deposits of one material are removed from the booth, room or space and exhaust ducts prior to spraying with a different material.
Automatic sprinklers installed in flammable vapor areas shall be protected from the accumulation of residue from spraying operations in an approved manner. Bags used as a protective covering shall be 0.003-inch-thick (0.076 mm) polyethylene or cellophane or shall be thin paper. Automatic sprinklers contaminated by overspray particles shall be replaced with new automatic sprinklers.
Control of sources of ignition shall be in accordance with Section 2403.2 and Sections 2404.6.1 through 2404.6.2.4.
Spray booths and spray rooms shall not be alternately used for the purpose of drying by arrangements or methods that could cause an increase in the surface temperature of the spray booth or spray room except in accordance with Sections 2404.6.1.1 and 2404.6.1.2. Except as specifically provided in this section, drying or baking units utilizing a heating system having open flames or that are capable of producing sparks shall not be installed in a flammable vapor areas.
The spraying procedure shall use low-volume spray application.
Fixed drying apparatus shall comply with this chapter and the applicable provisions of Chapter 30. Where recirculation ventilation is provided in accordance with Section 2404.7.2, the heating system shall not be within the recirculation air path.

The spraying apparatus, drying apparatus and ventilating system for the spray booth or spray room shall be equipped with interlocks arranged to accomplish all of the following:

  1. Prevent operation of the spraying apparatus while drying operations are in progress.
  2. Where the drying apparatus is located in the spray booth or spray room, prevent operation of the drying apparatus until a timed purge of spray vapors from the spray booth or spray room is complete. This purge time shall be based on completing not fewer than four air changes of spray booth or spray room volume or for a period of not less than 3 minutes, whichever is greater.
  3. Have the ventilating system maintain a safe atmosphere within the spray booth or spray room during the drying process and automatically shut off drying apparatus in the event of a failure of the ventilating system.
  4. Shut off the drying apparatus automatically if the air temperature within the booth exceeds 200°F (93°C).
Where a portable infrared drying apparatus is used, electrical wiring and portable infrared drying equipment shall comply with NFPA 70. Electrical equipment located within 18 inches (457 mm) of floor level shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations. Metallic parts of drying apparatus shall be electrically bonded and grounded. During spraying operations, portable drying apparatus and electrical connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray booths, spray rooms or other areas where spray residue would be deposited thereon.
Where spraying spaces, spray rooms or spray booths are illuminated through glass panels or other transparent materials, only fixed luminaires shall be utilized as a source of illumination.
Panels for luminaires or for observation shall maintain seals to confine vapors, mists, residues, dusts, and deposits to the flammable vapor area. Panels for luminaires shall be separated from the luminaire to prevent the surface temperature of the panel from exceeding 200°F (93°C).
Luminaires attached to the walls or ceilings of a flammable vapor area, but outside of any classified area and separated from the flammable vapor areas by vapor-tight glass panels, shall be suitable for use in ordinary hazard locations. Such luminaires shall be serviced from outside the flammable vapor areas.
Luminaires that are an integral part of the walls or ceiling of a flammable vapor area are allowed to be separated from the flammable vapor area by glass panels that are an integral part of the luminaire. Such luminaires shall be used only if listed for use in hazardous locations in accordance with the applicable building code and also shall be suitable for accumulations of deposits of combustible residues. Such luminaires are allowed to be serviced from inside the flammable vapor area.
Portable electric lamps shall not be used in flammable vapor areas during spraying operations. Portable electric lamps used during cleaning or repairing operations shall be of a type approved for hazardous locations.
Mechanical ventilation of flammable vapor areas shall be maintained and operated in accordance with the applicable building code.
Where provided, mechanical ventilation shall be kept in operation at all times while spraying operations are being conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow vapors from drying coated articles and finishing material residue to be exhausted.
Air exhausted from spraying operations shall not be recirculated unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code.
The required air velocity for ventilation systems shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
For spray application operations conducted in an open-face or open-front spray booth, the ventilation system air velocity shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of the applicable building code.
For spray application operations conducted in an enclosed spray booth or spray room with openings for product conveyance, the ventilation system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Articles being sprayed shall be positioned in a manner that does not obstruct collection of overspray.

Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, the termination point for exhaust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall be maintained to be not less than the distances listed as follows.

  1. Ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts: 30 feet (9144 mm) from the lot line; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the building; 6 feet (1829 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 30 feet (9144 mm) from combustible walls or openings into the building that are in the direction of the exhaust discharge; and 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.
  2. Other product-conveying outlets: 10 feet (3048 mm) from the lot line; 3 feet (914 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the building; and 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.

Termination locations at less than these distances shall be evaluated by the building official for compliance in accordance with the applicable building code.

Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not be placed inside booths or ducts, unless approved. Fan rotating elements shall be nonferrous or nonsparking or the casing shall consist of, or be lined with, such material. Belts shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt and pulley within the duct are tightly enclosed.
Unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code, air intake filters that are part of a wall or ceiling assembly shall be listed as Class I or II in accordance with UL 900. Exhaust filters shall be provided where required by the applicable building code.
Supports and holders for filters shall be maintained as noncombustible materials unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code.
Overspray collection filters shall be readily removable and able to be accessed for cleaning or replacement.
Where provided, visible gauges, audible alarms, or pressure-activated devices shall be maintained to indicate or ensure that the required air velocity is maintained.
Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, where spray booths are equipped with a filter roll that is automatically advanced, it shall be arranged to shut down the spraying operation if the filter roll fails to advance automatically.
Discarded filter pads shall be immediately removed to a safe, detached location or placed in a noncombustible container with a tight-fitting lid and disposed of properly.
Spray booths using dry filters shall not be used for spraying materials that are highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition. Filters shall be changed prior to spraying materials that could react with other materials previously collected. An example of a potentially reactive combination includes lacquer when combined with varnishes, stains or primers.
Waterwash spray booths shall be maintained so as to prevent excessive accumulation of deposits in ducts and residue at duct outlets. Such booths shall be maintained so that air and overspray are drawn through a continuously flowing water curtain before entering an exhaust duct to the building exterior.
Interlocks for spray application finishes shall be maintained fully operational in accordance with the applicable building code.
Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, where protecting automated spray application operations, automatic fire-extinguishing systems with an approved interlock feature shall maintain that feature so that, upon discharge of the system, it will automatically stop the spraying operations and workpiece conveyors into and out of the flammable vapor areas. Where the building is equipped with a fire alarm system, discharge of the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be maintained to activate the building alarm notification appliances in accordance with the applicable building code.
Where required, a manual fire alarm and emergency system shutdown station shall be maintained accessible and fully operational in accordance with the applicable building code.

Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, air makeup and flammable vapor area exhaust systems shall not be interlocked with the fire alarm system and shall remain in operation during a fire alarm condition.

Exception: Where the applicable building code requires such ventilation to be discontinued and dampers closed.

The aggregate surface area to be sprayed shall not exceed 9 square feet (0.84 m2).
Spraying operations shall not be of a continuous nature.
Positive mechanical ventilation providing a minimum of six complete air changes per hour shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.
Electrical wiring within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the floor and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally of the limited spraying space shall be designed for Class I, Division 2 locations in accordance with the applicable building code.
Dip-tank operations shall comply with the requirements of Section 2403 and Sections 2405.2 through 2405.11.
Where required by the applicable building code, dip-tank operations conducted in buildings used for Group A, I, or R occupancies shall be located in a room designed for that purpose, equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system, and separated vertically and horizontally from other areas in accordance with the applicable building code.
Dip tanks shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 2405.3.1 through 2405.3.4.3 and NFPA 34. Dip tanks, including drain boards, shall be constructed of noncombustible material and their supports shall be of heavy metal, reinforced concrete, or masonry unless otherwise approved by the applicable building code.
To operate dip tanks greater than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in liquid surface area, they shall be equipped with a trapped overflow pipe leading to an approved location outside the building in accordance with the building code.

Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, dip tanks greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in liquid capacity shall only be operated with bottom drains that are arranged to automatically and manually drain the tank quickly in the event of a fire unless the viscosity of the liquid at normal atmospheric temperature makes this impractical. Manual operation shall continue to be from a safe, accessible location. Such drains shall be trapped and discharged to a closed, vented salvage tank or to an approved outside location in accordance with the applicable building code.

Exception: Dip tanks containing Class IIIB combustible liquids where the liquids are not heated above room temperature and the process area is protected by automatic sprinklers.

Protection against the accumulation of vapors, self-ignition and excessively high temperatures shall be provided for dipping liquids that are heated directly or heated by the surfaces of the object being dipped.
Dip-tank covers allowed by Section 2405.4.1 shall be capable of manual operation and shall be automatic closing by approved automatic-closing devices designed to operate in the event of a fire.
Covers shall be constructed of noncombustible material or be of a tin-clad type with enclosing metal applied with locked joints.
Chain or wire rope shall be utilized for cover supports or operating mechanisms.
Covers shall be kept closed when tanks are not in use.
Dip-tank operations shall be protected with a fire protection system in accordance with the applicable building code and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be provided for dip tanks with a 150 gallon (568 L) or more capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m2) or larger liquid surface area.
Areas in the vicinity of dip tanks shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 and suitable for flammable and combustible liquid fires as specified for extra (high) hazard occupancies.
Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3 and 2403.4.
Control of sources of ignition shall be in accordance with Section 2403.2.
Mechanical ventilation in flammable vapor areas shall be operated and maintained to prevent the dangerous accumulation of vapors. Where required by the applicable building code, the failure of any ventilating fan shall automatically stop the dipping conveyor system.
Dip tanks utilizing a conveyor system shall be arranged such that in the event of a fire, the conveyor system shall automatically cease motion and the required tank bottom drains shall open.
Hardening and tempering tanks shall comply with Sections 2405.3 through 2405.3.3, 2405.4.2 and 2405.8, but shall be exempt from other provisions of Section 2405.
Unless otherwise required by the applicable building code, tanks shall be located as far as practical from furnaces and shall not be located on or near combustible floors.
Unless otherwise required by the applicable building code, tanks shall be operated only with a noncombustible hood and vent or other approved venting means, terminating outside of the structure to serve as a vent in case of a fire. Such vent ducts shall be treated as flues and proper clearances shall be maintained from combustible materials.
Tanks shall be operated with a high-temperature-limit switch maintained to sound an alarm when the temperature of the quenching medium reaches 50°F (10°C) below the flash point or other approved level as required by the applicable building code.
Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, hardening and tempering tanks greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in capacity or 25 square feet (2.3 m2) in liquid surface area shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
Air under pressure shall not be used to fill or agitate oil in tanks.
Flow-coating operations shall comply with the requirements for dip tanks. The area of the sump and any areas on which paint flows shall be considered to be the area of a dip tank.
Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, paint operations shall be supplied by a gravity tank not exceeding 10 gallons (38 L) in capacity or by direct low-pressure pumps arranged to shut down automatically in case of a fire by means of approved heat-actuated devices in accordance with the applicable building code.
Roll-coating operations shall comply with Section 2405.10. In roll-coating operations utilizing flammable or combustible liquids, sparks from static electricity shall be prevented by electrically bonding and grounding all metallic rotating and other parts of machinery and equipment and by the installation of static collectors or by maintaining a conductive atmosphere such as a high relative humidity.
Operations using finely ground particles of protective finishing material applied in dry powder form by a fluidized bed, an electrostatic fluidized bed, powder spray guns or electrostatic powder spray guns shall comply with Sections 2406.2 through 2406.7. In addition, Section 2407 shall apply to fixed electrostatic equipment used in powder coating operations.
Powder coating operations shall be conducted in enclosed powder coating rooms, enclosed powder coating facilities that are ventilated, or ventilated spray booths and in accordance with applicable building code.

The design and construction of powder coating rooms shall be in accordance with the applicable building code. Spray booths shall be constructed in accordance with Section 2404.3.3.

Exception: Listed spray-booth assemblies that are constructed of other materials shall be allowed.

Where required by the applicable building code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be provided for areas used for powder coating in accordance with the requirements for an extra-hazard occupancy.
Powder coating areas shall be kept free from the accumulation of powder coating dusts, including horizontal surfaces such as ledges, beams, pipes, hoods, booths and floors.
Surfaces shall be cleaned in such a manner so as to avoid scattering dusts to other places or creating dust clouds. Vacuum sweeping equipment shall be of a type approved for use in hazardous locations.
Control of sources of ignition shall be in accordance with Section 2403.2 and Sections 2406.6.1 through 2406.6.4.
Drying, curing and fusion equipment shall comply with Chapter 30.
Iron or spark-producing metals shall be prevented from being introduced into the powders being applied by magnetic separators, filtertype separators or by other approved means.
When parts are heated prior to coating, the temperature of the parts shall not exceed the ignition temperature of the powder to be used.
Precautions shall be taken to minimize the possibility of ignition by static electrical sparks through static bonding and grounding where possible of powder transport, application, and recovery equipment.
Exhaust ventilation shall be sufficient to maintain the atmosphere below one-half the minimum explosive concentration for the material being applied. Nondeposited, air-suspended powders shall be removed through exhaust ducts to the powder recovery system.
Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in connection with paint-spraying and paint-detearing operations shall be of an approved type.

A space of at least twice the sparking distance shall be maintained between goods being painted or deteared and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing heads, or conductors. A sign stating the sparking distance shall be conspicuously posted near the assembly.

Exception: Portable electrostatic paint-spraying apparatus listed for use in Class I, Division 1 locations.

Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code. Portable electrostatic paint-spraying apparatus shall be listed for use in Class I, Division 1 locations.

Booths, fencing, railings, or guards shall be maintained about the equipment so that either by their location or character, or both, isolation of the process is maintained from plant storage and personnel. Railings, fencing, and guards shall be of conductive material, adequately grounded, and at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from processing equipment in accordance with the applicable building code.

Exception: Portable electrostatic paint-spraying apparatus listed for use in Class I, Division 1 locations.

Where required by the applicable building code, automated liquid electrostatic spray application equipment shall maintain an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall, in the event of ignition, react to the presence of flame and shall accomplish all of the following if required by the applicable building code:

  1. Activation of a local alarm in the vicinity of the spraying operation and activation of the building alarm system if such a system is provided.
  2. Shutting down of the coating material delivery system.
  3. Termination of all spray application operations.
  4. Stopping of conveyors into and out of the flammable vapor areas.
  5. Disconnection of power to the high-voltage elements in the flammable vapor areas and disconnection of power to the system.
Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3, 2403.4 and Sections 2407.5.1 and 2407.5.2.
Insulators shall be kept clean and dry. Drip plates and screens subject to paint deposits shall be removable and taken to a safe place for cleaning. Grounds and bonding means for the paint-spraying apparatus and all associated equipment shall be periodically cleaned and maintained free of overspray.

Signs shall be posted to provide the following information:

  1. Designate the process zone as dangerous with respect to fire and accident.
  2. Identify the grounding requirements for all electrically conductive objects in the flammable vapor area, including persons.
  3. Restrict access to qualified personnel only.
Transformers, power packs, control apparatus and all other electrical portions of the equipment, except high-voltage grids and electrostatic atomizing heads and connections, shall be located outside of the flammable vapor areas or shall comply with Section 2403.2.
Ventilation provided for flammable vapor areas shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

Where emergency shutdowns are required by the applicable building code, such devices shall be maintained with automatic controls operating without time delay to disconnect the power supply to the high-voltage transformer and signal the operator under any of the following conditions unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code:

  1. Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment from any cause.
  2. Stoppage of the conveyor carrying articles past the high-voltage grid.
  3. Occurrence of a ground or an imminent ground at any point of the high-voltage system.
  4. Reduction of clearance below that required in Section 2407.2.
Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, hand electrostatic equipment shall be maintained as interlocked with the ventilation system for the spraying area so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the ventilating system is in operation.
Spraying operations involving the use of organic peroxides and other dual-component coatings shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 2403 and Sections 2408.2 through 2408.5.
Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, spraying operations involving the use of organic peroxides and other dual-component coatings shall be conducted in approved, sprinklered spray booths complying with the applicable building code.
Spray guns and related handling equipment used with organic peroxides shall be of a type manufactured for such use.
Separate pressure vessels and inserts specifically for the application shall be used for the resin and for the organic peroxide, and shall not be interchanged. Organic peroxide pressure tank inserts shall be constructed of stainless steel or polyethylene.
Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3 and 2403.4 and Sections 2408.4.1 through 2408.4.7.
Organic peroxide initiators shall not be contaminated with foreign substances.
Spilled organic peroxides shall be promptly removed and any residue thereof promptly eliminated. Spilled material absorbed by using a noncombustible absorbent shall be promptly disposed of in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation.
Materials shall not be contaminated by dusts and overspray residues resulting from the sanding or spraying of finishing materials containing organic peroxides.
Handling of organic peroxides shall be conducted in a manner that avoids shock and friction that produces decomposition and violent reaction hazards.
Organic peroxides shall not be mixed directly with accelerators or promoters.
Personnel working with organic peroxides and dual-component coatings shall be specifically trained to work with these materials.
The storage of organic peroxides shall comply with Chapter 62.
Only nonsparking tools shall be used in areas where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or applied.
Indoor manufacturing processes involving spray or hand application of reinforced plastics and using more than 5 gallons (19 L) of resin in a 24-hour period shall be in accordance with Sections 2409.2 through 2409.6.1.
Equipment used for spray application of resin shall be installed and used in accordance with Section 2408 and Sections 2409.3 through 2409.6.1.
Where required by the applicable building code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.
Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3 and 2403.4 and Sections 2409.4.1 through 2409.4.3.
A noncombustible, open-top container shall be provided for disposal of excess catalyzed resin. Excess catalyzed resin shall be drained into the container while still in the liquid state. Enough water shall be provided in the container to maintain a minimum 2-inch (51 mm) water layer over the contained resin.
In areas where chopper guns are used, exposed wall and floor surfaces shall be covered with paper, polyethylene film or other approved material to allow for removal of overchop. Overchop shall be allowed to cure for not less than 4 hours prior to removal.
Following removal, used wall and floor covering materials required by Section 2409.4.2 shall be placed in a noncombustible container and removed from the facility.
Storage and use of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with Section 2408 and Chapter 62. Storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57. Storage and use of unstable (reactive) materials shall be in accordance with Chapter 66.

Mechanical ventilation shall be maintained throughout resin application areas in accordance with Section 2404.7 and the applicable building code. The ventilation rate shall be adequate to maintain the concentration of flammable vapors in the resin application area at or below 25 percent of the LFL unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code.

Exception: Mechanical ventilation is not required for buildings that have 75 percent of the perimeter unenclosed.

Local ventilation shall be provided inside of work-pieces where personnel will be under or inside of the work-piece.
Floor surfacing and finishing operations exceeding 350 square feet (33 m2) and using Class I or II liquids shall comply with Sections 2410.2 through 2410.5.
Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems shall not be operated during resurfacing or refinishing operations or within 4 hours of the application of flammable or combustible liquids.
Floor surfacing and finishing operations shall not be conducted while an establishment is open to the public.
The power shall be shut down to all electrical sources of ignition within the flammable vapor area, unless those devices are classified for use in Class I, Division 1 hazardous locations.
To prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors, mechanical ventilation at a minimum rate of 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of area being finished shall be provided. Such exhaust shall be by approved temporary or portable means. Vapors shall be exhausted to the exterior of the building.
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