CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2012 (IFC 2012)

Copyright

Preface

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part II ‒ General Safety Provisions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Part III ‒ Building and Equipment Design Features

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 12 Through 19 Reserved

Part IV ‒ Special Occupancies and Operations

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 32 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 36 Marinas

Chapter 37 Through 49 Reserved

Part V ‒ Hazardous Materials

Chapter 50 Hazardous Materials—General Provisions

Chapter 51 Aerosols

Chapter 52 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids

Chapter 60 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 67 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 68 Through 79 Reserved

Part VI ‒ Referenced Standards

Chapter 80 Referenced Standards

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids—weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (Hmmp) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (Hmis) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems—noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Building Information Sign

Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, use, dispensing, mixing and handling of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 50 and this chapter.

Provisions of the Virginia State Water Control Board regulations 9VAC25-91 and 9VAC25-580 addressing the maintenance and operational aspects of underground and above-ground storage tanks subject to those regulations are hereby incorporated by reference to be an enforceable part of this code. Where differences occur between the provisions of this code and the incorporated provisions of the State Water Control Board regulations, the provisions of the State Water Control Board regulations shall apply.

Note: For requirements for the installation, repair, upgrade and closure of such tanks, see Section 414.6.2 of the USBC, Part I, Construction.

This chapter shall not apply to liquids as otherwise provided in other laws or regulations or chapters of this code, including:

  1. Specific provisions for flammable liquids in motor fuel-dispensing facilities, repair garages, airports and marinas in Chapter 23.
  2. Medicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and commercial, institutional and industrial products containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solution not being flammable, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  3. Quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales or storage occupancies, providied that the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).
  4. Storage and use of fuel oil in tanks and containers connected to oil-burning equipment. Such storage and use shall be in accordance with Section 603. For abandonment of fuel oil tanks, this chapter applies.
  5. Refrigerant liquids and oils in refrigeration systems (see Section 606).
  6. Storage and display of aerosol products complying with Chapter 51.
  7. Storage and use of liquids that have no fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D 92.
  8. Liquids with a flash point greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water and inert (noncombustible) solids content of more than 80 percent by weight, which do not sustain combustion.
  9. Liquids without flash points that can be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons.
  10. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.
The applicable requirements of Chapter 50, other chapters of this code, the International Building Code and the International Mechanical Code pertaining to flammable liquids shall apply.

Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 107.2.

Flammable and combustible liquids shall be classified in accordance with the definitions in Chapter 2.

When mixed with lower flash-point liquids, Class II or III liquids are capable of assuming the characteristics of the lower flash-point liquids. Under such conditions, the appropriate provisions of this chapter for the actual flash point of the mixed liquid shall apply.

When heated above their flash points, Class II and III liquids assume the characteristics of Class I liquids. Under such conditions, the appropriate provisions of this chapter for flammable liquids shall apply.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB.

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL.

BULK TRANSFER.

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID.

    Class II.

    Class IIIA.

    Class IIIB.

FIRE POINT.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID.

    Class IA.

    Class IB.

    Class IC.

FLASH POINT.

FUEL LIMIT SWITCH.

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM.

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE.

MOBILE FUELING.

PROCESS TRANSFER.

REFINERY.

REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE.

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR.

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT.

TANK, PRIMARY.

Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 605 and NFPA 70.

Areas where flammable liquids are stored, handled, dispensed or mixed shall be in accordance with Table 5703.1.1. A classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced floor, roof or other solid partition.

The extent of the classified area is allowed to be reduced, or eliminated, where sufficient technical justification is provided to the fire code official that a concentration in the area in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) cannot be generated.

TABLE 5703.1.1

CLASS I ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT LOCATIONSa

LOCATIONGROUP D DIVISIONEXTENT OF CLASSIFIED AREA
Underground tank fill opening1Pits, boxes or spaces below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2
classified area.
2Up to 18 inches above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from a loose-fill
connection and within a horizontal radius of 5 feet from a tight-fill connection.
Vent—Discharging upward1Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
2Area between 3 feet and 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Drum and container filling
Outdoor or indoor with adequate ventilation1Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.
2Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent of fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up
to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill
opening.
Pumps, bleeders, withdrawal fittings, meters and similar devices
Indoor2Within 5 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet above
floor or grade level within 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Outdoor2Within 3 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches
above floor or grade level within 10 feet horizontally from an edge of such devices.
Pits
Without mechanical ventilation1Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
With mechanical ventilation2Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Containing valves, fittings or piping, and not within a Division
1 or 2 classified area
2Entire pit.
Drainage ditches, separators, impounding basins
1 or 2Same as pits.
Indoor
2Area up to 18 inches above ditch, separator or basin. Also up to 18 inches above grade
within 15 feet horizontal from any edge.
Outdoor
Tank vehicle and tank carb
Loading through open dome1Within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
2Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through bottom connections with atmospheric venting1Within 3 feet of point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions.
2Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all
directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of
loading connection.
Tank vehicle and tank carb—continued
Loading through closed dome with atmospheric venting1Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
2Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions. Also within 3
feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through closed dome with vapor control2Within 3 feet of point of connection of both fill and vapor lines, extending in all directions.
Bottom loading with vapor control or any bottom unloading2Within 3 feet of point of connection, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above
grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of connection.
Storage and repair garage for tank vehicles1Pits or spaces below floor level.
2Area up to 18 inches above floor or grade level for entire storage or repair garage.
Garages for other than tank vehiclesOrdinaryWhere there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an outdoor classified area, the entire
room shall be classified the same as the area classification at the point of the opening.
Outdoor drum storageOrdinary
Indoor warehousing where there is no flammable liquid
transfer
OrdinaryWhere there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified area, the room
shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
1Area within 5 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
Indoor equipment where flammable vapor/air mixtures
could exist under normal operations
2Area between 5 feet and 8 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
Also, area up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 5 feet to 25 feet horizontally from any edge of
such equipment.c
1Area within 3 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
Outdoor equipment where flammable vapor/air mixtures
could exist under normal operations
2Area between 3 feet and 8 feet of any edge of such equipment extending in all directions.
Also, area up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 3 feet to 10 feet horizontally from any edge of
such equipment.
Tank—Above ground
Shell, ends or roof and dike area1Area inside dike where dike height is greater than the distance from the tank to the dike for
more than 50 percent of the tank circumference.
2Area within 10 feet from shell, ends or roof of tank. Area inside dikes to level of top of dike.
Vent1Area within 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
2Area between 5 feet and 10 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Floating roof1Area above the roof and within the shell.
Office and restroomsOrdinaryWhere there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified location, the
room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. Locations as classified in NFPA 70.
  2. When classifying extent of area, consideration shall be given to the fact that tank cars or tank vehicles can be spotted at varying points. Therefore, the extremities of the loading or unloading positions shall be used.
  3. The release of Class I liquids can generate vapors to the extent that the entire building, and possibly a zone surrounding it, are considered a Class I, Division 2 location.

Areas where Class II or III liquids are heated above their flash points shall have electrical installations in accordance with Section 5703.1.1.

Exception: Solvent distillation units in accordance with Section 5705.4.

The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of the Class I electrical equipment and wiring location when a condition is not specifically covered by these requirements or NFPA 70.
Fire protection for the storage, use, dispensing, mixing, handling and on-site transportation of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this chapter and applicable sections of Chapter 9.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906. Hose lines shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.
In the event of a spill, leak or discharge from a tank system, a site assessment shall be completed by the owner or operator of such tank system if the fire code official determines that a potential fire or explosion hazard exists. Such site assessments shall be conducted to ascertain potential fire hazards and shall be completed and submitted to the fire department within a time period established by the fire code official, not to exceed 60 days.
Where the maximum allowable quantity per control area is exceeded, and when required by Section 5004.2, rooms, buildings or areas used for storage, dispensing, use, mixing or handling of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.
The fire code official is authorized to require warning signs for the purpose of identifying the hazards of storing or using flammable liquids. Signage for identification and warning such as for the inherent hazard of flammable liquids or smoking shall be provided in accordance with this chapter and Sections 5003.5 and 5003.6.
Warning signs shall be of a durable material. Signs warning of the hazard of flammable liquids shall have white lettering on a red background and shall read: DANGER—FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS. Letters shall not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height and 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in stroke.
Signs shall be posted in locations as required by the fire code official. Piping containing flammable liquids shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1.
Individual containers, packages and cartons shall be identified, marked, labeled and placarded in accordance with federal regulations and applicable state laws.
Color coding or other approved identification means shall be provided on each loading and unloading riser for flammable or combustible liquids to identify the contents of the tank served by the riser.
Piping systems, and their component parts, for flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6.1 through 5703.6.11.
The provisions of Section 5703.6 shall not apply to gas or oil well installations; piping that is integral to stationary or portable engines, including aircraft, watercraft and motor vehicles; and piping in connection with boilers and pressure vessels regulated by the International Mechanical Code.

Piping system components shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 5703.6.2 and Chapter 27 of NFPA 30, except as modified by Section 5703.6.2.1.

TABLE 5703.6.2

PIPING STANDARDS

PIPING USESTANDARD
Power PipingASME B31.1
Process PipingASME B31.3
Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid
Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
ASME B31.4
Building Services PipingASME B31.9

Low-melting-point materials (such as aluminum, copper or brass), materials that soften on fire exposure (such as nonmetallic materials) and nonductile material (such as cast iron) shall be acceptable for use underground in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 5703.6.2. When such materials are used outdoors in above-ground piping systems or within buildings, they shall be in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 5703.6.2 and one of the following:

  1. Suitably protected against fire exposure.
  2. Located where leakage from failure would not unduly expose people or structures.
  3. Located where leakage can be readily controlled by operation of accessible remotely located valves.

In all cases, nonmetallic piping shall be used in accordance with Section 27.4.6 of NFPA 30.

Unless tested in accordance with the applicable section of ASME B31.9, piping, before being covered, enclosed or placed in use, shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (34.47 kPa) at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time period to complete visual inspection of joints and connections. For a minimum of 10 minutes, there shall be no leakage or permanent distortion. Care shall be exercised to ensure that these pressures are not applied to vented storage tanks. Such storage tanks shall be tested independently from the piping.

Existing piping shall be tested in accordance with this section when the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that a leak exists. Piping that could contain flammable or combustible liquids shall not be tested pneumatically. Such tests shall be at the expense of the owner or operator.

Exception: Vapor-recovery piping is allowed to be tested using an inert gas.

Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect piping, valves or fittings subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.
Where subject to external corrosion, piping, related fluid-handling components and supports for both underground and above-ground applications shall be fabricated from noncorrosive materials, and coated or provided with corrosion protection. Dissimilar metallic parts that promote galvanic action shall not be joined.
Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of manual control valves and check valves to operate the system properly and to protect the plant under both normal and emergency conditions. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of such valves to control properly the flow of liquids in normal operation and in the event of physical damage or fire exposure.
Connections to pipelines or piping by which equipment (such as tank cars, tank vehicles or marine vessels) discharges liquids into storage tanks shall be provided with check valves or block valves for automatic protection against backflow where the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible. Where loading and unloading is done through a common pipe system, a check valve is not required. However, a block valve shall be provided which is located so as to be readily accessible or remotely operable.
Manual drainage-control valves shall be located at approved locations remote from the tanks, diked area, drainage system and impounding basin to ensure their operation in a fire condition.
Above-ground tanks with connections located below normal liquid level shall be provided with internal or external isolation valves located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Except for liquids whose chemical characteristics are incompatible with steel, such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel.

Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction or exposure to fire. The supports shall be protected against exposure to fire by one of the following:

  1. Draining liquid away from the piping system at a minimum slope of not less than 1 percent.
  2. Providing protection with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
  3. Other approved methods.

Flexible joints shall be listed and approved and shall be installed on underground liquid, vapor and vent piping at all of the following locations:

  1. Where piping connects to underground tanks.
  2. Where piping ends at pump islands and vent risers.
  3. At points where differential movement in the piping can occur.

Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) piping is not required to be provided with flexible joints in locations where both of the following conditions are present:

  1. Piping does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter.
  2. Piping has a straight run of not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on one side of the connection when such connections result in a change of direction.

In lieu of the minimum 4-foot (1219 mm) straight run length, approved and listed flexible joints are allowed to be used under dispensers and suction pumps, at submerged pumps and tanks, and where vents extend above ground.

Joints shall be liquid tight and shall be welded, flanged or threaded except that listed flexible connectors are allowed in accordance with Section 5703.6.9. Threaded or flanged joints shall fit tightly by using approved methods and materials for the type of joint. Joints in piping systems used for Class I liquids shall be welded when located in concealed spaces within buildings.

Nonmetallic joints shall be approved and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Pipe joints that are dependent on the friction characteristics or resiliency of combustible materials for liquid tightness of piping shall not be used in buildings. Piping shall be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting.

Pipe and tubing shall be bent in accordance with ASME B31.9.
The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in containers and tanks shall be in accordance with this section and the applicable sections of Chapter 50.

The provisions of this section shall apply to:

  1. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in fixed above-ground and underground tanks.
  2. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in fixed above-ground tanks inside of buildings.
  3. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in portable tanks whose capacity exceeds 660 gallons (2498 L).
  4. The installation of such tanks and portable tanks.

Tanks subject to change in contents shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.7. Prior to a change in contents, the fire code official is authorized to require testing of a tank.

Tanks that have previously contained Class I liquids shall not be loaded with Class II or Class III liquids until such tanks and all piping, pumps, hoses and meters connected thereto have been completely drained and flushed.

Tank cars and tank vehicles shall not be used as storage tanks.
Labeling and signs for storage tanks and storage tank areas shall comply with Sections 5704.2.3.1 and 5704.2.3.2.
Signs shall be posted in storage areas prohibiting open flames and smoking. Signs shall comply with Section 5703.5.

Tanks more than 100 gallons (379 L) in capacity, which are permanently installed or mounted and used for the storage of Class I, II or III liquids, shall bear a label and placard identifying the material therein. Placards shall be in accordance with NFPA 704.

Exceptions:

  1. Tanks of 300-gallon (1136 L) capacity or less located on private property and used for heating and cooking fuels in single-family dwellings.
  2. Tanks located underground.

Smoking and open flames are prohibited in storage areas in accordance with Section 5003.7.

Exception: Areas designated as smoking and hot work areas, and areas where hot work permits have been issued in accordance with this code.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 911.

Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be separated from incompatible materials in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.

Grass, weeds, combustible materials and waste Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall not be accumulated in an unsafe manner at a storage site.

The design, fabrication and construction of tanks shall comply with NFPA 30. Each tank shall bear a permanent nameplate or marking indicating the standard used as the basis of design.
The materials used in tank construction shall be in accordance with NFPA 30.
Tanks shall be designed for the pressures to which they will be subjected in accordance with NFPA 30.
Tank vents for normal venting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Sections 5704.2.7.3.1 through 5704.2.7.3.6.
Vent lines from tanks shall not be used for purposes other than venting unless approved.

Listed or approved flame arresters or pressure-vacuum (PV) vents that remain closed unless venting under pressure or vacuum conditions shall be installed in normal vents of tanks containing Class IB and IC liquids.

Exception: When determined by the fire code official that the use of such devices can result in damage to the tank.

Vent-line flame arresters shall be installed in accordance with their listing or API 2000 and maintained in accordance with Section 21.8.6 of NFPA 30 or API 2000. In-line flame arresters in piping systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with their listing or API 2028. Pressure-vacuum vents shall be installed in accordance with Section 21.4.3 of NFPA 30 or API 2000 and maintained in accordance with Section 21.8.6 of NFPA 30 or API 2000.

Vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be located such that the vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level. Vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from adjacent walls to assist in vapor dispersion. Vent outlets shall be located such that flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from building openings or lot lines of properties that can be built upon. Vent outlets on atmospheric tanks storing Class IIIB liquids are allowed to discharge inside a building if the vent is a normally closed vent.

Exception: Vent pipe outlets on tanks storing Class IIIB liquid inside buildings and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be located such that the vapors are released to a safe location outside of buildings.

Vent piping shall be designed, sized, constructed and installed in accordance with Section 5703.6. Vent pipes shall be installed such that they will drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. Vent pipes shall be installed in such a manner so as not to be subject to physical damage or vibration.
Tank vent piping shall not be manifolded unless required for special purposes such as vapor recovery, vapor conservation or air pollution control.
For above-ground tanks, manifolded vent pipes shall be adequately sized to prevent system pressure limits from being exceeded when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.
For underground tanks, manifolded vent pipes shall be sized to prevent system pressure limits from being exceeded when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.
Vent piping for tanks storing Class I liquids shall not be manifolded with vent piping for tanks storing Class II and III liquids unless positive means are provided to prevent the vapors from Class I liquids from entering tanks storing Class II and III liquids, to prevent contamination and possible change in classification of less volatile liquid.
Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IB or IC liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with listed flame arresters. The vents shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 21.4.3 of NFPA 30 or API 2000.

Stationary, above-ground tanks shall be equipped with additional venting that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure to fires. Emergency vents for Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not discharge inside buildings. The venting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 22.7 of NFPA 30.

Exceptions:

  1. Tanks larger than 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in capacity storing Class IIIB liquids which are not within the diked area or the drainage path of Class I or II liquids do not require emergency relief venting.
  2. Emergency vents on protected above-ground tanks complying with UL 2085 containing Class II or IIIA liquids are allowed to discharge inside the building.
Tank openings for other than vents shall comply with Sections 5704.2.7.5.1 through 5704.2.7.5.8.
Connections for tank openings below the liquid level shall be liquid tight.

Filling, emptying and vapor recovery connections to tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be located outside of buildings in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.5.6 at a location free from sources of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) away from building openings or lot lines of property that can be built upon. Such openings shall be properly identified and provided with a liquid-tight cap which shall be closed when not in use.

Filling and emptying connections to indoor tanks containing Class IIIB liquids and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be located at a finished ground level location outside of buildings. Such openings shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap which shall be closed when not in use. A sign in accordance with Section 5003.6 that displays the following warning shall be permanently attached at the filling location:

TRANSFERRING FUEL OTHER THAN
CLASS IIIB COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID TO
THIS TANK CONNECTION IS A VIOLATION
OF THE FIRE CODE AND IS STRICTLY
PROHIBITED

Piping, connections, fittings and other appurtenances shall be installed in accordance with Section 5703.6.
Openings for manual gauging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. Covers shall be kept closed when not gauging. If inside a building, such openings shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or other approved device.
For top-loaded tanks, a metallic fill pipe shall be designed and installed to minimize the generation of static electricity by terminating the pipe within 6 inches (152 mm) of the bottom of the tank, and it shall be installed in a manner which avoids excessive vibration.
For Class I liquids other than crude oil, gasoline and asphalt, the fill pipe shall be designed and installed in a manner which will minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches (152 mm) of the bottom of the tank.
For underground tanks, fill pipe and discharge lines shall enter only through the top. Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank. Underground tanks for Class I liquids having a capacity greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) shall be equipped with a tight fill device for connecting the fill hose to the tank.
Filling, withdrawal and vapor-recovery connections for Class I, II and IIIA liquids which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings, not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the finished ground level, in an approved location in close proximity to the parked delivery vehicle. Such location shall be away from sources of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) away from building openings. Such connections shall be closed and liquid tight when not in use and shall be properly identified.
Tank openings provided for purposes of vapor recovery shall be protected against possible vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or dry-break connections, or other approved device, unless the opening is a pipe connected to a vapor processing system. Openings designed for combined fill and vapor recovery shall also be protected against vapor release unless connection of the liquid delivery line to the fill pipe simultaneously connects the vapor recovery line. Connections shall be vapor tight.

An approved means or method in accordance with Section 5704.2.9.7.6 shall be provided to prevent the overfill of all Class I, II and IIIA liquid storage tanks. Storage tanks in refineries, bulk plants or terminals regulated by Section 5706.4 or 5706.7 shall have overfill protection in accordance with API 2350.

An approved means or method in accordance with Section 5704.2.9.7.6 shall be provided to prevent the overfilling of Class IIIB liquid storage tanks connected to fuel-burning equipment inside buildings.

Exception: Outside above-ground tanks with a capacity of 1,320 gallons (5000 L) or less.

The repair, alteration or reconstruction, including welding, cutting and hot tapping of storage tanks and piping that have been placed in service, shall be in accordance with NFPA 30.
The design of the supporting structure for tanks shall be in accordance with the International Building Code and NFPA 30.
Where a tank is located in an area where it is subject to buoyancy because of a rise in the water table, flooding or accumulation of water from fire suppression operations, uplift protection shall be provided in accordance with Sections 22.14 and 23.14 of NFPA 30.
Where subject to external corrosion, tanks shall be fabricated from corrosion-resistant materials, coated or provided with corrosion protection in accordance with Section 23.3.5 of NFPA 30.
A consistent or accidental loss of liquid, or other indication of a leak from a tank system, shall be reported immediately to the fire department, the fire code official and other authorities having jurisdiction.
Leaking tanks shall be promptly emptied, repaired and returned to service, abandoned or removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.13 or 5704.2.14.
Steel tanks are allowed to be lined only for the purpose of protecting the interior from corrosion or providing compatibility with a material to be stored. Only those liquids tested for compatibility with the lining material are allowed to be stored in lined tanks.
Vaults shall be allowed to be either above or below grade and shall comply with Sections 5704.2.8.1 through 5704.2.8.18.

Vaults shall be listed in accordance with UL 2245.

Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, below-grade vaults are allowed to be constructed on site, provided that the design is in accordance with the International Building Code and that special inspections are conducted to verify structural strength and compliance of the installation with the approved design in accordance with Section 1707 of the International Building Code. Installation plans for below-grade vaults that are constructed on site shall be prepared by, and the design shall bear the stamp of, a professional engineer. Consideration shall be given to soil and hydrostatic loading on the floors, walls and lid; anticipated seismic forces; uplifting by groundwater or flooding; and to loads imposed from above such as traffic and equipment loading on the vault lid.

The vault shall completely enclose each tank. There shall be no openings in the vault enclosure except those necessary for access to, inspection of, and filling, emptying and venting of the tank. The walls and floor of the vault shall be constructed of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches (152 mm) thick. The top of an above-grade vault shall be constructed of noncombustible material and shall be designed to be weaker than the walls of the vault, to ensure that the thrust of an explosion occurring inside the vault is directed upward before significantly high pressure can develop within the vault.

The top of an at-grade or below-grade vault shall be designed to relieve safely or contain the force of an explosion occurring inside the vault. The top and floor of the vault and the tank foundation shall be designed to withstand the anticipated loading, including loading from vehicular traffic, where applicable. The walls and floor of a vault installed below grade shall be designed to withstand anticipated soil and hydrostatic loading.

Vaults shall be designed to be wind and earthquake resistant, in accordance with the International Building Code.

Vaults shall be substantially liquid tight and there shall be no backfill around the tank or within the vault. The vault floor shall drain to a sump. For premanufactured vaults, liquid tightness shall be certified as part of the listing provided by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. For field-erected vaults, liquid tightness shall be certified in an approved manner.
There shall be sufficient clearance between the tank and the vault to allow for visual inspection and maintenance of the tank and its appurtenances. Dispensing devices are allowed to be installed on tops of vaults.
Vaults and their tanks shall be suitably anchored to withstand uplifting by ground water or flooding, including when the tank is empty.
Vaults shall be resistant to damage from the impact of a motor vehicle, or vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.
Tanks shall be listed for above-ground use, and each tank shall be in its own vault. Compartmentalized tanks shall be allowed and shall be considered as a single tank. Adjacent vaults shall be allowed to share a common wall. The common wall shall be liquid and vapor tight and shall be designed to withstand the load imposed when the vault on either side of the wall is filled with water.
Connections shall be provided to permit venting of each vault to dilute, disperse and remove vapors prior to personnel entering the vault.
Vaults that contain tanks of Class I liquids shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system installed in accordance with Section 5004.3. The ventilation system shall operate continuously or be designed to operate upon activation of the vapor or liquid detection system. The system shall provide ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute (cfm) per square foot of floor area [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)], but not less than 150 cfm (4 m3/min). The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air movement across all parts of the vault floor. Supply and exhaust ducts shall extend to within 3 inches (76 mm), but not more than 12 inches (305 mm), of the floor. The exhaust system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Vaults shall be equipped with a detection system capable of detecting liquids, including water, and activating an alarm.
Vaults shall be provided with approved vapor and liquid detection systems and equipped with on-site audible and visual warning devices with battery backup. Vapor detection systems shall sound an alarm when the system detects vapors that reach or exceed 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) of the liquid stored. Vapor detectors shall be located no higher than 12 inches (305 mm) above the lowest point in the vault. Liquid detection systems shall sound an alarm upon detection of any liquid, including water. Liquid detectors shall be located in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Activation of either vapor or liquid detection systems shall cause a signal to be sounded at an approved, constantly attended location within the facility serving the tanks or at an approved location. Activation of vapor detection systems shall also shut off dispenser pumps.
Means shall be provided to recover liquid from the vault. Where a pump is used to meet this requirement, the pump shall not be permanently installed in the vault. Electric-powered portable pumps shall be suitable for use in Class I, Division 1, or Zone 0 locations, as defined in NFPA 70.
Vent pipes that are provided for normal tank venting shall terminate at least 12 feet (3658 mm) above ground level.
Emergency vents shall be vapor tight and shall be allowed to discharge inside the vault. Long-bolt manhole covers shall not be allowed for this purpose.
Vaults shall be provided with an approved personnel accessway with a minimum dimension of 30 inches (762 mm) and with a permanently affixed, nonferrous ladder. Accessways shall be designed to be nonsparking. Travel distance from any point inside a vault to an accessway shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm). At each entry point, a warning sign indicating the need for procedures for safe entry into confined spaces shall be posted. Entry points shall be secured against unauthorized entry and vandalism.
Vaults shall be provided with a suitable means to admit a fire suppression agent.
The interior of a vault containing a tank that stores a Class I liquid shall be designated a Class I, Division 1, or Zone 0 location, as defined in NFPA 70.
Overfill protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 5704.2.9.7.6. The use of a float vent valve shall be prohibited.
Above-ground storage of flammable and combustible liquids in tanks shall comply with Section 5704.2 and Sections 5704.2.9.1 through 5704.2.9.7.10.
Existing above-ground tanks shall be maintained in accordance with the code requirements that were applicable at the time of installation. Above-ground tanks that were installed in violation of code requirements applicable at the time of installation shall be made code compliant or shall be removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14, regardless of whether such tank has been previously inspected (see Section 106.4).
Fire protection for above-ground tanks shall comply with Sections 5704.2.9.2.1 through 5704.2.9.2.4.

When required by the fire code official, foam fire protection shall be provided for above-ground tanks, other than pressure tanks operating at or above 1 pound per square inch gauge (psig) (6.89 kPa) when such tank, or group of tanks spaced less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) apart measured shell to shell, has a liquid surface area in excess of 1,500 square feet (139 m2), and is in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Used for the storage of Class I or II liquids.
  2. Used for the storage of crude oil.
  3. Used for in-process products and is located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of a fired still, heater, related fractioning or processing apparatus or similar device at a processing plant or petroleum refinery as herein defined.
  4. Considered by the fire code official as posing an unusual exposure hazard because of topographical conditions; nature of occupancy, proximity on the same or adjoining property, and height and character of liquids to be stored; degree of private fire protection to be provided; and facilities of the fire department to cope with flammable liquid fires.
Where foam fire protection is required, it shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 11.

Where foam fire protection is required, foam-producing materials shall be stored on the premises.

Exception: Storage of foam-producing materials off the premises is allowed as follows:

  1. Such materials stored off the premises shall be of the proper type suitable for use with the equipment at the installation where required.
  2. Such materials shall be readily available at the storage location at all times.
  3. Adequate loading and transportation facilities shall be provided.
  4. The time required to deliver such materials to the required location in the event of fire shall be consistent with the hazards and fire scenarios for which the foam supply is intended.
  5. At the time of a fire, these off-premises supplies shall be accumulated in sufficient quantities before placing the equipment in operation to ensure foam production at an adequate rate without interruption until extinguishment is accomplished.

Supports or pilings for above-ground tanks storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids elevated more than 12 inches (305 mm) above grade shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours in accordance with the fire exposure criteria specified in ASTM E 1529.

Exceptions:

  1. Structural supports tested as part of a protected above-ground tank in accordance with UL 2085.
  2. Stationary tanks located outside of buildings when protected by an approved water-spray system designed in accordance with Chapter 9 and NFPA 15.
  3. Stationary tanks located inside of buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system designed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

Liquids with boilover characteristics shall not be stored in fixed roof tanks larger than 150 feet (45 720 mm) in diameter unless an approved gas enrichment or inerting system is provided on the tank.

Exception: Crude oil storage tanks in production fields with no other exposures adjacent to the storage tank.

Supports, foundations and anchorages for above-ground tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 30 and the International Building Code.
Stairs, platforms and walkways shall be of noncombustible construction and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 30 and the International Building Code.
Above-ground tanks inside of buildings shall comply with Sections 5704.2.9.5.1 and 5704.2.9.5.2.
Above-ground tanks storing Class I, II and IIIA liquids inside buildings shall be equipped with a device or other means to prevent overflow into the building including, but not limited to: a float valve; a preset meter on the fill line; a valve actuated by the weight of the tank’s contents; a low-head pump that is incapable of producing overflow; or a liquid-tight overflow pipe at least one pipe size larger than the fill pipe and discharging by gravity back to the outside source of liquid or to an approved location. Tanks containing Class IIIB liquids and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be provided with a means to prevent overflow into buildings in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.5.8.
Fill pipe connections for tanks storing Class I, II and IIIA liquids and Class IIIB liquids connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.9.7.7.
Above-ground tanks outside of buildings shall comply with Sections 5704.2.9.6.1 through 5704.2.9.6.3.
Storage of Class I and II liquids in above-ground tanks outside of buildings is prohibited within the limits established by law as the limits of districts in which such storage is prohibited (see Section 3 of the Sample Legislation for Adoption of the International Fire Code on page xxi).

Above-ground tanks operating at pressures not exceeding 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa) for storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquids, which are designed with a floating roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam or equipped with emergency venting devices limiting pressure to 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa), shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.1(a) of NFPA 30.

Exceptions:

  1. Vertical tanks having a weak roof-to-shell seam and storing Class IIIA liquids are allowed to be located at one-half the distances specified in Table 22.4.1.1(a) of NFPA 30, provided the tanks are not within a diked area or drainage path for a tank storing Class I or II liquids.
  2. Liquids with boilover characteristics and unstable liquids in accordance with Sections 5704.2.9.6.1.3 and 5704.2.9.6.1.4.
  3. For protected above-ground tanks in accordance with Section 5704.2.9.7 and tanks in at-grade or above-grade vaults in accordance with Section 5704.2.8, the distances in Table 22.4.1.1(b) of NFPA 30 shall apply and shall be reduced by one-half, but not to less than 5 feet (1524 mm).

Above-ground tanks for the storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquids operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa) or equipped with emergency venting allowing pressures to exceed 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa) shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.3 of NFPA 30.

Exception: Liquids with boilover characteristics and unstable liquids in accordance with Sections 5704.2.9.6.1.4 and 5704.2.9.6.1.5.

Above-ground tanks for storage of liquids with boilover characteristics shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.4 of NFPA 30.
Above-ground tanks for the storage of unstable liquids shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.5 of NFPA 30.
Above-ground tanks for the storage of Class IIIB liquids, excluding unstable liquids, shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.6 of NFPA 30, except when located within a diked area or drainage path for a tank or tanks storing Class I or II liquids. Where a Class IIIB liquid storage tank is within the diked area or drainage path for a Class I or II liquid, distances required by Section 5704.2.9.6.1.1 shall apply.
Where two tank properties of diverse ownership have a common boundary, the fire code official is authorized to, with the written consent of the owners of the two properties, apply the distances in Sections 5704.2.9.6.1.2 through 5704.2.9.6.1.5 assuming a single property.

The separation between tanks containing stable liquids shall be in accordance with Table 22.4.2.1 of NFPA 30. Where tanks are in a diked area containing Class I or II liquids, or in the drainage path of Class I or II liquids, and are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregular pattern, the fire code official is authorized to require greater separation than specified in Table 22.4.2.1 of NFPA 30 or other means to make tanks in the interior of the pattern accessible for fire-fighting purposes.

Exception: Tanks used for storing Class IIIB liquids are allowed to be spaced 3 feet (914 mm) apart unless within a diked area or drainage path for a tank storing Class I or II liquids.

The separation between tanks containing unstable liquids shall not be less than one-half the sum of their diameters.

The minimum horizontal separation between an LP-gas container and a Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage tank shall be 20 feet (6096 mm) except in the case of Class I, II or IIIA liquid tanks operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa) or equipped with emergency venting allowing pressures to exceed 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa), in which case the provisions of Section 5704.2.9.6.2 shall apply.

An approved means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of Class I, II or IIIA liquids under adjacent LP-gas containers such as by dikes, diversion curbs or grading. When flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks are within a diked area, the LP-gas containers shall be outside the diked area and at least 10 feet (3048 mm) away from the centerline of the wall of the diked area.

Exceptions:

  1. Liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons (473 L) or less in capacity installed adjacent to fuel-oil supply tanks of 660 gallons (2498 L) or less in capacity.
  2. Horizontal separation is not required between above-ground LP-gas containers and underground flammable and combustible liquid tanks.
In addition to the requirements of this chapter for above-ground tanks, the installation of protected above-ground tanks shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.2.9.7.1 through 5704.2.9.7.10.
The construction of a protected above-ground tank and its primary tank shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.
Normal and emergency venting for protected above-ground tanks shall be provided in accordance with Sections 5704.2.7.3 and 5704.2.7.4. The vent capacity reduction factor shall not be allowed.
Approved flame arresters or pressure vacuum breather valves shall be installed in normal vents.
Protected above-ground tanks shall be provided with secondary containment, drainage control or diking in accordance with Section 5004.2. A means shall be provided to establish the integrity of the secondary containment in accordance with NFPA 30.
Where protected above-ground tanks, piping, electrical conduit or dispensers are subject to vehicular impact, they shall be protected therefrom, either by having the impact protection incorporated into the system design in compliance with the impact test protocol of UL 2085, or by meeting the provisions of Section 312, or where necessary, a combination of both. Where guard posts or other approved barriers are provided, they shall be independent of each above-ground tank.

Protected above-ground tanks shall not be filled in excess of 95 percent of their capacity. An overfill prevention system shall be provided for each tank. During tank-filling operations, the system shall comply with one of the following:

  1. The system shall:

    1. 1.1. Provide an independent means of notifying the person filling the tank that the fluid level has reached 90 percent of tank capacity by providing an audible or visual alarm signal, providing a tank level gauge marked at 90 percent of tank capacity, or other approved means; and
    2. 1.2. Automatically shut off the flow of fuel to the tank when the quantity of liquid in the tank reaches 95 percent of tank capacity. For rigid hose fuel-delivery systems, an approved means shall be provided to empty the fill hose into the tank after the automatic shutoff device is activated.
  2. The system shall reduce the flow rate to not more than 15 gallons per minute (0.95 L/s) so that at the reduced flow rate, the tank will not overfill for 30 minutes, and automatically shut off flow into the tank so that none of the fittings on the top of the tank are exposed to product because of overfilling.

A permanent sign shall be provided at the fill point for the tank, documenting the filling procedure and the tank calibration chart.

Exception: Where climatic conditions are such that the sign may be obscured by ice or snow, or weathered beyond readability or otherwise impaired, said procedures and chart shall be located in the office window, lock box or other area accessible to the person filling the tank.

The filling procedure shall require the person filling the tank to determine the gallonage (literage) required to fill it to 90 percent of capacity before commencing the fill operation.
The fill pipe shall be provided with a means for making a direct connection to the tank vehicle’s fuel delivery hose so that the delivery of fuel is not exposed to the open air during the filling operation. Where any portion of the fill pipe exterior to the tank extends below the level of the top of the tank, a check valve shall be installed in the fill pipe not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from the fill hose connection.
A spill container having a capacity of not less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be provided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container shall be allowed.
Tank openings in protected above-ground tanks shall be through the top only.
Approved antisiphon devices shall be installed in each external pipe connected to the protected above-ground tank when the pipe extends below the level of the top of the tank.

The area surrounding a tank or group of tanks shall be provided with drainage control or shall be diked to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjacent tanks, adjoining property or reaching waterways.

Exceptions:

  1. The fire code official is authorized to alter or waive these requirements based on a technical report which demonstrates that such tank or group of tanks does not constitute a hazard to other tanks, waterways or adjoining property, after consideration of special features such as topographical conditions, nature of occupancy and proximity to buildings on the same or adjacent property, capacity, and construction of proposed tanks and character of liquids to be stored, and nature and quantity of private and public fire protection provided.
  2. Drainage control and diking is not required for listed secondary containment tanks.
The volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area. The capacity of the diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of the dike.
Diked areas containing two or more tanks shall be subdivided in accordance with NFPA 30.
Piping shall not pass through adjacent diked areas or impounding basins, unless provided with a sealed sleeve or otherwise protected from exposure to fire.
Diked areas shall be kept free from combustible materials, drums and barrels.

Pumps, manifolds and fire protection equipment or controls shall not be located within diked areas or drainage basins or in a location where such equipment and controls would be endangered by fire in the diked area or drainage basin. Piping above ground shall be minimized and located as close as practical to the shell of the tank in diked areas or drainage basins.

Exceptions:

  1. Pumps, manifolds and piping integral to the tanks or equipment being served which is protected by intermediate diking, berms, drainage or fire protection such as water spray, monitors or resistive coating.
  2. Fire protection equipment or controls which are appurtenances to the tanks or equipment being protected, such as foam chambers or foam piping and water or foam monitors and hydrants, or hand and wheeled extinguishers.
Underground storage of flammable and combustible liquids in tanks shall comply with Section 5704.2 and Sections 5704.2.11.1 through 5704.2.11.5.2.
Underground tanks shall not contain petroleum products containing mixtures of a nonpetroleum nature, such as ethanol or methanol blends, without evidence of compatibility.

Flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks located underground, either outside or under buildings, shall be in accordance with all of the following:

  1. Tanks shall be located with respect to existing foundations and supports such that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted to the tank.
  2. The distance from any part of a tank storing liquids to the nearest wall of a basement, pit, cellar or lot line shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm).
  3. A minimum distance of 1 foot (305 mm), shell to shell, shall be maintained between underground tanks.
Excavation for underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations and surrounded with at least 6 inches (152 mm) of noncorrosive inert material, such as clean sand.
Fill pipes shall be equipped with a spill container and an overfill prevention system in accordance with NFPA 30.
Leak prevention for underground tanks shall comply with Sections 5704.2.11.5.1 and 5704.2.11.5.2.
Daily inventory records shall be maintained for underground storage tank systems.
Underground storage tank systems shall be provided with an approved method of leak detection from any component of the system that is designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 30.
Tank testing shall comply with Sections 5704.2.12.1 and 5704.2.12.2.
Prior to being placed into service, tanks shall be tested in accordance with Section 21.5 of NFPA 30.
Before being covered or placed in use, tanks and piping connected to underground tanks shall be tested for tightness in the presence of the fire code official. Piping shall be tested in accordance with Section 5703.6.3. The system shall not be covered until it has been approved.
Tanks taken out of service shall be removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14, or safeguarded in accordance with Sections 5704.2.13.1 through 5704.2.13.2.3 and API 1604.
Underground tanks taken out of service shall comply with Sections 5704.2.13.1.1 through 5704.2.13.1.5.
Underground tanks temporarily out of service shall have the fill line, gauge opening, vapor return and pump connection secure against tampering. Vent lines shall remain open and be maintained in accordance with Sections 5704.2.7.3 and 5704.2.7.4.

Underground tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be safeguarded in accordance with all the following or be removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14:

  1. Flammable or combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank.
  2. All piping, including fill line, gauge opening, vapor return and pump connection, shall be capped or plugged and secured from tampering.
  3. Vent lines shall remain open and be maintained in accordance with Sections 5704.2.7.3 and 5704.2.7.4.

Underground tanks that have been out of service for a period of one year shall be removed from the ground in accordance with Section 5704.2.14 or abandoned in place in accordance with Section 5704.2.13.1.4.

Exception: Underground storage tanks subject to the Virginia State Water Control Board regulation 9VAC25-580.

Tanks abandoned in place shall be as follows:

  1. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connected piping.
  2. The suction, inlet, gauge, vapor return and vapor lines shall be disconnected.
  3. The tank shall be filled completely with an approved inert solid material.
  4. Remaining underground piping shall be capped or plugged.
  5. A record of tank size, location and date of abandonment shall be retained.
  6. All exterior above-grade fill piping shall be permanently removed when tanks are abandoned or removed.
Tanks which are to be reinstalled for flammable or combustible liquid service shall be in accordance with this chapter, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section VIII), API 12-P, API 1615, UL 58 and UL 1316.
Above-ground tanks taken out of service shall comply with Sections 5704.2.13.2.1 through 5704.2.13.2.3.

Above-ground tanks temporarily out of service shall have all connecting lines isolated from the tank and be secured against tampering.

Exception: In-place fire protection (foam) system lines.

Above-ground tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be safeguarded in accordance with Section 5704.2.13.1.2 or removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14.

Exceptions:

  1. Tanks and containers connected to oil burners that are not in use during the warm season of the year or are used as a backup heating system to gas.
  2. In-place, active fire protection (foam) system lines.

Above-ground tanks that have been out of service for a period of one year shall be removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.14.

Exception: Tanks within operating facilities.

Removal and disposal of tanks shall comply with Sections 5704.2.14.1 and 5704.2.14.2.

Removal of above-ground and underground tanks shall be in accordance with all of the following:

  1. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connected piping.
  2. Piping at tank openings that is not to be used further shall be disconnected.
  3. Piping shall be removed from the ground.
  4. Exception: Piping is allowed to be abandoned in place where the fire code official determines that removal is not practical. Abandoned piping shall be capped and safeguarded as required by the fire code official.

  5. Tank openings shall be capped or plugged, leaving a 1/8-inch to 1/4-inch-diameter (3.2 mm to 6.4 mm) opening for pressure equalization.
  6. Tanks shall be purged of vapor and inerted prior to removal.
  7. All exterior above-grade fill and vent piping shall be permanently removed.
  8. Exception: Piping associated with bulk plants, terminal facilities and refineries.

Tanks shall be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local regulations.
Above-ground tanks, connected piping and ancillary equipment shall be maintained in a safe operating condition. Tanks shall be maintained in accordance with their listings. Damage to above-ground tanks, connected piping or ancillary equipment shall be repaired using materials having equal or greater strength and fire resistance or the equipment shall be replaced or taken out of service.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers that do not exceed 60 gallons (227 L) in individual capacity and portable tanks that do not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L) in individual capacity, and limited transfers incidental thereto, shall comply with Sections 5704.3.1 through 5704.3.8.5.
The design, construction and capacity of containers for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with this section and Section 9.4 of NFPA 30.
Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used.
Where other sections of this code require that liquid containers be stored in storage cabinets, such cabinets and storage shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.2.1 through 5704.3.2.2.
Design and construction of liquid storage cabinets shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.2.1.1 through 5704.3.2.1.4.

Cabinets shall be listed in accordance with UL 1275, or constructed of approved wood or metal in accordance with the following:

  1. Unlisted metal cabinets shall be constructed of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.044 inch (1.12 mm) (18 gage). The cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled with 11/2-inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight fitting.
  2. Unlisted wooden cabinets, including doors, shall be constructed of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) exterior grade plywood. Joints shall be rabbeted and shall be fastened in two directions with wood screws. Door hinges shall be of steel or brass. Cabinets shall be painted with an intumescent-type paint.
Cabinets shall be provided with a conspicuous label in red letters on contrasting background which reads: FLAMMABLE—KEEP FIRE AWAY.
Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a three-point latch.
The bottom of the cabinet shall be liquid tight to a height of at least 2 inches (51 mm).
The combined total quantity of liquids in a cabinet shall not exceed 120 gallons (454 L).

Storage of flammable and combustible liquids inside buildings in containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.3.1 through 5704.3.3.10.

Exceptions:

  1. Liquids in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, aircraft, boats or portable or stationary engines.
  2. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels or casks.
Approved portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with specific sections of this chapter and Section 906.
Materials that will react with water or other liquids to produce a hazard shall not be stored in the same room with flammable and combustible liquids in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.
Storage of any liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored near or be allowed to obstruct physically the route of egress.
The storage of empty tanks and containers previously used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids, unless free from explosive vapors, shall be stored as required for filled containers and portable tanks. Portable tanks and containers, when emptied, shall have the covers or plugs immediately replaced in openings.
Shelving shall be of approved construction, adequately braced and anchored. Seismic requirements shall be in accordance with the International Building Code.
Wood of at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness is allowed to be used as shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay and similar installations.

Shelves shall be of sufficient depth and provided with a lip or guard to prevent individual containers from being displaced.

Exception: Shelves in storage cabinets or on laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use.

Shelf storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be maintained in an orderly manner.
Where storage on racks is allowed elsewhere in this code, a minimum 4-foot-wide (1219 mm) aisle shall be provided between adjacent rack sections and any adjacent storage of liquids. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.
Solid pile and palletized storage in liquid warehouses shall be arranged so that piles are separated from each other by at least 4 feet (1219 mm). Aisles shall be provided and arranged so that no container or portable tank is more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from an aisle. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.
Limited quantities of combustible commodities are allowed to be stored in liquid storage areas where the ordinary combustibles, other than those used for packaging the liquids, are separated from the liquids in storage by a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) horizontally, either by open aisles or by open racks, and where protection is provided in accordance with Chapter 9.
Storage of empty or idle combustible pallets inside an unprotected liquid storage area shall be limited to a maximum pile size of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) and to a maximum storage height of 6 feet (1829 mm). Storage of empty or idle combustible pallets inside a protected liquid storage area shall comply with NFPA 13. Pallet storage shall be separated from liquid storage by aisles that are at least 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.
Containers in piles shall be stacked in such a manner as to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls. Portable tanks stored more than one tier high shall be designed to nest securely, without dunnage. Material-handling equipment shall be suitable to handle containers and tanks safely at the upper tier level.
Liquid storage quantity limitations shall comply with Sections 5704.3.4.1 through 5704.3.4.4.

For occupancies other than Group M wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area indicated in Table 5003.1.1(1) and shall not exceed the additional limitations set forth in this section.

For Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area indicated in Table 5704.3.4.1.

Storage of hazardous production material flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-5 occupancies shall be in accordance with Chapter 27.

TABLE 5704.3.4.1

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIESa

TYPE OF LIQUIDMAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)
Sprinkleredb in accordance with
footnote densities and arrangements
Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 5704.3.6.3(4)
through 5704.3.6.3(8) and Table 5704.3.7.5.1
Nonsprinklered
Class IA606030
Class IB, IC, II and IIIA7,500c15,000c1,600
Class IIIBUnlimitedUnlimited13,200

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier.
  2. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:

    1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those allowed with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.
    2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those allowed with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.
  3. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.

The following limits for quantities of stored flammable or combustible liquids shall not be exceeded:

  1. Group A occupancies: Quantities in Group A occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  2. Group B occupancies: Quantities in drinking, dining, office and school uses within Group B occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  3. Group E occupancies: Quantities in Group E occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  4. Group F occupancies: Quantities in dining, office, and school uses within Group F occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  5. Group I occupancies: Quantities in Group I occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  6. Group M occupancies: Quantities in dining, office, and school uses within Group M occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1). The maximum allowable quantities for storage in wholesale and retail sales areas shall be in accordance with Section 5704.3.4.1.
  7. Group R occupancies: Quantities in Group R occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  8. Group S occupancies: Quantities in dining and office uses within Group S occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
Quantities exceeding those allowed in control areas set forth in Section 5704.3.4.1 shall be in liquid storage rooms or liquid storage warehouses in accordance with Sections 5704.3.7 and 5704.3.8.
In all occupancies, quantities of flammable and combustible liquids in excess of 10 gallons (38 L) used for maintenance purposes and the operation of equipment shall be stored in liquid storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5704.3.2. Quantities not exceeding 10 gallons (38 L) are allowed to be stored outside of a cabinet when in approved containers located in private garages or other approved locations.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in control areas shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.5.1 through 5704.3.5.4.
Class I liquids shall be allowed to be stored in basements in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area for use-open systems in Table 5003.1.1(1), provided that automatic suppression and other fire protection are provided in accordance with Chapter 9. Class II and IIIA liquids shall also be allowed to be stored in basements, provided that automatic suppression and other fire protection are provided in accordance with Chapter 9.
Containers having less than a 30-gallon (114 L) capacity which contain Class I or II liquids shall not be stacked more than 3 feet (914.4 mm) or two containers high, whichever is greater, unless stacked on fixed shelving or otherwise satisfactorily secured. Containers of Class I or II liquids having a capacity of 30 gallons (114 L) or more shall not be stored more than one container high. Containers shall be stored in an upright position.
Piles of containers or portable tanks shall not be stored closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to the nearest beam, chord, girder or other obstruction, and shall be 3 feet (914 mm) below sprinkler deflectors or discharge orifices of water spray or other overhead fire protection system.
In areas that are inaccessible to the public, Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not be stored in the same pile or rack section as ordinary combustible commodities unless such materials are packaged together as kits.
Flammable and combustible liquids in Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses shall be in accordance with Sections 5704.3.6.1 through 5704.3.6.5, or Sections 10.10.2, 12.3.8, 16.4.1 through 16.4.3, 16.5.1 through 16.5.2.12, Tables 16.5.2.1 through 16.5.2.12, and Figures 16.4.1(a) through 16.14.1(c) of NFPA 30.

Containers for Class I liquids shall be metal.

Exception: In sprinklered buildings, an aggregate quantity of 120 gallons (454 L) of water-miscible Class IB and Class IC liquids is allowed in nonmetallic containers, each having a capacity of 16 ounces (0.473 L) or less.

Containers for Class I liquids shall not exceed a capacity of 5 gallons (19 L).

Exception: Metal containers not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) are allowed to store up to 240 gallons (908 L) of the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IB and IC liquids in a control area. The building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Table 5704.3.4.1. The containers shall be provided with plastic caps without cap seals and shall be stored upright. Containers shall not be stacked or stored in racks and shall not be located in areas accessible to the public.

Fire protection and container storage arrangements shall be in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(1) or the following:

  1. Storage on shelves shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, and shelving shall be metal.
  2. Storage on pallets or in piles greater than 4 feet 6 inches (1372 mm) in height, or where the ceiling exceeds 18 feet (5486 mm) in height, shall be protected in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(4), and the storage heights and arrangements shall be limited to those specified in Table 5704.3.6.3(2).
  3. Storage on racks greater than 4 feet 6 inches (1372 mm) in height, or where the ceiling exceeds 18 feet (5486 mm) in height shall be protected in accordance with Tables 5704.3.6.3(5), 5704.3.6.3(6), and 5704.3.6.3(7) as appropriate, and the storage heights and arrangements shall be limited to those specified in Table 5704.3.6.3(3).

Combustible commodities shall not be stored above flammable and combustible liquids.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(1)

MAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHT IN CONTROL AREA

TYPE OF LIQUIDNONSPRINKLERED AREA
(feet)
SPRINKLERED AREAa
(feet)
SPRINKLERED WITH IN-RACK
PROTECTION a, b
(feet)
Flammable liquids:
Class IA444
Class IB4812
Class IC4812
Combustible liquids:
Class II6812
Class IIIA81216
Class IIIB81220

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 or the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria and fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.
  2. In-rack protection shall be in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(5), 5704.3.6.3(6) or 5704.3.6.3(7).

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(2)

STORAGE ARRANGEMENTS FOR PALLETIZED OR SOLID-PILE STORAGE IN LIQUID STORAGE ROOMS AND WAREHOUSES

CLASSSTORAGE LEVELMAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHTMAXIMUM QUANTITY PER PILE
(gallons)
MAXIMUM QUANTITY PER ROOMa
(gallons)
DrumsContainersb
(feet)
Portable tanksb
(feet)
ContainersPortable tanksContainersPortable tanks
IAGround floor15Not Allowed3,000Not Allowed12,000Not Allowed
Upper floors15Not Allowed2,000Not Allowed8,000Not Allowed
Basements0Not AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
IBGround floor16.575,00020,00015,00040,000
Upper floors16.573,00010,00012,00020,000
Basements0Not AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
ICGround floord16.5c75,00020,00015,00040,000
Upper floors16.5c73,00010,00012,00020,000
Basements0Not AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
IIGround floord3101410,00040,00025,00080,000
Upper floors3101410,00040,00025,00080,000
Basements1577,50020,0007,50020,000
IIIGround floor5201415,00060,00050,000100,000
Upper floors5201415,00060,00050,000100,000
Basements310710,00020,00025,00040,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. See Section 5704.3.8.1 for unlimited quantities in liquid storage warehouses.
  2. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 or the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria and fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.
  3. These height limitations are allowed to be increased to 10 feet for containers having a capacity of 5 gallons or less.
  4. For palletized storage of unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) in relieving-style metal containers with 50 percent or less by weight Class IC or II liquid and no Class IA or IB liquid, height and pile quantity limits shall be permitted to be 10 feet and 15,000 gallons, respectively, provided that such storage is protected by sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 30 and that the UPR storage area is not located in the same containment area or drainage path for other Class I or II liquids.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(3)

STORAGE ARRANGEMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE IN LIQUID STORAGE ROOMS AND WAREHOUSES

CLASSTYPE RACKSTORAGE LEVELMAXIMUM STORAGE HEIGHTb
(feet)
MAXIMUM QUANTITY PER ROOMa
(gallons)
ContainersContainers
IADouble row or Single rowGround floor257,500
Upper floors154,500
BasementsNot AllowedNot Allowed
IB

IC
Double row or Single rowGround floor2515,000
Upper floors159,000
BasementsNot AllowedNot Allowed
IIDouble row or Single rowGround floor2524,000
Upper floors2524,000
Basements159,000
IIIMultirowGround floor4048,000
Double rowUpper floors2048,000
Single rowBasements2024,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. See Section 5704.3.8.1 for unlimited quantities in liquid storage warehouses.
  2. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 or the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria and fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(4)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTION FOR SOLID-PILE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS AND PORTABLE TANKSa

STORAGE CONDITIONSCEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMANDMINIMUM HOSE
STREAM DEMAND
(gpm)
MINIMUM DURATION
SPRINKLERS AND
HOSE STREAMS
(hours)
Class liquidContainer size and arrangementDensity
(gpm/ft2)
Area (square feet)Maximum spacing
(square feet)
High temperature
sprinklers
Ordinary temperature
sprinklers
IA5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or
solid pileb
0.303,0005,0001007502
Containers greater than 5 gallons, on end or side,
palletized or solid pile
0.605,0008,00080750
IB, IC and II5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or
solid pileb
0.303,0005,0001005002
Containers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile,
one high
0.255,0008,000100
IIContainers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile,
more than one high, on end or side
0.605,0008,000807502
IB, IC and IIPortable tanks, one high0.303,0005,0001005002
IIPortable tanks, two high0.605,0008,000807502
III5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or
solid pile
0.253,0005,0001205001
Containers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile,
on end or sides, up to three high
0.253,0005,0001205001
Containers greater than 5 gallons, on pallets or solid
pile, on end or sides, up to 18 feet high
0.353,0005,0001007502
Portable tanks, one high0.253,0005,0001205001
Portable tanks, two high0.503,0005,000807502

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. The design area contemplates the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where Class I standpipe systems are used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 percent without revising density.
  2. For storage heights above 4 feet or ceiling heights greater than 18 feet, an approved engineering design shall be provided in accordance with Section 104.7.2.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(5)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 5-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESS WITH OR WITHOUT CARTONS ON CONVENTIONAL WOOD PALLETSa

CLASS
LIQUID
CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN
AND DEMAND
IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMANDMINIMUM
HOSE
STREAM
DEMAND
(gpm)
MINIMUM
DURATION
SPRINKLER
AND HOSE
STREAM
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area
(square feet)
Maximum
spacing
Racks up to 9 feet deepRacks more than
9 feet to 12 feet deep
30psi
(standard
orifice)
Number of
sprinklers operating
High-
temperature
sprinklers
Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers
14psi (large orifice)
I
(maximum
25-foot height)
Option 1
0.403,0005,00080 ft2/head1. Ordinary temperature, quick-
response sprinklers, maximum
8 feet 3 inches
horizontal spacing
2. One line sprinklers above
each level of storage
3. Locate in longitudinal flue
space, staggered vertical
4. Shields required where
multilevel
1. Ordinary temperature, quick-
response sprinklers, maximum 8
feet 3 inches horizontal spacing
2. One line sprinklers above each
level of storage
3. Locate in transverse flue spaces,
staggered vertical and within 20
inches of aisle
4. Shields required where multilevel
30 psi
(0.5- inch
orifice)
1. Eight sprinklers if
only one level
2. Six sprinklers each
on two levels if
only two levels
3. Six sprinklers each
on top three levels,
if three or more
levels
4. Hydraulically
most remote
7502
I
(maximum
25-foot height)
Option 2
0.552,000bNot
Applicable
100 ft2/
head
1. Ordinary temperature, quick-
response sprinklers, maximum
8 feet 3 inches
horizontal spacing
2. See 2 above
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
1. Ordinary temperature, quick-
response sprinklers, maximum 8
feet 3 inches horizontal spacing
2. See 2 above
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
14 psi
(0.53-inch
orifice)
See
1 through 4 above
5002
I and II
(maximum 14-
foot storage
height)
(maximum
three tiers)
0.55c2,000dNot
Applicable
100 ft2/headNot Applicable
None for maximum
6-foot-deep racks
Not ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable5002
II
(maximum 25-
foot height)
0.303,0005,000100 ft2/
head
1. Ordinary temperature
sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally
2. One line sprinklers between
levels at nearest 10-foot
vertical intervals
3. Locate in longitudinal flue
space, staggered vertical
4. Shields required where
multilevel
1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8
feet apart horizontally
2. Two lines between levels at nearest
10-foot vertical intervals
3. Locate in transverse flue spaces,
staggered vertical and within 20
inches of aisle
4. Shields required where multilevel
30 psiHydraulically most
remote—six
sprinklers at each
level, up to a
maximum of three
levels
7502
III
(40-foot height)
0.253,0005,000120 ft2/
head
Same as for Class II liquidsSame as for Class II liquids30 psiSame as for
Class II liquids
5002

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. The design area contemplates the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where Class I standpipe systems are used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 percent without revising density.
  2. Using listed or approved extra-large orifices, high-temperature quick-response or standard element sprinklers under a maximum 30-foot ceiling with minimum 7.5-foot aisles.
  3. For friction lid cans and other metal containers equipped with plastic nozzles or caps, the density shall be increased to 0.65 gpm per square foot using listed or approved extra-large orifice, high-temperature quick-response sprinklers.
  4. Using listed or approved extra-large orifice, high-temperature quick-response or standard element sprinklers under a maximum 18-foot ceiling with minimum 7.5-foot aisles and metal containers.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(6)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS OR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS GREATER THAN 5-GALLON CAPACITYa

CLASS
LIQUID
CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND
DEMAND
IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMANDMINIMUM
HOSE
STREAM
DEMAND
(gpm)
MINIMUM
DURATION
SPRINKLER
AND HOSE
STREAM
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ ft2)
Area
(square feet)
Maximum
spacing
On-side storage racks up to
9-foot-deep racks
On-end storage
(on pallets) up to
9-foot-deep racks
Minimum
nozzle
pressure
Number of
sprinklers
operating
High-
temperature
sprinklers
Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers
IA
(maximum
25-foot height)
0.603,0005,00080 ft2/head1. Ordinary temperature
sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally
2. One line sprinklers above
each tier of storage
3. Locate in longitudinal flue
space, staggered vertical
4. Shields required where
multilevel
1. Ordinary temperature
sprinklers 8 feet apart
horizontally
2. One line sprinklers above
each tier of storage
3. Locate in longitudinal
flue space, staggered vertical
4. Shields required where
multilevel
30 psiHydraulically
most remote—
six sprinklers
at each level
1,0002
IB, IC and II
(maximum
25-foot height)
0.603,0005,000100 ft2/head1. See 1 above
2. One line sprinklers every
three tiers of storage
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
1. See 1 above
2. See 2 above
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
30 psiHydraulically
most remote—
six sprinklers
at each level
7502
III
(maximum
40-foot height)
0.253,0005,000120 ft2/head1. See 1 above
2. One line sprinklers every
sixth level (maximum)
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
1. See 1 above
2. One line sprinklers every
third level (maximum)
3. See 3 above
4. See 4 above
15 psiHydraulically
most remote—
six sprinklers
at each level
5001

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. The design assumes the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where a Class I standpipe system is used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 percent without revising density.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(7)

AUTOMATIC AFFF WATER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR RACK STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS GREATER THAN 5-GALLON CAPACITYa,b

CLASS LIQUIDCEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN
AND DEMAND
IN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMANDcDURATION
AFFF
SUPPLY
(minimum)
DURATION
WATER
SUPPLY
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area
(square feet)
On-end storage of drums
on pallets, up to 25 feet
Minimum
nozzle
pressure
(psi)
Number of
sprinklers
operating
Hose stream
demandd
(gpm)
High-
temperature
sprinklers
Ordinary
temperature
sprinklers
IA, IB,
IC and II
0.301,5002,5001. Ordinary temperature sprinkler up
to 10 feet apart horizontally
2. One line sprinklers above each
level of storage
3. Locate in longitudinal flue space,
staggered vertically
4. Shields required for multilevel
30Three
sprinklers per
level
500152

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. System shall be a closed-head wet system with approved devices for proportioning aqueous film-forming foam.
  2. . Except as modified herein, in-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
  3. The height of storage shall not exceed 25 feet.
  4. Hose stream demand includes 11/2-inch inside hand hose, when required.

TABLE 5704.3.6.3(8)

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CLASS I LIQUID STORAGE IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 1-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESS WITH UNCARTONED OR CASE-CUT SHELF DISPLAY UP TO 6.5 FEET, AND PALLETIZED STORAGE ABOVE IN A DOUBLE-ROW RACK ARRAYa

STORAGE
HEIGHT
CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMANDIN-RACK SPRINKLER ARRANGEMENT AND DEMANDMINIMUM
HOSE
STREAM
DEMAND
(gpm)
MINIMUM
DURATION
SPRINKLERS
AND HOSE
STREAM
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area
(square feet)
Maximum
spacing
Racks up to 9 feet deepRacks 9 to
12 feet
Minimum nozzle
pressure
Number of sprinklers
operating
High
temperature
Ordinary
temperature
Maximum
20-foot storage
height
0.602,000bNot
Applicable
100 ft2/head1. Ordinary temperature,
quick-response sprinklers,
maximum 8 feet 3 inches
horizontal spacing
2. One line of sprinklers at the
6-foot level and the 11.5-
foot level of storage
3. Locate in longitudinal flue
space, staggered vertical
4. Shields required where
multilevel
Not
Applicable
30 psi
(standard orifice)
or 14 psi (large
orifice)
1. Six sprinklers each
on two levels
2. Hydraulically most
remote 12 sprinklers
5002

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

  1. This table shall not apply to racks with solid shelves.
  2. Using extra-large orifice sprinklers under a ceiling 30 feet or less in height. Minimum aisle width is 7.5 feet.
All cans, containers and vessels containing flammable liquids or flammable liquid compounds or mixtures offered for sale shall be provided with a warning indicator, painted or printed on the container and stating that the liquid is flammable, and shall be kept away from heat and an open flame.
When required by fire the code official, aisle and storage plans shall be submitted in accordance with Chapter 50.
Liquid storage rooms shall comply with Sections 5704.3.7.1 through 5704.3.7.5.2.
Quantities of liquids exceeding those set forth in Section 5704.3.4.1 for storage in control areas shall be stored in a liquid storage room complying with this section and constructed and separated as required by the International Building Code.
The quantity limits and storage arrangements in liquid storage rooms shall be in accordance with Tables 5704.3.6.3(2) and 5704.3.6.3(3) and Sections 5704.3.7.2.1 through 5704.3.7.2.3.

Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a pile or rack section:

  1. The quantity in that pile or rack shall not exceed the smallest of the maximum quantities for the classes of liquids stored in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(2) or 5704.3.6.3(3); and
  2. The height of storage in that pile or rack shall not exceed the smallest of the maximum heights for the classes of liquids stored in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(2) or 5704.3.6.3(3).

Piles shall be separated from each other by at least 4-foot (1219 mm) aisles. Aisles shall be provided so that all containers are 20 feet (6096 mm) or less from an aisle. Where the storage of liquids is on racks, a minimum 4-foot-wide (1219 mm) aisle shall be provided between adjacent rows of racks and adjacent storage of liquids. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.

Additional aisles shall be provided for access to doors, required windows and ventilation openings, standpipe connections, mechanical equipment and switches. Such aisles shall be at least 3 feet (914 mm) in width, unless greater widths are required for separation of piles or racks, in which case the greater width shall be provided.

Containers and piles shall be separated by pallets or dunnage to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress to container walls. Portable tanks stored over one tier shall be designed to nest securely without dunnage.

Requirements for portable tank design shall be in accordance with Chapters 9 and 12 of NFPA 30. Shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay and similar installations shall be of noncombustible construction or of wood not less than a 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness. Adequate material-handling equipment shall be available to handle tanks safely at upper tier levels.

Liquid storage rooms shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.
Liquid storage rooms shall be ventilated in accordance with Section 5004.3.
Fire protection for liquid storage rooms shall comply with Sections 5704.3.7.5.1 and 5704.3.7.5.2.

Liquid storage rooms shall be protected by automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Chapter 9 and Tables 5704.3.6.3(4) through 5704.3.6.3(7) and Table 5704.3.7.5.1. In-rack sprinklers shall also comply with NFPA 13.

Automatic foam-water systems and automatic aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) water sprinkler systems shall not be used except when approved.

Protection criteria developed from fire modeling or full-scale fire testing conducted at an approved testing laboratory are allowed in lieu of the protection as shown in Tables 5704.3.6.3(2) through 5704.3.6.3(7) and Table 5704.3.7.5.1 when approved.

TABLE 5704.3.7.5.1

AUTOMATIC AFFF-WATER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR SOLID-PILE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE OF LIQUIDS IN METAL CONTAINERS OF 5-GALLON CAPACITY OR LESSa, b

PACKAGE
TYPE
CLASS
LIQUID
CEILING SPRINKLER DESIGN AND DEMANDSTORAGE
HEIGHT
(feet)
HOSE
DEMAND
(gpm)c
DURATION
AFFF
SUPPLY
(minimum)
DURATION
WATER
SUPPLY
(hours)
Density
(gpm/ft2)
Area
(square feet)
Temperature
rating
Maximum
spacing
Orifice size
(inch)
CartonedIB, IC, II
and III
0.402,000286°F100 ft2/
head
0.53111500152
UncartonedIB, IC, II
and III
0.302,000286°F100 ft2/
head
0.5 or 0.53112500152

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2, °C. = [(°F)-32]/1.8.

  1. System shall be a closed-head wet system with approved devices for proportioning aqueous film-forming foam.
  2. Maximum ceiling height of 30 feet.
  3. Hose stream demand includes 11/2-inch inside hand hose, when required.

A minimum of one approved portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) or more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any Class I or II liquid storage area located outside of a liquid storage room.

A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from, the door opening into a liquid storage room.

Buildings used for storage of flammable or combustible liquids in quantities exceeding those set forth in Section 5704.3.4 for control areas and Section 5704.3.7 for liquid storage rooms shall comply with Sections 5704.3.8.1 through 5704.3.8.5 and shall be constructed and separated as required by the International Building Code.
The total quantities of liquids in a liquid storage warehouse shall not be limited. The arrangement of storage shall be in accordance with Table 5704.3.6.3(2) or 5704.3.6.3(3).
Mixed storage shall be in accordance with Section 5704.3.7.2.1.
Separation and aisles shall be in accordance with Section 5704.3.7.2.2.
Liquid storage warehouses shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment as set forth in Section 5004.2.
Liquid storage warehouses storing containers greater than 5 gallons (19 L) in capacity shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 0.25 cfm per square foot (0.075 m3/s • m2) of floor area over the storage area.

Liquid storage warehouses shall be protected by automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Chapter 9 and Tables 5704.3.6.3(4) through 5704.3.6.3(7) and Table 5704.3.7.5.1, or Sections 16.4.1 through 16.4.3, 16.5.1 through 16.5.2.12, and Tables 16.5.2.1 through 16.5.2.12 and Figures 16.4.1(a) through 16.4.1(c) of NFPA 30. In-rack sprinklers shall also comply with NFPA 13.

Automatic foam-water systems and automatic AFFF water sprinkler systems shall not be used except where approved.

Protection criteria developed from fire modeling or full-scale fire testing conducted at an approved testing laboratory are allowed in lieu of the protection as shown in Tables 5704.3.6.3(2) through 5704.3.6.3(7) and Table 5704.3.7.5.1 where approved.

In liquid storage warehouses, either 11/2-inch (38 mm) lined or 1-inch (25 mm) hard rubber hand hose lines shall be provided in sufficient number to reach all liquid storage areas and shall be in accordance with Section 903 or Section 905.
Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers and portable tanks outside of buildings shall be in accordance with Section 5703 and Sections 5704.4.1 through 5704.4.8. Capacity limits for containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with Section 5704.3.
Storage shall be in accordance with approved plans.

Outdoor storage of liquids in containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with Table 5704.4.2. Storage of liquids near buildings located on the same lot shall be in accordance with this section.

TABLE 5704.4.2

OUTDOOR LIQUID STORAGE IN CONTAINERS AND PORTABLE TANKS

CLASS OF
LIQUID
CONTAINER STORAGE—
MAXIMUM PER PILE
PORTABLE TANK STORAGE—
MAXIMUM PER PILE
MINIMUM
DISTANCE
BETWEEN PILES
OR RACKS (feet)
MINIMUM DISTANCE TO
LOT LINE OF
PROPERTY THAT CAN
BE BUILT UPONc, d
(feet)
MINIMUM DISTANCE TO
PUBLIC STREET,
PUBLIC ALLEY OR
PUBLIC WAYd
(feet)
Quantitya, b
(gallons)
Height
(feet)
Quantitya, b
(gallons)
Height
(feet)
IA1,100102,200755010
IB2,200124,4001455010
IC4,400128,8001455010
II8,8001217,600145255
III22,0001844,000145105

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon 3.785 L.

  1. For mixed class storage, see Section 5704.4.2.
  2. For storage in racks, the quantity limits per pile do not apply, but the rack arrangement shall be limited to a maximum of 50 feet in length and two rows or 9 feet in depth.
  3. If protection by a public fire department or private fire brigade capable of providing cooling water streams is not available, the distance shall be doubled.
  4. When the total quantity stored does not exceed 50 percent of the maximum allowed per pile, the distances are allowed to be reduced 50 percent, but not less than 3 feet.
Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a single pile, the quantity in the pile shall not exceed the smallest of maximum quantities for the classes of material stored.
Storage of containers or portable tanks shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Chapter 5.
The storage area shall be protected against tampering or trespassers where necessary and shall be kept free from weeds, debris and other combustible materials not necessary to the storage.

A maximum of 1,100 gallons (4163 L) of liquids stored in closed containers and portable tanks is allowed adjacent to a building located on the same premises and under the same management, provided that:

  1. The building does not exceed one story in height. Such building shall be of fire-resistance-rated construction with noncombustible exterior surfaces or noncombustible construction and shall be used principally for the storage of liquids; or
  2. The exterior building wall adjacent to the storage area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, having no openings to above-grade areas within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such storage and no openings to below-grade areas within 50 feet (15 240 mm) horizontally of such storage.
  3. The quantity of liquids stored adjacent to a building protected in accordance with Item 2 is allowed to exceed 1,100 gallons (4163 L), provided that the maximum quantity per pile does not exceed 1,100 gallons (4163 L) and each pile is separated by a 10-foot-minimum (3048 mm) clear space along the common wall.

    Where the quantity stored exceeds 1,100 gallons (4163 L) adjacent to a building complying with Item 1, or the provisions of Item 1 cannot be met, a minimum distance in accordance with Table 5704.4.2, column 7 (“Minimum Distance to Lot Line of Property That Can Be Built Upon”) shall be maintained between buildings and the nearest container or portable tank.

Storage areas shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5703.4.

Exception: Containers stored on approved containment pallets in accordance with Section 5004.2.3 and containers stored in cabinets and lockers with integral spill containment.

Storage areas shall be protected against tampering or trespassers by fencing or other approved control measures.
Guard posts or other means shall be provided to protect exterior storage tanks from vehicular damage. When guard posts are installed, the posts shall be installed in accordance with Section 312.
The storage area shall be kept free from weeds, debris and combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an exterior storage area shall be kept clear of such materials for a minimum distance of 15 feet (4572 mm).
Weather protection for outdoor storage shall be in accordance with Section 5004.13.
The storage of empty tanks and containers previously used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids, unless free from explosive vapors, shall be stored as required for filled containers and tanks. Tanks and containers when emptied shall have the covers or plugs immediately replaced in openings.

Dispensing, use, mixing and handling of flammable liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5703 and this section. Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading and other special operations shall be in accordance with Section 5706.

Exception: Containers of organic coatings having no fire point and which are opened for pigmentation are not required to comply with this section.

Liquid transfer equipment and methods for transfer of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be approved and be in accordance with Sections 5705.2.1 through 5705.2.6.
Positive-displacement pumps shall be provided with pressure relief discharging back to the tank, pump suction or other approved location, or shall be provided with interlocks to prevent over-pressure.

Where gases are introduced to provide for transfer of Class I liquids, or Class II and III liquids transferred at temperatures at or above their flash points by pressure, only inert gases shall be used. Controls, including pressure relief devices, shall be provided to limit the pressure so that the maximum working pressure of tanks, containers and piping systems cannot be exceeded. Where devices operating through pressure within a tank or container are used, the tank or container shall be a pressure vessel approved for the intended use. Air or oxygen shall not be used for pressurization.

Exception: Air transfer of Class II and III liquids at temperatures below their flash points.

Piping, hoses and valves used in liquid transfer operations shall be approved or listed for the intended use.

Class I liquids or when heated to or above their flash points, Class II and Class III liquids shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

  1. From safety cans complying with UL 30.
  2. Through an approved closed piping system.
  3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.
  4. For Class IB, IC, II and III liquids, from containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve when the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5703.4. Class IA liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.
  5. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.

Exception: Liquids in original shipping containers not exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity.

Class I liquids or Class II and Class III liquids that are heated up to or above their flash points shall not be transferred into containers unless the nozzle and containers are electrically interconnected. Acceptable methods of electrical interconnection include:

  1. Metallic floor plates on which containers stand while filling, when such floor plates are electrically connected to the fill stem; or
  2. Where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling by means of a bond wire.
Container-filling operations for Class I liquids involving conveyor belts or other automatic-feeding operations shall be designed to prevent static accumulations.
Indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5705.2 and Sections 5705.3.1 through 5705.3.5.3.

Vessels used for mixing or blending of Class I liquids and Class II or III liquids heated up to or above their flash points shall be provided with self-closing, tight-fitting, noncombustible lids that will control a fire within such vessel.

Exception: Where such devices are impractical, approved automatic or manually controlled fire-extinguishing devices shall be provided.

Where differences of potential could be created, vessels containing Class I liquids or liquids handled at or above their flash points shall be electrically connected by bond wires, ground cables, piping or similar means to a static grounding system to maintain equipment at the same electrical potential to prevent sparking.

Heating, lighting and cooking appliances which utilize Class I liquids shall not be operated within a building or structure.

Exception: Operation in single-family dwellings.

Processing vessels shall be located with respect to distances to lot lines of adjoining property which can be built on, in accordance with Tables 5705.3.4(1) and 5705.3.4(2).

Exception: Where the exterior wall facing the adjoining lot line is a blank wall having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 4 hours, the fire code official is authorized to modify the distances. The distance shall not be less than that set forth in the International Building Code, and when Class IA or unstable liquids are involved, explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 911.

TABLE 5705.3.4(1)

SEPARATION OF PROCESSING VESSELS FROM LOT LINES

PROCESSING VESSELS WITH EMERGENCY RELIEF VENTINGLOCATIONa
Stable liquidsUnstable liquids
Not in excess of 2.5 psigTable 5705.3.4(2)2.5 times Table 5705.3.4(2)
Over 2.5 psig1.5 times Table 5705.3.4(2)4 times Table 5705.3.4(2)

For SI: 1 pound per square inch gauge = 6.895 kPa.

  1. Where protection of exposures by a public fire department or private fire brigade capable of providing cooling water streams on structures is not provided, distances shall be doubled.

TABLE 5705.3.4(2)

REFERENCE TABLE FOR USE WITH TABLE 5705.3.4(1)

TANK CAPACITY
(gallons)
MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE OF
A LOT WHICH IS OR CAN BE BUILT UPON,
INCLUDING THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF A PUBLIC WAY
(feet)
MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST SIDE OF
ANY PUBLIC WAY OR FROM NEAREST IMPORTANT
BUILDING ON THE SAME PROPERTY
(feet)
275 or less55
276 to 750105
751 to 12,000155
12,001 to 30,000205
30,001 to 50,0003010
50,001 to 100,0005015
100,001 to 500,0008025
500,001 to 1,000,00010035
1,000,001 to 2,000,00013545
2,000,001 to 3,000,00016555
3,000,001 or more17560

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

Liquid use quantity limitations shall comply with Sections 5705.3.5.1 through 5705.3.5.3.

Indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Table 5003.1.1(1) and shall not exceed the additional limitations set forth in Section 5705.3.5.

Exception: Cleaning with Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5705.3.6.

Use of hazardous production material flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-5 occupancies shall be in accordance with Chapter 27.

The following limits for quantities of flammable and combustible liquids used, dispensed or mixed based on occupancy classification shall not be exceeded:

Exception: Cleaning with Class I, II, or IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5705.3.6.

  1. Group A occupancies: Quantities in Group A occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  2. Group B occupancies: Quantities in drinking, dining, office and school uses within Group B occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  3. Group E occupancies: Quantities in Group E occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  4. Group F occupancies: Quantities in dining, office and school uses within Group F occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  5. Group I occupancies: Quantities in Group I occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  6. Group M occupancies: Quantities in dining, office and school uses within Group M occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  7. Group R occupancies: Quantities in Group R occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).
  8. Group S occupancies: Quantities in dining and office uses within Group S occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).

Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Sections 5705.3.5.1 and 5705.3.5.2 shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. For open systems, indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be within a room or building complying with the International Building Code and Sections 5705.3.7.1 through 5705.3.7.5.
  2. For closed systems, indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be within a room or building complying with the International Building Code and Sections 5705.3.7 through 5705.3.7.4 and Section 5705.3.7.6.

Cleaning with Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.6.1 through 5705.3.6.2.7.

Exceptions:

  1. Dry cleaning shall be in accordance with Chapter 21.
  2. Spray-nozzle cleaning shall be in accordance with Section 2403.3.5.

Class IA liquids shall not be used for cleaning. Cleaning with Class IB, IC or II liquids shall be conducted as follows:

  1. In a room or building in accordance with Section 5705.3.7; or
  2. In a parts cleaner listed, labeled and approved for the purpose in accordance with Section 5705.3.6.2.

Exception: Materials used in commercial and industrial process-related cleaning operations in accordance with other provisions of this code and not involving facilities maintenance cleaning operations.

Parts cleaning and degreasing conducted in listed and approved machines in accordance with Section 5705.3.6.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.6.2.1 through 5705.3.6.2.7.
Solvents shall be classified and shall be compatible with the machines within which they are used.
The quantity of solvent shall not exceed the listed design capacity of the machine for the solvent being used with the machine.

Solvent quantities shall be limited as follows:

  1. Machines without remote solvent reservoirs shall be limited to quantities set forth in Section 5705.3.5.
  2. Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using Class I liquids shall be limited to quantities set forth in Section 5705.3.5.
  3. Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using Class II liquids shall be limited to 35 gallons (132 L) per machine. The total quantities shall not exceed an aggregate of 240 gallons (908 L) per control area in buildings not equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system and an aggregate of 480 gallons (1817 L) per control area in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  4. Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using Class IIIA liquids shall be limited to 80 gallons (303 L) per machine.
Work areas of machines with remote solvent reservoirs shall not be used for immersion soaking of parts.
Multiple machines shall be separated from each other by a distance of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or by a fire barrier with a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating.
Machines shall be located in areas adequately ventilated to prevent accumulation of vapors.
Machines shall be installed in accordance with their listings.
Where required by Section 5705.3.5.3 or 5705.3.6.1, rooms or buildings used for the use, dispensing or mixing of flammable and combustible liquids in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.7.1 through 5705.3.7.6.3.
Rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the International Building Code as Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies based on use, dispensing or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.
In rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the International Building Code as Group H-2 or H-3, dispensing or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids shall not be conducted in basements.
Rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the International Building Code as Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies shall be equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9.
Interior doors to rooms or portions of such buildings shall be self-closing fire doors in accordance with the International Building Code.
Use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids in open systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.7.5.1 through 5705.3.7.5.3.

Continuous mechanical ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cfm per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area over the design area. Provisions shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner to include all floor areas or pits where vapors can collect. Local or spot ventilation shall be provided when needed to prevent the accumulation of hazardous vapors. Ventilation system design shall comply with the International Building Code and International Mechanical Code.

Exception: Where natural ventilation can be shown to be effective for the materials used, dispensed or mixed.

Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 911.
Spill control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5703.4 where Class I, II or IIIA liquids are dispensed into containers exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or mixed or used in open containers or systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity. Spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with Section 5703.4 when the capacity of an individual container exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple containers or tanks exceeds 100 gallons (378.5 L).
Use or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids in closed systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.7.6.1 through 5705.3.7.6.3.
Closed systems designed to be opened as part of normal operations shall be provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 5705.3.7.5.1.

Explosion control shall be provided when an explosive environment can occur as a result of the mixing or use process. Explosion control shall be designed in accordance with Section 911.

Exception: When process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions considering the most likely failure.

Spill control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5703.4 when flammable or combustible liquids are dispensed into containers exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or mixed or used in open containers or systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity. Spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with Section 5703.4 when the capacity of an individual container exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple containers or tanks exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L).

Outside use, dispensing and handling shall be in accordance with Sections 5705.3.8.1 through 5705.3.8.4.

Dispensing of liquids into motor vehicle fuel tanks at motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Chapter 23.

Outside use, dispensing and handling areas shall be provided with spill control as set forth in Section 5703.4.

Dispensing activities which exceed the quantities set forth in Table 5705.3.8.2 shall not be conducted within 15 feet (4572 mm) of buildings or combustible materials or within 25 feet (7620 mm) of building openings, lot lines , public streets, public alleys or public ways. Dispensing activities that exceed the quantities set forth in Table 5705.3.8.2 shall not be conducted within 15 feet (4572 mm) of storage of Class I, II or III liquids unless such liquids are stored in tanks which are listed and labeled as 2-hour protected tank assemblies in accordance with UL 2085.

Exceptions:

  1. The requirements shall not apply to areas where only the following are dispensed: Class III liquids; liquids that are heavier than water; water-miscible liquids; and liquids with viscosities greater than 10,000 centipoise (cp) (10 Pa • s).
  2. Flammable and combustible liquid dispensing in refineries, chemical plants, process facilities, gas and crude oil production facilities and oil-blending and packaging facilities, terminals and bulk plants.

TABLE 5705.3.8.2

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITIES FOR DISPENSING OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREASa, b

CLASS OF LIQUIDQUANTITY (gallons)
Flammable
Class IA10
Class IB15
Class IC20
Combination Class IA, IB and IC30c
Combustible
Class II30
Class IIIA80
Class IIIB3,300

For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. For definition of “Outdoor Control Area,” see Section 5002.1.
  2. The fire code official is authorized to impose special conditions regarding locations, types of containers, dispensing units, fire control measures and other factors involving fire safety.
  3. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of each individual class.

Processing vessels shall be located with respect to distances to lot lines which can be built on in accordance with Table 5705.3.4(1).

Exception: In refineries and distilleries.

Weather protection for outdoor use shall be in accordance with Section 5005.3.9.
Solvent distillation units shall comply with Sections 5705.4.1 through 5705.4.9.

Solvent distillation units used to recycle Class I, II or IIIA liquids having a distillation chamber capacity of 60 gallons (227 L) or less shall be listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 5705.4 and UL 2208.

Exceptions:

  1. Solvent distillation units used in continuous through-put industrial processes where the source of heat is remotely supplied using steam, hot water, oil or other heat transfer fluids, the temperature of which is below the auto-ignition point of the solvent.
  2. Approved research, testing and experimental processes.
Solvent distillation units used to recycle Class I, II or IIIA liquids, having a distillation chamber capacity exceeding 60 gallons (227 L) shall be used in locations that comply with the use and mixing requirements of Section 5705 and other applicable provisions in this chapter.

Class I, II and IIIA liquids also classified as unstable (reactive) shall not be processed in solvent distillation units.

Exception: Appliances listed for the distillation of unstable (reactive) solvents.

A permanent label shall be affixed to the unit by the manufacturer. The label shall indicate the capacity of the distillation chamber, and the distance the unit shall be placed away from sources of ignition. The label shall indicate the products for which the unit has been listed for use or refer to the instruction manual for a list of the products.
An instruction manual shall be provided. The manual shall be readily available for the user and the fire code official. The manual shall include installation, use and servicing instructions. It shall identify the liquids for which the unit has been listed for distillation purposes along with each liquid’s flash point and auto-ignition temperature. For units with adjustable controls, the manual shall include directions for setting the heater temperature for each liquid to be instilled.
Solvent distillation units shall be used in locations in accordance with the listing. Solvent distillation units shall not be used in basements.
Distilled liquids and liquids awaiting distillation shall be stored in accordance with Section 5704.
Hazardous residue from the distillation process shall be stored in accordance with Section 5704 and Chapter 50.
Approved portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906. At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 40-B shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from any solvent distillation unit.

The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids shall be in accordance with all of the following:

  1. The maximum capacity of each dispenser shall be 68 ounces (2 L).
  2. The minimum separation between dispensers shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).
  3. The dispensers shall not be installed directly adjacent to, directly above or below an electrical receptacle, switch, appliance, device or other ignition source. The wall space between the dispenser and the floor shall remain clear and unobstructed.
  4. Dispensers shall be mounted so that the bottom of the dispenser is a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1219 mm) above the finished floor.
  5. Dispensers shall not release their contents except when the dispenser is manually activated. Facilities shall be permitted to install and use automatically activated “touch free” alcohol-based hand-rub dispensing devices with the following requirements:

    1. 5.1. The facility or persons responsible for the dispensers shall test the dispensers each time a new refill is installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s care and use instructions.
    2. 5.2. Dispensers shall be designed and must operate in a manner that ensures accidental or malicious activations of the dispensing device are minimized. At a minimum, all devices subject to or used in accordance with this section shall have the following safety features:

      1. 5.2.1. Any activations of the dispenser shall only occur when an object is placed within 4 inches (98 mm) of the sensing device.
      2. 5.2.2. The dispenser shall not dispense more than the amount required for hand hygiene consistent with label instructions as regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA).
      3. 5.2.3. An object placed within the activation zone and left in place will cause only one activation.
  6. Storage and use of alcohol-based hand rubs shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 5704 and 5705.
  7. Dispensers installed in occupancies with carpeted floors shall only be allowed in smoke compartments or fire areas equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Where wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs are installed in corridors, they shall be in accordance with all of the following:

  1. Level 2 and 3 aerosol containers shall not be allowed in corridors.
  2. The maximum capacity of each Class I or II liquid dispenser shall be 41 ounces (1.21 L) and the maximum capacity of each Level 1 aerosol dispenser shall be 18 ounces (0.51 kg).
  3. The maximum quantity allowed in a corridor within a control area shall be 10 gallons (37.85 L) of Class I or II liquids or 1135 ounces (32.2 kg) of Level 1 aerosols, or a combination of Class I or II liquids and Level 1 aerosols not to exceed, in total, the equivalent of 10 gallons (37.85 L) or 1,135 ounces (32.2 kg) such that the sum of the ratios of the liquid and aerosol quantities divided by the allowable quantity of liquids and aerosols, respectively, shall not exceed one.
  4. The minimum corridor width shall be 72 inches (1829 mm).
  5. Projections into a corridor shall be in accordance with Section 1003.3.3.

This section shall cover the provisions for special operations which include, but are not limited to, storage, use, dispensing, mixing or handling of flammable and combustible liquids. The following special operations shall be in accordance with Sections 5701, 5703, 5704 and 5705, except as provided in Section 5706.

  1. Storage and dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids on farms and construction sites.
  2. Well drilling and operating.
  3. Bulk plants or terminals.
  4. Bulk transfer and process transfer operations utilizing tank vehicles and tank cars.
  5. Tank vehicles and tank vehicle operation.
  6. Refineries.
  7. Vapor recovery and vapor-processing systems.

Permanent and temporary storage and dispensing of Class I and II liquids for private use on farms and rural areas and at construction sites, earth-moving projects, gravel pits or borrow pits shall be in accordance with Sections 5706.2.1 through 5706.2.8.1.

Exception: Storage and use of fuel oil and containers connected with oil-burning equipment regulated by Section 603 and the International Mechanical Code.

Storage areas shall be kept free from weeds and extraneous combustible material. Open flames and smoking are prohibited in flammable or combustible liquid storage areas.
Tanks and containers for the storage of liquids above ground shall be conspicuously marked with the name of the product which they contain and the words: FLAMMABLE—KEEP FIRE AND FLAME AWAY. Tanks shall bear the additional marking: KEEP 50 FEET FROM BUILDINGS.

Metal containers used for storage of Class I or II liquids shall be in accordance with DOTn requirements or shall be of an approved design.

Discharge devices shall be of a type that do not develop an internal pressure on the container. Pumping devices or approved self-closing faucets used for dispensing liquids shall not leak and shall be well-maintained. Individual containers shall not be interconnected and shall be kept closed when not in use.

Containers stored outside of buildings shall be in accordance with Section 5704 and the International Building Code.

The capacity of permanent above-ground tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall not exceed 1,100 gallons (4164 L). The capacity of temporary above-ground tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall not exceed 10,000 gallons (37 854 L). Tanks shall be of the single-compartment design.

Exception: Permanent above-ground tanks of greater capacity which meet the requirements of Section 5704.2.

Fill openings shall be equipped with a locking closure device. Fill openings shall be separate from vent openings.

Tanks shall be provided with a method of normal and emergency venting. Normal vents shall also be in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.3.

Emergency vents shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.4. Emergency vents shall be arranged to discharge in a manner which prevents localized overheating or flame impingement on any part of the tank in the event that vapors from such vents are ignited.

Tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall be kept outside and at least 50 feet (15 240 mm) from buildings and combustible storage. Additional distance shall be provided when necessary to ensure that vehicles, equipment and containers being filled directly from such tanks will not be less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from structures, haystacks or other combustible storage.
The storage of Class I and II liquids in above-ground tanks is prohibited within the limits established by law as the limits of districts in which such storage is prohibited (see Section 3 of the Sample Legislation for Adoption of the International Fire Code on page xxi).
Tanks shall be provided with top openings only or shall be elevated for gravity discharge.

Tanks with top openings shall be mounted as follows:

  1. On well-constructed metal legs connected to shoes or runners designed so that the tank is stabilized and the entire tank and its supports can be moved as a unit; or
  2. For stationary tanks, on a stable base of timbers or blocks approximately 6 inches (152 mm) in height which prevents the tank from contacting the ground.
Tanks with top openings only shall be equipped with a tightly and permanently attached, approved pumping device having an approved hose of sufficient length for filling vehicles, equipment or containers to be served from the tank. Either the pump or the hose shall be equipped with a padlock to its hanger to prevent tampering. An effective antisiphoning device shall be included in the pump discharge unless a self-closing nozzle is provided. Siphons or internal pressure discharge devices shall not be used.

Tanks with a connection in the bottom or the end for gravity-dispensing liquids shall be mounted and equipped as follows:

  1. Supports to elevate the tank for gravity discharge shall be designed to carry all required loads and provide stability.
  2. Bottom or end openings for gravity discharge shall be equipped with a valve located adjacent to the tank shell which will close automatically in the event of fire through the operation of an effective heat-activated releasing device. Where this valve cannot be operated manually, it shall be supplemented by a second, manually operated valve.

The gravity discharge outlet shall be provided with an approved hose equipped with a self-closing valve at the discharge end of a type that can be padlocked to its hanger.

Indoor storage and dispensing areas shall be provided with spill control and drainage control as set forth in Section 5703.4. Outdoor storage areas shall be provided with drainage control or diking as set forth in Section 5704.2.10.
Portable fire extinguishers with a minimum rating of 20-B:C and complying with Section 906 shall be provided where required by the fire code official.

Where approved, liquids used as fuels are allowed to be transferred from tank vehicles into the tanks of motor vehicles or special equipment, provided:

  1. The tank vehicle’s specific function is that of supplying fuel to motor vehicle fuel tanks.
  2. The dispensing hose does not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm) in length.
  3. The dispensing nozzle is an approved type.
  4. The dispensing hose is properly placed on an approved reel or in a compartment provided before the tank vehicle is moved.
  5. Signs prohibiting smoking or open flames within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the vehicle or the point of refueling are prominently posted on the tank vehicle.
  6. Electrical devices and wiring in areas where fuel dispensing is conducted are in accordance with NFPA 70.
  7. Tank vehicle-dispensing equipment is operated only by designated personnel who are trained to handle and dispense motor fuels.
  8. Provisions are made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized discharges.
Dispensing from tank vehicles shall be conducted at least 50 feet (15 240 mm) from structures or combustible storage.
Wells for oil and natural gas shall be drilled and operated in accordance with Sections 5706.3.1 through 5706.3.8.
The location of wells shall comply with Sections 5706.3.1.1 through 5706.3.1.3.2.

Storage tanks or boilers, fired heaters, open-flame devices or other sources of ignition shall not be located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of well heads. Smoking is prohibited at wells or tank locations except as designated and in approved posted areas.

Exception: Engines used in the drilling, production and serving of wells.

Wells shall not be drilled within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of any dedicated public street, highway or nearest rail of an operating railway.
Wells shall not be drilled within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of buildings not necessary to the operation of the well.
Wells shall not be drilled within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of buildings with an occupancy in Group A, E or I.
Where wells are existing, buildings shall not be constructed within the distances set forth in Section 5706.3.1 for separation of wells or buildings.
Control of waste materials associated with wells shall comply with Sections 5706.3.2.1 and 5706.3.2.2.
Liquids containing crude petroleum or its products shall not be discharged into or on streets, highways, drainage canals or ditches, storm drains or flood control channels.
The surface of the ground under, around or near wells, pumps, boilers, oil storage tanks or buildings shall be kept free from oil, waste oil, refuse or waste material.
Sumps associated with wells shall comply with Sections 5706.3.3.1 through 5706.3.3.3.
Sumps or other basins for the retention of oil or petroleum products shall not exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) in width.
Sumps or other basins for the retention of oil or petroleum products larger than 6 feet by 6 feet by 6 feet (1829 mm by 1829 mm by 1829 mm) shall not be maintained longer than 60 days after the cessation of drilling operations.
Sumps, diversion ditches and depressions used as sumps shall be securely fenced or covered.
Protection shall be provided to control and prevent the blowout of a well. Protection equipment shall meet federal, state and other applicable jurisdiction requirements.
Storage of flammable or combustible liquids in tanks shall be in accordance with Section 5704. Oil storage tanks or groups of tanks shall have posted in a conspicuous place, on or near such tank or tanks, an approved sign with the name of the owner or operator, or the lease number and the telephone number where a responsible person can be reached at any time.
Where soundproofing material is required during oil field operations, such material shall be noncombustible.
Well locations shall have posted in a conspicuous place on or near such tank or tanks an approved sign with the name of the owner or operator, name of the leasee or the lease number, the well number and the telephone number where a responsible person can be reached at any time. Such signs shall be maintained on the premises from the time materials are delivered for drilling purposes until the well is abandoned.
Field-loading racks shall be in accordance with Section 5706.5.
Portions of properties where flammable and combustible liquids are received by tank vessels, pipelines, tank cars or tank vehicles and which are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessels, pipelines, tanks cars, tank vehicles or containers shall be in accordance with Sections 5706.4.1 through 5706.4.10.4.
Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.
Rooms in which liquids are stored, used or transferred by pumps shall have means of egress arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire.
Rooms in which Class I liquids are stored or used shall be heated only by means not constituting a source of ignition, such as steam or hot water. Rooms containing heating appliances involving sources of ignition shall be located and arranged to prevent entry of flammable vapors.
Ventilation shall be provided for rooms, buildings and enclosures in which Class I liquids are pumped, used or transferred. Design of ventilation systems shall consider the relatively high specific gravity of the vapors. When natural ventilation is used, adequate openings in outside walls at floor level, unobstructed except by louvers or coarse screens, shall be provided. When natural ventilation is inadequate, mechanical ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Class I liquids shall not be stored or used within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors can travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.
Containers of Class I liquids shall not be drawn from or filled within buildings unless a provision is made to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors in hazardous concentrations. Where mechanical ventilation is required, it shall be kept in operation while flammable vapors could be present.
Storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquids in bulk plants shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 5704.
Manual and automatic systems shall be provided to prevent overfill during the transfer of Class I and II liquids from mainline pipelines and marine vessels in accordance with API 2350.

This section shall apply to all wharves, piers, bulkheads and other structures over or contiguous to navigable water having a primary function of transferring liquid cargo in bulk between shore installations and tank vessels, ships, barges, lighter boats or other mobile floating craft.

Exception: Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities in accordance with Chapter 23.

Handling packaged cargo of liquids, including full and empty drums, bulk fuel and stores, over a wharf during cargo transfer shall be subject to the approval of the wharf supervisor and the senior deck officer on duty.
Wharves at which liquid cargoes are to be transferred in bulk quantities to or from tank vessels shall be at least 100 feet (30 480 mm) from any bridge over a navigable waterway; or from an entrance to, or superstructure of, any vehicular or railroad tunnel under a waterway. The termination of the fixed piping used for loading or unloading at a wharf shall be at least 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a bridge or from an entrance to, or superstructures of, a tunnel.
Superstructure and decking shall be designed for the intended use. Decking shall be constructed of materials that will afford the desired combination of flexibility, resistance to shock, durability, strength and fire resistance.
Tanks used exclusively for ballast water or Class II or III liquids are allowed to be installed on suitably designed wharves.
Loading pumps capable of building up pressures in excess of the safe working pressure of cargo hose or loading arms shall be provided with bypasses, relief valves or other arrangements to protect the loading facilities against excessive pressure. Relief devices shall be tested at least annually to determine that they function satisfactorily at their set pressure.

Piping valves and fittings shall be in accordance with Section 5703.6 except as modified by the following:

  1. Flexibility of piping shall be ensured by appropriate layout and arrangement of piping supports so that motion of the wharf structure resulting from wave action, currents, tides or the mooring of vessels will not subject the pipe to repeated excessive strain.
  2. Pipe joints that depend on the friction characteristics of combustible materials or on the grooving of pipe ends for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used.
  3. Swivel joints are allowed in piping to which hoses are connected and for articulated, swivel-joint transfer systems, provided the design is such that the mechanical strength of the joint will not be impaired if the packing materials fail such as by exposure to fire.
  4. Each line conveying Class I or II liquids leading to a wharf shall be provided with a readily accessible block valve located on shore near the approach to the wharf and outside of any diked area. Where more than one line is involved, the valves shall be grouped in one location.
  5. Means shall be provided for easy access to cargo line valves located below the wharf deck.
  6. Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to control the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage.
  7. Piping on wharves shall be bonded and grounded where Class I and II liquids are transported. Where excessive stray currents are encountered, insulating joints shall be installed. Bonding and grounding connections on piping shall be located on the wharf side of hose riser insulating flanges, where used, and shall be accessible for inspection.
  8. Hose or articulated swivel-joint pipe connections used for cargo transfer shall be capable of accommodating the combined effects of change in draft and maximum tidal range, and mooring lines shall be kept adjusted to prevent surge of the vessel from placing stress on the cargo transfer system.
  9. Hoses shall be supported to avoid kinking and damage from chafing.
Loading or discharging shall not commence until the wharf superintendent and officer in charge of the tank vessel agree that the tank vessel is properly moored and connections are properly made.
Mechanical work shall not be performed on the wharf during cargo transfer, except under special authorization by the fire code official based on a review of the area involved, methods to be employed and precautions necessary.
Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall not be used, drawn or dispensed where flammable vapors can reach a source of ignition. Smoking shall be prohibited except in designated locations. “No Smoking” signs complying with Section 310 shall be conspicuously posted where a hazard from flammable vapors is normally present.
Loading and unloading areas shall be provided with drainage control in accordance with Section 5704.2.10.
Fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 9 and Sections 5706.4.10.1 through 5706.4.10.4.
Portable fire extinguishers with a rating of not less than 20-B and complying with Section 906 shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of hose connections, pumps and separator tanks.
Where piped water is available, ready-connected fire hose in a size appropriate for the water supply shall be provided in accordance with Section 905 so that manifolds where connections are made and broken can be reached by at least one hose stream.
Material shall not be placed on wharves in such a manner that would obstruct access to fire-fighting equipment or important pipeline control valves.
Where the wharf is accessible to vehicular traffic, an unobstructed fire apparatus access road to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 5.
Bulk transfer and process transfer operations shall be approved and be in accordance with Sections 5706.5.1 through 5706.5.4.5. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Chapter 23.
The provisions of Sections 5706.5.1.1 through 5706.5.1.18 shall apply to bulk transfer and process transfer operations; Sections 5706.5.2 and 5706.5.2.1 shall apply to bulk transfer operations; Sections 5706.5.3 through 5706.5.3.3 shall apply to process transfer operations and Sections 5706.5.4 through 5706.5.4.5 shall apply to dispensing from tank vehicles and tank cars.
Bulk transfer and process transfer operations shall be conducted in approved locations. Tank cars shall be unloaded only on private sidings or railroad-siding facilities equipped for transferring flammable or combustible liquids. Tank vehicle and tank car transfer facilities shall be separated from buildings, above-ground tanks, combustible materials, lot lines , public streets, public alleys or public ways by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) for Class I liquids and 15 feet (4572 mm) for Class II and III liquids measured from the nearest position of any loading or unloading valve. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel shall be considered part of the transfer facility.
Where weather protection canopies are provided, they shall be constructed in accordance with Section 5004.13. Weather protection canopies shall not be located within 15 feet (4572 mm) of a building or combustible material or within 25 feet (7620 mm) of building openings, lot lines , public streets, public alleys or public ways.
Ventilation shall be provided to prevent accumulation of vapors in accordance with Section 5705.3.7.5.1.
Sources of ignition shall be controlled or eliminated in accordance with Section 5003.7.
Areas w