Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration systems, battery systems and solar photovoltaic power systems as set forth in Section 107.2.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD-ACID.
COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES.
One or more fuel oil storage tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all such tanks shall not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L).
Exception: The aggregate capacity limit shall be permitted to be increased to 3,000 gallons (11 356 L) of Class II or III liquid for storage in protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7, when all of the following conditions are met:
- The entire 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) quantity shall be stored in protected above-ground tanks;
- The 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) capacity shall be permitted to be stored in a single tank or multiple smaller tanks; and
- The tanks shall be located in a room protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1.
Tanks and piping systems shall be installed and separated from other uses in accordance with Section 915 and Chapter 13, both of the International Mechanical Code, as applicable.
Exception: Protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7 shall not be required to be separated from surrounding areas.
Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4.
- Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters, including portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances, in one- and two-family dwellings.
- Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2.
The storage or use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is prohibited in any of the following locations:
- Inside of any occupancy when connected to the fuel gas container.
- Inside of tents, canopies and membrane structures.
- On exterior balconies.
Exception: As allowed in Section 6.19 of NFPA 58.
The fire code official is authorized to order that measures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take measures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance without notice when inspection shows the existence of an immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all necessary repairs or alterations have been made.
Note: The fire code official may request a copy of the latest certificate of inspection from the Virginia Department of Labor and Industry for boilers and pressure vessels subject to such requirements. When the certificate is not available, the fire code official shall notify the Department of Labor and Industry to ensure that the required maintenance and testing is performed in accordance the Virginia Boiler and Pressure Vessel Regulations (16VAC25-50).
An on-premises fuel supply, sufficient for not less than 2-hour full-demand operation of the system, shall be provided.
Exception: When approved, the system shall be allowed to be supplied by natural gas pipelines.
Exit signs, exit illumination as required by Chapter 10, electrically powered fire pumps required to maintain pressure, and elevator car lighting are classified as emergency systems and shall operate within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power supply and shall be capable of being transferred to the standby source.
Exception: Exit sign, exit and means of egress illumination are permitted to be powered by a standby source in buildings of Group F and S occupancies.
The following loads are classified as standby power loads:
- Smoke control system.
- Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.
- Fire pumps.
- Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Section 3003 of the International Building Code.
The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:
- Emergency voice/alarm communication systems.
- Fire alarm systems.
- Automatic fire detection systems.
- Elevator car lighting.
- Means of egress lighting and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.
Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group I-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.
Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required as set forth in the International Building Code.
A standby power system shall be provided in airport traffic control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be provided to the following equipment:
- Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and lighting.
- Elevator operating equipment.
- Fire alarm and smoke detection systems.
Emergency power systems, including all appurtenant components shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.
Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate records are maintained.
A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No storage of any materials shall be located within the designated working space.
- Where other dimensions are required or allowed by NFPA 70.
- Access openings into attics or under-floor areas which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm).
Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable provisions of NFPA 70.
Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.
Where not prohibited by other sections of this code, portable, electric space heaters shall be permitted to be used in all occupancies other than Group I-2 and in accordance with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.4.
Exception: The use of portable, electric space heaters in which the heating element cannot exceed a temperature of 212°F (100°C) shall be permitted in nonsleeping staff and employee areas in Group I-2 occupancies.
Solar photovoltaic power systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections 605.11.1 through 605.11.4, the International Building Code and NFPA 70.
Exception: Detached, nonhabitable Group U structures including, but not limited to, parking shade structures, carports, solar trellises and similar structures shall not be subject to the requirements of this section.
Roof access, pathways, and spacing requirements shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.3.1 through 605.11.3.3.3.
- Residential structures shall be designed so that each photovoltaic array is no greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm) in either axis.
- Panels/modules shall be permitted to be located up to the roof ridge where an alternative ventilation method approved by the fire chief has been provided or where the fire chief has determined vertical ventilation techniques will not be employed.
Panels/modules installed on residential buildings with hip roof layouts shall be located in a manner that provides a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathway from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels/modules are located. The access pathway shall be located at a structurally strong location on the building capable of supporting the live load of fire fighters accessing the roof.
Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.
Panels/modules installed on residential buildings with a single ridge shall be located in a manner that provides two, 3-foot-wide (914 mm) access pathways from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels/modules are located.
Exception: This requirement shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.
Panels/modules installed on residential buildings with roof hips and valleys shall be located no closer than 18 inches (457 mm) to a hip or a valley where panels/modules are to be placed on both sides of a hip or valley. Where panels are to be located on only one side of a hip or valley that is of equal length, the panels shall be permitted to be placed directly adjacent to the hip or valley.
Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.
Access to systems for occupancies other than one- and two-family dwellings shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.3.3.1 through 605.11.3.3.3.
Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code official that the roof configuration is similar to that of a one- or two-family dwelling, the residential access and ventilation requirements in Sections 605.11.3.2.1 through 605.11.3.2.4 shall be permitted to be used.
There shall be a minimum 6-foot-wide (1829 mm) clear perimeter around the edges of the roof.
Exception: Where either axis of the building is 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less, there shall be a minimum 4-foot-wide (1290 mm) clear perimeter around the edges of the roof.
The solar installation shall be designed to provide designated pathways. The pathways shall meet the following requirements:
- The pathway shall be over areas capable of supporting the live load of fire fighters accessing the roof.
- The centerline axis pathways shall be provided in both axes of the roof. Centerline axis pathways shall run where the roof structure is capable of supporting the live load of fire fighters accessing the roof.
- Shall be a straight line not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear to skylights or ventilation hatches.
- Shall be a straight line not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear to roof standpipes.
- Shall provide not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear around roof access hatch with at least one not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear pathway to parapet or roof edge.
The solar installation shall be designed to meet the following requirements:
- Arrays shall be no greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm) in distance in either axis in order to create opportunities for fire department smoke ventilation operations.
- 2.1. A pathway 8 feet (2438 mm) or greater in width.
- 2.2. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering roof skylights or smoke and heat vents.
- 2.3. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering 4-foot by 8-foot (1290 mm by 2438 mm) “venting cutouts” every 20 feet (6096 mm) on alternating sides of the pathway.
The following emergency devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and as required by the fire code official.
- Treatment and flaring systems.
- Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes.
- Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.
- Detection and alarm systems.
Flammable and combustible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 50, 53, 55 and 57.
Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the system.
Systems containing ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4, a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.5, or through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 606.12.6, or by other approved means.
- Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.
- When the fire code official determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from discharging ammonia directly to the atmosphere.
Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechanical Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70.
Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the International Mechanical Code.
An approved pictorial sign of a standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRS.
- The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress complying with Section 1007.4.
- The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.
Buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access elevator shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire service elevator key approved by the fire code official.
Exception: The owner shall be permitted to place the building’s nonstandardized fire service elevator keys in a key box installed in accordance with Section 506.1.2.
Standardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with all of the following:
- All fire service elevator keys within the jurisdiction shall be uniform and specific for the jurisdiction. Keys shall be cut to a uniform key code.
- Fire service elevator keys shall be of a patent-protected design to prevent unauthorized duplication.
- Fire service elevator keys shall be factory restricted by the manufacturer to prevent the unauthorized distribution of key blanks. No uncut key blanks shall be permitted to leave the factory.
- Fire service elevator keys subject to these rules shall be engraved with the words “DO NOT DUPLICATE.”
Access to standardized fire service elevator keys shall be restricted to the following:
- Elevator owners or their authorized agents.
- Elevator contractors.
- Elevator inspectors of the jurisdiction.
- Fire code officials of the jurisdiction.
- The fire department and other emergency response agencies designated by the fire code official.
Stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA), or more than 1,000 pounds (454 kg) for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer, used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterruptible power supplies shall comply with this section and Table 608.1.
|REQUIREMENT||NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES||RECOMBINANT BATTERIES||OTHER BATTERIES|
|Vented (Flooded) Lead|
|Valve Regulated Lead-|
Acid (VRLA) Cells
|Lithium-Ion Cells||Lithium Metal Cells|
|Safety caps||Venting caps|
|No caps||No caps|
|Thermal runaway |
|Not required||Not required||Required|
|Not required||Not required||Not required|
|Not required||Not required|
|Not required||Not required|
An approved method and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a “spill” is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte.
Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill control.
For VRLA or other types of batteries with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.
Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require neutralization.
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the following:
- For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1.0 percent of the total volume of the room; or
- Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 ft3/min/ft2) [0.0051 m3/s • m2] of floor area of the room.
When VRLA batteries are installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or naturally vented by one of the following methods:
- The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of simultaneous “boost” charging of all the batteries in the cabinet; or
- When calculations are not available to substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [1 ft3/min/ft2 or 0.0051 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in which the cabinet is installed shall also be ventilated as required in Section 608.6.1.
Doors into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing stationary battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that:
- The room contains energized battery systems.
- The room contains energized electrical circuits.
- The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are corrosive liquids.
Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be inspected at intervals specified in Table 609.3.3.1 or as approved by the fire code official. Inspections shall be completed by qualified individuals.
COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM INSPECTION FREQUENCY
|TYPE OF COOKING OPERATIONS||FREQUENCY OF|
|High-volume cooking operations such as 24-|
hour cooking, charbroiling or wok cooking
|Low-volume cooking operations such as|
places of religious worship, seasonal businesses
and senior centers
|Cooking operations utilizing solid fuel-burning|
|All other cooking operations||6 months|
Where a commercial kitchen hood or duct system is cleaned, a tag containing the service provider name, address, telephone number and date of service shall be provided in a conspicuous location. Prior tags shall be covered or removed.
Exception: Where records required by Section 609.3.3.3 are maintained on the premises.