CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2012 (IFC 2012)

Part II — General Safety Provisions

Part III — Building and Equipment Design Features

Part IV — Special Occupancies and Operations

Part V — Hazardous Materials

Part VI — Referenced Standards

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the possession, manufacture, storage, handling, sale and use of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks and small arms ammunition.

Exceptions:

  1. The Armed Forces of the United States, Coast Guard or National Guard.
  2. Explosives in forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopoeia.
  3. The possession, storage and use of small arms ammunition when packaged in accordance with DOTn packaging requirements.
  4. The possession, storage, and use of not more than 15 pounds (6.81 kg) of commercially manufactured sporting black powder, 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless powder and any amount of small arms primers for hand loading of small arms ammunition for personal consumption.
  5. The use of explosive materials by federal, state and local regulatory, law enforcement and fire agencies acting in their official capacities.
  6. Special industrial explosive devices which in the aggregate contain less than 50 pounds (23 kg) of explosive materials.
  7. The possession, storage and use of blank industrial-power load cartridges when packaged in accordance with DOTn packaging regulations.
  8. Transportation in accordance with DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.
  9. Items preempted by federal regulations.
  10. The storage, handling, or use of explosives or blasting agents pursuant to the provisions of Title 45.1 of the Code of Virginia.
  11. The display of small arms primers in Group M when in the original manufacturer's packaging.
  12. The possession, storage and use of not more than 50 pounds (23 kg) of commercially manufactured sporting black powder, 100 pounds (45 kg) of smokeless powder, and small arms primers for hand loading of small arms ammunition for personal consumption in Group R-3 or R-5, or 200 pounds (91 kg) of smokeless powder when stored in the manufacturer's original containers in detached Group U structures at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from inhabited buildings and are accessory to Group R-3 or R-5.
In addition to the requirements of this chapter, NFPA 495 shall govern the manufacture, transportation, storage, sale, handling and use of explosive materials.
In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the operation of explosive material terminals shall conform to the provisions of NFPA 498.

The possession, manufacture, storage, sale, handling and use of fireworks are prohibited.

Exceptions:

  1. Storage and handling of fireworks as allowed in Section 5604.
  2. Manufacture, assembly and testing of fireworks as allowed in Section 5605.
  3. The use of fireworks for fireworks displays as allowed in Section 5608.
  4. The possession, storage, sale, handling and use of permissible fireworks where allowed by applicable local or state laws, ordinances and regulations provided such fireworks comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1500-1507, and DOTn 49 CFR, Parts 100-178, for consumer fireworks.
  5. The sale or use of materials or equipment when such materials or equipment is used or to be used by any person for signaling or other emergency use in the operation of any boat, railroad train or other vehicle for the transportation of persons or property.
The storage, handling and use of model and high-power rockets shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 1122, NFPA 1125 and NFPA 1127.

The storage and handling of ammonium nitrate shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 490 and Chapter 63.

Exception: Storage of ammonium nitrate in magazines with blasting agents shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 495.

Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 107.2 and regulated in accordance with this section. The manufacture, storage, possession, sale and use of fireworks or explosives shall not take place without first applying for and obtaining a permit.

No person shall keep or store, nor shall any permit be issued to keep, possess or store, any fireworks or explosives at any place of habitation, or within 100 feet (30 480 mm) thereof.

Exception: Storage of smokeless propellant, black powder, and small arms primers for personal use and not for resale in accordance with Section 5606.

Except for the Armed Forces of the United States, Coast Guard, National Guard, federal, state and local regulatory, law enforcement and fire agencies acting in their official capacities, explosives shall not be sold, given, delivered or transferred to any person or company not in possession of a valid permit. The holder of a permit to sell explosives shall make a record of all transactions involving explosives in conformance with Section 5603.2 and include the signature of any receiver of the explosives. No person shall construct a retail display nor offer for sale explosives, explosive materials, or fireworks upon highways, sidewalks, public property, or in assembly or educational occupancies.
The fire official is authorized to limit the quantity of explosives, explosive materials, or fireworks permitted at a given location. No person, possessing a permit for storage of explosives at any place, shall keep or store an amount greater than authorized in such permit. Only the kind of explosive specified in such a permit shall be kept or stored.

As a condition of a permit as provided for in Section 107.5, the fire official shall not issue a permit to manufacture, store, handle, use or sell explosives or blasting agents to any applicant who has not provided on the permit application the name and signature of a designated individual as representing the applicant. When, as provided for in Section 107.2 or 107.6, a permit is required to conduct a fireworks display, as a condition of permit as provided for in Section 107.5, the fire official shall not issue a permit to design, setup or conduct a fireworks display to any applicant who has not provided on the permit application the name and signature of a designated individual as representing the applicant.

If the applicant's designated individual changes or becomes no longer qualified to represent the applicant as responsible management or designated individual, the applicant shall notify the fire official who issued the permit on the change of status of the designated individual. The notice is to be made prior to the use of any explosives or conducting a fireworks display but in no case shall the notification occur more than 7 days after the change of status and shall provide the name of another designated individual. The fire official may revoke or require the reissuance of a permit based on a change of permit conditions or status or inability to provide another designated individual.

The SFMO shall process all applications for a BCC for compliance with Section 27-97.2 of the Code of Virginia and will be the sole provider of a BCC. Using forms provided by the SFMO, a BCC may be applied for and issued to any person who submits to the completion of a background investigation by providing fingerprints and personal descriptive information to the SFMO. The SFMO shall forward the fingerprints and personal descriptive information to the Central Criminal Records Exchange for submission to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining a national criminal history records check regarding such applicant.
The issuance of a BCC shall be denied if the applicant or designated person representing an applicant has been convicted of any felony, whether such conviction occurred under the laws of the Commonwealth, or any other state, the District of Columbia, the United States or any territory thereof, unless his civil rights have been restored by the Governor or other appropriate authority.
The fee for obtaining or renewing a BCC from the SFMO shall be $150 plus any additional fees charged by other agencies for fingerprinting and for obtaining a national criminal history record check through the Central Criminal Records Exchange to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
After issuance of a BCC, subsequent conviction of a felony will be grounds for immediate revocation of a BCC, whether such conviction occurred under the laws of the Commonwealth, or any other state, the District of Columbia, the United States or any territory thereof. The BCC shall be returned to the SFMO immediately. An individual may reapply for his BCC if his civil rights have been restored by the Governor or other appropriate authority.
Before a permit is issued, as required by Section 5601.2, the applicant shall file with the jurisdiction a corporate surety bond in the principal sum of $500,000 or a public liability insurance policy for the same amount, for the purpose of the payment of all damages to persons or property which arise from, or are caused by, the conduct of any act authorized by the permit upon which any judicial judgment results. The legal department of the jurisdiction may specify a greater amount when conditions at the location of use indicate a greater amount is required. Government entities shall be exempt from this bond requirement.

Before approval to do blasting is issued, the applicant for approval shall file a bond or submit a certificate of insurance in such form, amount, and coverage as determined by the legal department of the jurisdiction to be adequate in each case to indemnify the jurisdiction against any and all damages arising from permitted blasting but in no case shall the value of the coverage be less than $1,000,000.

Exception: Filing a bond or submitting a certificate of liability insurance is not required for blasting on real estate parcels of 5 or more acres conforming to the definition of "real estate devoted to agricultural use" or "real estate devoted to horticultural use" in Section 58.1-3230 of the Code of Virginia and conducted by the owner of such real estate.

The permit holder shall furnish a bond or certificate of insurance in an amount deemed adequate by the legal department of the jurisdiction for the payment of all potential damages to a person or persons or to property by reason of the permitted display, and arising from any acts of the permit holder, the agent, employees or subcontractors, but in no case shall the value of the coverage be less than $1,000,000.

Permits shall not be issued or renewed for possession, manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of the following materials and such materials currently in storage or use shall be disposed of in an approved manner.

  1. Liquid nitroglycerin.
  2. Dynamite containing more than 60-percent liquid explosive ingredient.
  3. Dynamite having an unsatisfactory absorbent or one that permits leakage of a liquid explosive ingredient under any conditions liable to exist during storage.
  4. Nitrocellulose in a dry and uncompressed condition in a quantity greater than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) of net weight in one package.
  5. Fulminate of mercury in a dry condition and fulminate of all other metals in any condition except as a component of manufactured articles not hereinafter forbidden.
  6. Explosive compositions that ignite spontaneously or undergo marked decomposition, rendering the products of their use more hazardous, when subjected for 48 consecutive hours or less to a temperature of 167°F (75°C).
  7. New explosive materials until approved by DOTn, except that permits are allowed to be issued to educational, governmental or industrial laboratories for instructional or research purposes.
  8. Explosive materials condemned by DOTn.
  9. Explosive materials containing an ammonium salt and a chlorate.
  10. Explosives not packed or marked as required by DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100—185.

Exception: Gelatin dynamite.

Persons in charge of magazines, blasting, fireworks display, or pyrotechnic special effect operations shall not be under the influence of alcohol or drugs which impair sensory or motor skills, shall be at least 21 years of age and possess knowledge of all safety precautions related to the storage, handling or use of explosives, explosive materials or fireworks.

Certificates as a restricted blaster, unrestricted blaster or pyrotechnician will be issued upon proof of successful completion of an examination approved by the SFMO commensurate to the certification sought and completion of a background investigation for compliance with Section 27-97.2 of the Code of Virginia. The applicant for certification shall submit proof to the SFMO of the following experience:

  1. For certification as a restricted blaster, at least 1 year under direct supervision by a certified unrestricted blaster, certified restricted blaster or other person(s) approved by the SFMO.
  2. For certification as an unrestricted blaster, at least 1 year under direct supervision by a certified unrestricted blaster or other person or persons approved by the SFMO.
  3. For certification as a pyrotechnician, aerial, or pyrotechnician, proximate, applicant was in responsible charge of or has assisted in the documented design, setup and conducting of a fireworks display on at least six occasions within the 24 months immediately preceding the application for certification.

The SFMO shall process all certification applicants for compliance with Section 27-97.2 of the Code of Virginia and will be the sole provider of blaster and pyrotechnician certifications.

Exception: The use of explosives by the owner of real estate parcels of 5 or more acres conforming to the definition of "real estate devoted to agricultural use" or "real estate devoted to horticultural use" in Section 58.1-3230 of the Code of Virginia when blasting on such real estate.

The issuance of a certification as a blaster or pyrotechnician shall be denied if the applicant has (i) been convicted of any felony, whether such conviction occurred under the laws of the Commonwealth, or any other state, the District of Columbia, the United States or any territory thereof, unless his civil rights have been restored by the Governor or other appropriate authority, (ii) has not provided acceptable proof or evidence of the experience required in Section 5601.4.1, or (iii) has not provided acceptable proof or evidence of the continued training or education required in Section 5601.4.5.
The fee for obtaining or renewing a blaster or pyrotechnician certificate from the SFMO shall be $150 plus any additional fees charged by other agencies for fingerprinting and for obtaining a national criminal history record check through the Central Criminal Records Exchange to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
A written request for a replacement blaster or pyrotechnician certificate shall be accompanied by the payment of an administrative fee in the amount of $20 made payable to the Treasurer of Virginia. Verbal requests shall not be accepted.
After issuance of a blaster or pyrotechnician certification, subsequent conviction of a felony will be grounds for immediate revocation of a blaster or pyrotechnician certification, whether such conviction occurred under the laws of the Commonwealth, or any other state, the District of Columbia, the United States or any territory thereof. The certification shall be returned to the SFMO immediately. An individual may subsequently reapply for his blaster or pyrotechnician certification if his civil rights have been restored by the Governor or other appropriate authority.
A certificate for an unrestricted blaster, restricted blaster or pyrotechnician shall be valid for 3 years from the date of issuance. A BCC shall be valid for 3 years from the date of issuance. Renewal of the unrestricted blaster certificate will be issued upon proof of at least 16 accumulated hours of continued training or education in the use of explosives within 3 consecutive years and a background investigation for compliance with Section 27-97.2 of the Code of Virginia. Renewal of the restricted blaster certificate will be issued upon proof of at least 8 accumulated hours of continued training or education in the use of explosives within 3 consecutive years and a background investigation for compliance with Section 27-97.2 of the Code of Virginia. Renewal of the pyrotechnician certificate will be issued upon proof of at least 12 accumulated hours of continued training or education in the subject areas of explosives storage; the design, setup or conduct of a fireworks display within 3 consecutive years; and a background investigation for compliance with Section 27-97.2 of the Code of Virginia. The continued training or education required for renewal of a blaster or pyrotechnician certificate shall be obtained during the 3 years immediately prior to the certificate's published expiration date. Failure to renew a blaster or pyrotechnician certificate in accordance with this section shall cause an individual to obtain another blaster or pyrotechnician certificate upon compliance with Section 5601.4.1 to continue engaging in the unsupervised use of explosives or conducting a fireworks display.

If issuance or renewal of a blaster or pyrotechnician certificate is denied, or upon the filing of a complaint against an applicant or certificate holder for non-performance, or performance in violation of the SFPC and the appropriate referenced NFPA 495, 1123 or 1126 standards, the State Fire Marshal may convene a three member panel to hear the particulars of the complaint or denial. The three member panel will be comprised of the following persons:

  1. A Virginia certified fire official, excluding any person certified as a blaster or pyrotechnician, or who is on the staff of the SFMO.
  2. A Virginia certified blaster or pyrotechnician whose certification is the same as that of the person to whom a complaint is lodged, and who is not associated in any way with the person against whom a complaint is lodged and whose work or employer is geographically remote, as much as practically possible, from the person to whom a complaint is lodged.
  3. A member of the general public who does not have a vested financial interest in conducting a fireworks display, or the manufacture, sale, storage, or use of explosives.

Upon the State Fire Marshal convening such panel, the hearing is to commence within 60 calendar days of the filing of the complaint or denial. The three member panel is to hear the complaint and render a written recommendation to the State Fire Marshal for certificate issuance, no action, revocation, or suspension of a certificate for a period not to exceed 6 months. Notwithstanding the discretionary decision and action to convene such panel, the State Fire Marshal reserves the authority to choose an action that may be contrary to the panel's recommendation. A written decision of the State Fire Marshal is to be delivered to the party within 14 days of the hearing's conclusion. If the certificate is denied, revoked or suspended by the SFMO, in accordance with Section 112.9, the party may file an appeal with the TRB. The party's appeal to the TRB must be filed within 14 calendar days of the receipt of the State Fire Marshal's written decision to deny, revoke, or suspend. The denial, revocation or suspension of a license is independent of any criminal proceedings that may be initiated by any state or local authority.

Any person whose certificate as a pyrotechnician or blaster was revoked upon cause may apply for certification as a pyrotechnician or blaster 6 months or more from the date of the revocation and upon compliance with Section 5601.4.1. All elements of Section 5601.4.1 are required to be obtained and dated after the date of revocation.
Any certificate that was suspended upon cause will be reinstated at the end of the suspension period without change to its expiration date.
The fire code official is authorized to require operations permitted under the provisions of Section 5601.2 to be supervised at any time by the fire code official in order to determine compliance with all safety and fire regulations.
Whenever a new explosive material storage or manufacturing site is established, including a temporary job site, the local law enforcement agency, fire department and local emergency planning committee shall be notified 48 hours in advance, not including Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, of the type, quantity and location of explosive materials at the site.
The fire official is authorized to remove or cause to be removed or disposed of in an approved manner, at the expense of the owner, fireworks offered or exposed for sale, stored, possessed or used in violation of this chapter.
The quantity of explosives and distances shall be in accordance with Sections 5601.8.1 and 5601.8.1.1.

The quantity-distance (Q-D) tables in Sections 5604.5 and 5605.3 shall be used to provide the minimum separation distances from potential explosion sites as set forth in Tables 5601.8.1(1) through 5601.8.1(3). The classification and the weight of the explosives are primary characteristics governing the use of these tables. The net explosive weight shall be determined in accordance with Sections 5601.8.1.1 through 5601.8.1.4.

TABLE 5601.8.1(1)

APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.1, 1.2 AND 1.5 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c

ITEMMAGAZINEQ-DOPERATING
BUILDING
Q-DINHABITED
BUILDING
Q-DPUBLIC
TRAFFIC

ROUTE
Q-D
MagazineTable 5604.5.2(1)IMDTable 5605.3ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(1)IBDTable 5604.5.2(1)PTR
Operating
building
Table 5604.5.2(1)ILD or IPDTable 5605.3ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(1)IBDTable 5604.5.2(1)PTR
Inhabited
building
Table 5604.5.2(1)IBDTable 5604.5.2(1)IBDNot
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Public traffic
route
Table 5604.5.2(1)PTRTable 5604.5.2(1)PTRNot
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be 60 feet. Where a building or magazine containing explosives is barricaded, the minimum distance shall be 30 feet.
  2. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D tables shall not be allowed. Nonlinear interpolation of the values shall be allowed subject to an approved technical opinion and report prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2.
  3. For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.

TABLE 5601.8.1(2)

APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.3 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c

ITEMMAGAZINEQ-DOPERATING
BUILDING
Q-DINHABITED
BUILDING
Q-DPUBLIC
TRAFFIC

ROUTE
Q-D
MagazineTable 5604.5.2(2)IMDTable 5604.5.2(2)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(2)IBDTable 5604.5.2(2)PTR
Operating
building
Table 5604.5.2(2)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(2)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(2)IBDTable 5604.5.2(2)PTR
Inhabited
building
Table 5604.5.2(2)IBDTable 5604.5.2(2)IBDNot
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Public traffic
route
Table 5604.5.2(2)PTRTable 5604.5.2(2)PTRNot
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be a minimum of 50 feet.
  2. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D table shall be allowed.
  3. For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.

TABLE 5601.8.1(3)

APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.4 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c, d

ITEMMAGAZINEQ-DOPERATING
BUILDING
Q-DINHABITED
BUILDING
Q-DPUBLIC
TRAFFIC

ROUTE
Q-D
MagazineTable 5604.5.2(3)IMDTable 5604.5.2(3)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(3)IBDTable 5604.5.2(3)PTR
Operating
building
Table 5604.5.2(3)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(3)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(3)IBDTable 5604.5.2(3)PTR
Inhabited
building
Table 5604.5.2(3)IBDTable 5604.5.2(3)IBDNot
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Public traffic
route
Table 5604.5.2(3)PTRTable 5604.5.2(3)PTRNot
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be a minimum of 50 feet.
  2. Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D table shall not be allowed.
  3. For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.
  4. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.

The total net explosive weight of mass-detonating explosives (Division 1.1, 1.2 or 1.5) shall be used. See Table 5604.5.2(1) or Table 5605.3 as appropriate.

Exception: When the TNT equivalence of the explosive material has been determined, the equivalence is allowed to be used to establish the net explosive weight.

Nonmass-detonating explosives (excluding Division 1.4) shall be as follows:

  1. Division 1.3 propellants. The total weight of the propellants alone shall be the net explosive weight. The net weight of propellant shall be used. See Table 5604.5.2(2).
  2. Combinations of bulk metal powder and pyrotechnic compositions. The sum of the net weights of metal powders and pyrotechnic compositions in the containers shall be the net explosive weight. See Table 5604.5.2(2).

Combination of mass-detonating and nonmass-detonating explosives (excluding Division 1.4) shall be as follows:

  1. When Division 1.1 and 1.2 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distance for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as 1.2. The required distance is the greater of the two. When the Division 1.1 requirements are controlling and the TNT equivalence of the 1.2 is known, the TNT equivalent weight of the 1.2 items shall be allowed to be added to the total explosive weight of Division 1.1 items to determine the net explosive weight for Division 1.1 distance determination. See Table 5604.5.2(2) or Table 5605.3 as appropriate.
  2. When Division 1.1 and 1.3 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as 1.3. The required distance is the greater of the two. When the Division 1.1 requirements are controlling and the TNT equivalence of the 1.3 is known, the TNT equivalent weight of the 1.3 items shall be allowed to be added to the total explosive weight of Division 1.1 items to determine the net explosive weight for Division 1.1 distance determination. See Table 5604.5.2(1), 5604.5.2(2) or 5605.3, as appropriate.
  3. When Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1, next as 1.2 and finally as 1.3. The required distance is the greatest of the three. As allowed by paragraphs 1 and 2 above, TNT equivalent weights for 1.2 and 1.3 items are allowed to be used to determine the net weight of explosives for Division 1.1 distance determination. Table 5604.5.2(1) or 5605.3 shall be used when TNT equivalency is used to establish the net explosive weight.
  4. For composite pyrotechnic items Division 1.1 and Division 1.3, the sum of the net weights of the pyrotechnic composition and the explosives involved shall be used. See Tables 5604.5.2(1) and 5604.5.2(2).

For Division 1.4 explosives, the total weight of the explosive material alone is the net weight. The net weight of the explosive material shall be used.

Records of the receipt, handling, use or disposal of explosive materials, and reports of any accidents, thefts or unauthorized activities involving explosive materials shall conform to the requirements of this section.

The permittee shall maintain a record of all transactions involving receipt, removal, use or disposal of explosive materials. Such a record shall be maintained for a period of five years, and shall be furnished to the fire code official for inspection upon request.

Exception: Where only Division 1.4G (consumer fireworks) are handled, records need only be maintained for a period of three years.

The loss, theft or unauthorized removal of explosive materials from a magazine or permitted facility shall be reported to the fire code official, local law enforcement authorities and the U.S. Department of Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives within 24 hours.

Exception: Loss of Division 1.4G (consumer fireworks) need not be reported to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives.

Accidents involving the use of explosives, explosive materials and fireworks, which result in injuries or property damage, shall be immediately reported by the permit holder to the fire code official and State Fire Marshal.
The pyrotechnic display operator or blaster in charge shall keep a record of all aerial shells that fail to fire or charges that fail to detonate.
Manufacturers of explosive materials and fireworks shall maintain records of chemicals, chemical compounds and mixtures required by DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1200, and Section 407.
Current safety rules covering the operation of magazines, as described in Section 5604.7, shall be posted on the interior of the magazine in a visible location.
Storage of explosives and explosive materials, small arms ammunition, small arms primers, propellant-actuated cartridges and smokeless propellants in magazines shall comply with the provisions of this section.

Explosives and explosive materials, and Division 1.3G fireworks shall be stored in magazines constructed, located, operated and maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 5604 and NFPA 495 or NFPA 1124.

Exceptions:

  1. Storage of fireworks at display sites in accordance with Section 5608.5 and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.
  2. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 square feet (11 m2) in area shall not be required to comply with the requirements of the International Building Code.

The storage of explosives and explosive materials in magazines shall comply with Table 5604.3.

TABLE 5604.3

STORAGE AMOUNTS AND MAGAZINE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPLOSIVES, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS AND FIREWORKS, 1.3G MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA

NEW UN/
DOTn

DIVISION
OLD DOTn
CLASS
ATF/OSHA
CLASS
INDOORa (pounds)OUTDOOR
(pounds)
MAGAZINE TYPE REQUIRED
UnprotectedCabinetSprinklersSprinklers
& cabinet
12345
1.1bAHigh00121XXX
1.2AHigh00121XXX
1.2BLow00111XXXX
1.3BLow005101XXXX
1.4cBLow00501001XXXX
1.5CLow00121XXXX
1.5Blasting Blasting 00121XXXXX
1.6Not
Applicable
Not
Applicable
00121XXXXX

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 pound per gallon = 0.12 kg per liter, 1 ounce = 28.35 g.

  1. A factor of 10 pounds per gallon shall be used for converting pounds (solid) to gallons (liquid) in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.
  2. Black powder shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 magazine as provided for in Section 5604.3.1.
  3. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.

Explosive materials classified as Division 1.1 or 1.2 or formerly classified as Class A by the U.S. Department of Transportation shall be stored in Type 1, 2 or 3 magazines.

Exceptions:

  1. Black powder shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 magazine.
  2. Cap-sensitive explosive material that is demonstrated not to be bullet sensitive shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 magazine.
Explosive materials that are not cap sensitive shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 magazine.
For quantity and distance purposes, detonating cord of 50 grains per foot shall be calculated as equivalent to 8 pounds (4 kg) of high explosives per 1,000 feet (305 m). Heavier or lighter core loads shall be rated proportionally.
Detonators shall be stored in a separate magazine for blasting supplies and shall not be stored in a magazine with other explosive materials.
The use of magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall comply with Sections 5604.5.1 through 5604.5.3.3.
The use of indoor magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall comply with the requirements of Sections 5604.5.1.1 through 5604.5.1.7.
The use of indoor magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall be limited to occupancies of Group F, H, M or S, and research and development laboratories.

Indoor magazines shall comply with the following construction requirements:

  1. Construction shall be fire resistant and theft resistant.
  2. Exterior shall be painted red.
  3. Base shall be fitted with wheels, casters or rollers to facilitate removal from the building in an emergency.
  4. Lid or door shall be marked with conspicuous white lettering not less than 3 inches (76 mm) high and minimum 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) stroke, reading EXPLOSIVES—KEEP FIRE AWAY.
  5. The least horizontal dimension shall not exceed the clear width of the entrance door.

Not more than 50 pounds (23 kg) of explosives or explosive materials shall be stored within an indoor magazine.

Exception: Day boxes used for the storage of in-process material in accordance with Section 5605.6.4.1.

Indoor magazines shall not be used within buildings containing Group R occupancies.
Indoor magazines shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an entrance and only on floors at or having ramp access to the exterior grade level.
Not more than two indoor magazines shall be located in the same building. Where two such magazines are located in the same building, one magazine shall be used solely for the storage of not more than 5,000 detonators.
When two magazines are located in the same building, they shall be separated by a distance of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

All outdoor magazines other than Type 3 shall be located so as to comply with Table 5604.5.2(2) or Table 5604.5.2(3) as set forth in Tables 5601.8.1(1) through 5601.8.1(3). Where a magazine or group of magazines, as described in Section 5604.5.2.2, contains different classes of explosive materials, and Division 1.1 materials are present, the required separations for the magazine or magazine group as a whole shall comply with Table 5604.5.2(2).

TABLE 5604.5.2(1)

AMERICAN TABLE OF DISTANCES FOR STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AS APPROVED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MAKERS OF EXPLOSIVES AND REVISED JUNE 1991a

QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE
MATERIALSc
DISTANCES IN FEET
Inhabited buildingsPublic highways with traffic
volume less than 3,000

vehicles per day
Public highways with traffic
volume greater than 3,000

vehicles per day and

passenger railways
Separation of magazinesd
Pounds overPounds not
over
BarricadedUnbarricadedBarricadedUnbarricadedBarricadedUnbarricadedBarricadedUnbarricaded
0570140306051102612
51090180357064128816
10201102204590811621020
203012525050100931861122
3040140280551101032061224
4050150300601201102201428
5075170340701401272541530
75100190380751501392781632
100125200400801601503001836
125150215430851701593181938
150200235470951901753502142
2002502555101052101893782346
2503002705401102202014022448
3004002955901202402214422754
4005003206401302602384762958
5006003406801352702535063162
6007003557101452902665323264
7008003757501503002785563366
8009003907801553102895783570
9001,0004008001603203006003672
1,0001,2004258501653303186363978
1,2001,4004509001703403366724182
1,4001,6004709401753503517024386
1,6001,8004909801803603667324488
1,8002,0005051,0101853703787564590
2,0002,5005451,0901903804088164998
2,5003,0005801,16019539043286452104
3,0004,0006351,27021042047494858116
4,0005,0006851,3702254505131,02661122
5,0006,0007301,4602354705461,09265130
6,0007,0007701,5402454905731,14668136
7,0008,0008001,6002505006001,20072144
8,0009,0008351,6702555106241,24875150
9,00010,0008651,7302605206451,29078156
10,00012,0008751,7502705406871,37482164
12,00014,0008851,7702755507231,44687174
14,00016,0009001,8002805607561,51290180
16,00018,0009401,8802855707861,57294188
18,00020,0009751,9502905808131,62698196
20,00025,0001,0552,0003156308761,752105210
25,00030,0001,1302,0003406809331,866112224
30,00035,0001,2052,0003607209811,962119238
35,00040,0001,2752,0003807601,0262,000124248
40,00045,0001,3402,0004008001,0682,000129258
45,00050,0001,4002,0004208401,1042,000135270
50,00055,0001,4602,0004408801,1402,000140280
55,00060,0001,5152,0004559101,1732,000145290
60,00065,0001,5652,0004709401,2062,000150300
65,00070,0001,6102,0004859701,2362,000155310
70,00075,0001,6552,0005001,0001,2632,000160320
75,00080,0001,6952,0005101,0201,2932,000165330
80,00085,0001,7302,0005201,0401,3172,000170340
85,00090,0001,7602,0005301,0601,3442,000175350
90,00095,0001,7902,0005401,0801,3682,000180360
95,000100,0001,8152,0005451,0901,3922,000185370
100,000110,0001,8352,0005501,1001,4372,000195390
110,000120,0001,8552,0005551,1101,4792,000205410
120,000130,0001,8752,0005601,1201,5212,000215430
130,000140,0001,8902,0005651,1301,5572,000225450
140,000150,0001,9002,0005701,1401,5932,000235470
150,000160,0001,9352,0005801,1601,6292,000245490
160,000170,0001,9652,0005901,1801,6622,000255510
170,000180,0001,9902,0006001,2001,6952,000265530
180,000190,0002,0102,0106051,2101,7252,000275550
190,000200,0002,0302,0306101,2201,7552,000285570
200,000210,0002,0552,0556201,2401,7822,000295590
210,000230,0002,1002,1006351,2701,8362,000315630
230,000250,0002,1552,1556501,3001,8902,000335670
250,000275,0002,2152,2156701,3401,9502,000360720
275,000300,000b2,2752,2756901,3802,0002,000385770

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

  1. This table applies only to the manufacture and permanent storage of commercial explosive materials. It is not applicable to transportation of explosives or any handling or temporary storage necessary or incident thereto. It is not intended to apply to bombs, projectiles or other heavily encased explosives.
  2. Storage in excess of 300,000 pounds of explosive materials in one magazine is not allowed.
  3. Where a manufacturing building on an explosive materials plant site is designed to contain explosive materials, such building shall be located with respect to its proximity to inhabited buildings, public highways and passenger railways based on the maximum quantity of explosive materials permitted to be in the building at one time.
  4. Where two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, railways and highways, and, in addition, they should be separated from each other by not less than the distances shown for separation of magazines, except that the quantity of explosives in detonator magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator magazines from magazines containing other explosive materials. Where any two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified separation of magazines distances, then two or more such magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if stored in a single magazine located on the site of any magazine in the group and shall comply with the minimum distances specified from other magazines, inhabited buildings, railways and highways.

TABLE 5604.5.2(2)

TABLE OF DISTANCES (Q-D) FOR BUILDINGS AND MAGAZINES CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES—DIVISION 1.3 MASS-FIRE HAZARDa, b, c

QUANTITY OF DIVISION 1.3 EXPLOSIVES
(NET EXPLOSIVES WEIGHT)
DISTANCES IN FEET
Pounds overPounds not overInhabited Building
Distance (IBD)
Distance to Public Traffic
Route (PTR)
Intermagazine Distance
(IMD)
Intraline Distance (ILD)
or Intraplant Distance

(IPD)
01,00075755050
1,0005,0001151157575
5,00010,000150150100100
10,00020,000190190125125
20,00030,000215215145145
30,00040,000235235155155
40,00050,000250250165165
50,00060,000260260175175
60,00070,000270270185185
70,00080,000280280190190
80,00090,000295295195195
90,000100,000300300200200
100,000200,000375375250250
200,000300,000450450300300

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg

  1. Black powder, when stored in magazines, is defined as low explosive by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF).
  2. For quantities less than 1,000 pounds, the required distances are those specified for 1,000 pounds. The use of lesser distances is allowed when supported by approved test data and/or analysis.
  3. Linear interpolation of explosive quantities between table entries is allowed.

TABLE 5604.5.2(3)

TABLE OF DISTANCES (Q-D) FOR BUILDINGS AND MAGAZINES CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES—DIVISION 1.4c

QUANTITY OF DIVISION 1.4 EXPLOSIVES
(NET EXPLOSIVES WEIGHT)
DISTANCES IN FEET
Pounds overPounds not overInhabited Building
Distance (IBD)
Distance to Public
Traffic Route (PTR)
Intermagazine
Distancea, b (IMD)
Intraline Distance (ILD)
or Intraplant Distancea

(IPD)
50Not Limited1001005050

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

  1. A separation distance of 100 feet is required for buildings of other than Type I or Type II construction as defined in the International Building Code.
  2. For earth-covered magazines, no specified separation is required.

    1. Earth cover material used for magazines shall be relatively cohesive. Solid or wet clay and similar types of soil are too cohesive and shall not be used. Soil shall be free from unsanitary organic matter, trash, debris and stones heavier than 10 pounds or larger than 6 inches in diameter. Compaction and surface preparation shall be provided, as necessary, to maintain structural integrity and avoid erosion. Where cohesive material cannot be used, as in sandy soil, the earth cover over magazines shall be finished with a suitable material to ensure structural integrity.
    2. The earth fill or earth cover between earth-covered magazines shall be either solid or sloped, in accordance with the requirements of other construction features, but a minimum of 2 feet of earth cover shall be maintained over the top of each magazines. To reduce erosion and facilitate maintenance operations, the cover shall have a slope of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.
  3. Restricted to articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpacked articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.
Where two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, public transportation routes and operating buildings. Magazines shall be separated from each other by not less than the intermagazine distances (IMD) shown for the separation of magazines.
Where two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the intermagazine distances (IMD), such magazines as a group shall be considered as one magazine and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in the group shall be treated as if stored in a single magazine. The location of the group of magazines shall comply with the intermagazine distances (IMD) specified from other magazines or magazine groups, inhabited buildings (IBD), public transportation routes (PTR) and operating buildings (ILD or IPD) as required.
Wherever practicable, Type 3 magazines shall be located away from neighboring inhabited buildings, railways, highways and other magazines in accordance with Table 5604.5.2(2) or 5604.5.2(3) as applicable.
Type 3 magazines shall be attended when explosive materials are stored within. Explosive materials shall be removed to appropriate storage magazines for unattended storage at the end of the work day.
Not more than two Type 3 magazines shall be located at the same blasting site. Where two Type 3 magazines are located at the same blasting site, one magazine shall used solely for the storage of detonators.
Magazines shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 5604.6.1 through 5604.6.5.2.
The ground around a magazine shall be graded so that water drains away from the magazine.
Magazines requiring heat shall be heated as prescribed in NFPA 495 by either hot water radiant heating within the magazine or by indirect warm air heating.
When lighting is necessary within a magazine, electric safety flashlights or electric safety lanterns shall be used, except as provided in NFPA 495.
In other than Type 5 magazines, there shall be no exposed ferrous metal on the interior of a magazine containing packages of explosives.
Property upon which Type 1 magazines and outdoor magazines of Types 2, 4 and 5 are located shall be posted with signs stating: EXPLOSIVES—KEEP OFF. These signs shall be of contrasting colors with a minimum letter height of 3 inches (76 mm) with a minimum brush stroke of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). The signs shall be located to minimize the possibility of a bullet shot at the sign hitting the magazine.

At the entrance to explosive material manufacturing and storage sites, all access roads shall be posted with the following warning sign or other approved sign:

DANGER!
NEVER FIGHT EXPLOSIVE FIRES.
EXPLOSIVES ARE STORED ON THIS SITE
CALL _______.

The sign shall be weather-resistant with a reflective surface and have lettering at least 2 inches (51 mm) high.

Type 5 magazines containing Division 1.5 blasting agents shall be prominently placarded as required during transportation by DOTn 49 CFR Part 172 and DOTy 27 CFR Part 55.
Magazines shall be operated in accordance with Sections 5604.7.1 through 5604.7.9.
Magazines shall be kept locked in the manner prescribed in NFPA 495 at all times except during placement or removal of explosives or inspection.
Smoking, matches, flame-producing devices, open flames, firearms and firearms cartridges shall not be allowed inside of or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of magazines.
The area located around a magazine shall be kept clear of brush, dried grass, leaves, trash, debris and similar combustible materials for a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).
Combustible materials shall not be stored within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of magazines.
Containers of explosive materials, except fiberboard containers, and packages of damaged or deteriorated explosive materials or fireworks shall not be unpacked or repacked inside or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a magazine or in close proximity to other explosive materials.
Packages of explosive materials that have been opened shall be closed before being placed in a magazine.
Tools used for the opening and closing of packages of explosive materials, other than metal slitters for opening paper, plastic or fiberboard containers, shall be made of nonsparking materials.
Empty containers and paper and fiber packaging materials that previously contained explosive materials shall be disposed of or reused in a approved manner.
Metal tools, other than nonferrous transfer conveyors and ferrous metal conveyor stands protected by a coat of paint, shall not be stored in a magazine containing explosive materials or detonators.
Magazines shall be used exclusively for the storage of explosive materials, blasting materials and blasting accessories.
Corresponding grades and brands of explosive materials shall be stored together and in such a manner that the grade and brand marks are visible. Stocks shall be stored so as to be easily counted and checked. Packages of explosive materials shall be stacked in a stable manner not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height.
When explosive material is removed from a magazine for use, the oldest usable stocks shall be removed first.
Maintenance of magazines shall comply with Sections 5604.8.1 through 5604.8.3.
Magazine floors shall be regularly swept and be kept clean, dry and free of grit, paper, empty packages and rubbish. Brooms and other cleaning utensils shall not have any spark-producing metal parts. Sweepings from magazine floors shall be disposed of in accordance with the manufacturers' approved instructions.
Explosive materials shall be removed from the magazine before making repairs to the interior of a magazine. Explosive materials shall be removed from the magazine before making repairs to the exterior of the magazine where there is a possibility of causing a fire. Explosive materials removed from a magazine under repair shall either be placed in another magazine or placed a safe distance from the magazine, where they shall be properly guarded and protected until repairs have been completed. Upon completion of repairs, the explosive materials shall be promptly returned to the magazine. Floors shall be cleaned before and after repairs.
Magazine floors stained with liquid shall be dealt with according to instructions obtained from the manufacturer of the explosive material stored in the magazine.
Magazines containing explosive materials shall be opened and inspected at maximum seven-day intervals. The inspection shall determine whether there has been an unauthorized or attempted entry into a magazine or an unauthorized removal of a magazine or its contents.
Explosive materials shall be disposed of in accordance with Sections 5604.10.1 through 5604.10.7.
The fire code official shall be notified immediately when deteriorated or leaking explosive materials are determined to be dangerous or unstable and in need of disposal.
When an explosive material has deteriorated to an extent that it is in an unstable or dangerous condition, or when a liquid has leaked from an explosive material, the person in possession of such material shall immediately contact the material's manufacturer to obtain disposal and handling instructions.
The work of destroying explosive materials shall be directed by persons experienced in the destruction of explosive materials.
Explosive materials and fireworks recovered from blasting or display misfires shall be placed in a magazine until an experienced person has determined the proper method for disposal.
Sites for the destruction of explosive materials and fireworks shall be approved and located at the maximum practicable safe distance from inhabited buildings, public highways, operating buildings and all other exposures to ensure keeping air blast and ground vibration to a minimum. The location of disposal sites shall be no closer to magazines, inhabited buildings, railways, highways and other rights-of-way than is allowed by Tables 5604.5.2(1), 5604.5.2(2) and 5604.5.2(3). When possible, barricades shall be utilized between the destruction site and inhabited buildings. Areas where explosives are detonated or burned shall be posted with adequate warning signs.
Unless an approved burning site has been thoroughly saturated with water and has passed a safety inspection, 48 hours shall elapse between the completion of a burn and the placement of scrap explosive materials for a subsequent burn.
Once an explosive burn operation has been started, personnel shall relocate to a safe location where adequate protection from air blast and flying debris is provided. Personnel shall not return to the burn area until the person in charge has inspected the burn site and determined that it is safe for personnel to return.

The manufacture, assembly and testing of explosives, ammunition, blasting agents and fireworks shall comply with the requirements of this section, Title 59.1, Chapter 11 of the Code of Virginia, and NFPA 495 or NFPA 1124.

Exceptions:

  1. The hand loading of small arms ammunition prepared for personal use and not offered for resale.
  2. The mixing and loading of blasting agents at blasting sites in accordance with NFPA 495.
  3. The use of binary explosives or plosophoric materials in blasting or pyrotechnic special effects applications in accordance with NFPA 495 or NFPA 1126.
Permits for the manufacture, assembly and testing of explosives, ammunition, blasting agents and fireworks shall be required as set forth in Section 107.2 and regulated in accordance with this section. A permit to manufacture any explosive material in any quantity shall be prohibited unless such manufacture is authorized by a federal license and conducted in accordance with recognized safety practices.
Emergency plans, emergency drills, employee training and hazard communication shall conform to the provisions of this section and Sections 404, 405, 406 and 407.
Detailed Hazardous Materials Management Plans (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statements (HMIS) complying with the requirements of Section 407 shall be prepared and submitted to the local emergency planning committee, the fire code official and the local fire department.
A copy of the required HMMP and HMIS shall be maintained on site and furnished to the fire code official on request.
Workers who handle explosives or explosive charges or dispose of explosives shall be trained in the hazards of the materials and processes in which they are to be engaged and with the safety rules governing such materials and processes.
Approved emergency procedures shall be formulated for each plant which will include personal instruction in any emergency that may be anticipated. All personnel shall be made aware of an emergency warning signal.

Explosives manufacturing buildings and fireworks manufacturing buildings, including those where explosive charges are assembled, manufactured, prepared or loaded utilizing Division 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 or 1.5 explosives, shall be separated from all other buildings, including magazines, within the confines of the manufacturing plant, at a distance not less than those shown in Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

The quantity of explosives in an operating building shall be the net weight of all explosives contained therein. Distances shall be based on the hazard division requiring the greatest separation, unless the aggregate explosive weight is divided by approved walls or shields designed for that purpose. When dividing a quantity of explosives into smaller stacks, a suitable barrier or adequate separation distance shall be provided to prevent propagation from one stack to another.

When distance is used as the sole means of separation within a building, such distance shall be established by testing. Testing shall demonstrate that propagation between stacks will not result. Barriers provided to protect against explosive effects shall be designed and installed in accordance with approved standards.

TABLE 5605.3

MINIMUM INTRALINE (INTRAPLANT) SEPARATION DISTANCES (ILD OR IPD) BETWEEN BARRICADED OPERATING BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES—DIVISION 1.1, 1.2 OR 1.5 MASS-EXPLOSION HAZARDa

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT
Pounds overPounds not overIntraline Distance (ILD)
or Intraplant Distance (IPD)

(feet)
05030
5010040
10020050
20030060
30040065
40050070
50060075
60070080
70080085
80090090
9001,00095
1,0001,500105
1,5002,000115
2,0003,000130
3,0004,000140
4,0005,000150
5,0006,000160
6,0007,000170
7,0008,000180
8,0009,000190
9,00010,000200
10,00015,000225
15,00020,000245
20,00025,000265
25,00030,000280
30,00035,000295
35,00040,000310
40,00045,000320
45,00050,000330
50,00055,000340
55,00060,000350
60,00065,000360
65,00070,000370
70,00075,000385
75,00080,000390
80,00085,000395
85,00090,000400
90,00095,000410
95,000100,000415
100,000125,000450
125,000150,000475
150,000175,000500
175,000200,000525
200,000225,000550
225,000250,000575
250,000275,000600
275,000300,000635

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

  1. Where a building or magazine containing explosives is not barricaded, the intraline distances shown in this table shall be doubled.

When an operating building on an explosive materials plant site is designed to contain explosive materials, such a building shall be located away from inhabited buildings, public traffic routes and magazines in accordance with Table 5604.5.2(2) or 5604.5.2(3) as appropriate, based on the maximum quantity of explosive materials permitted to be in the building at one time (see Section 5601.8).

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings constructed and operated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

In addition to the requirements of Section 5601.8 to determine the net explosive weight for materials stored or used in operating buildings, quantities of explosive materials stored in magazines located at distances less than intraline distances from the operating building shall be added to the contents of the operating building to determine the net explosive weight for the operating building.
The storage of explosive materials located in indoor magazines in operating buildings shall be limited to a net explosive weight not to exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).
The storage of explosive materials in outdoor magazines located at less than intraline distances from operating buildings shall be limited to a net explosive weight not to exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).
The storage of explosive materials in outdoor magazines in quantities exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) net explosive weight shall be limited to storage in outdoor magazines located not less than intraline distances from the operating building in accordance with Section 5604.5.2.
The aggregate quantity of explosive materials stored in any combination of indoor magazines or outdoor magazines located at less than the intraline distances from an operating building shall not exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).

Buildings or rooms that exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area of explosive materials shall be operated in accordance with this section and constructed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code for Group H occupancies.

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings constructed and operated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

Explosives dust shall not be exhausted to the atmosphere.
When collecting explosives dust, a wet collector system shall be used. Wetting agents shall be compatible with the explosives. Collector systems shall be interlocked with process power supplies so that the process cannot continue without the collector systems also operating.
Explosives dust shall be removed from the collection chamber as often as necessary to prevent overloading. The entire system shall be cleaned at a frequency that will eliminate hazardous concentrations of explosives dust in pipes, tubing and ducts.
Squirrel cage blowers shall not be used for exhausting hazardous fumes, vapors or gases. Only nonferrous fan blades shall be used for fans located within the ductwork and through which hazardous materials are exhausted. Motors shall be located outside the duct.
Work stations shall be separated by distance, barrier or other approved alternatives so that fire in one station will not ignite material in another work station. Where necessary, the operator shall be protected by a personnel shield located between the operator and the explosive device or explosive material being processed. This shield and its support shall be capable of withstanding a blast from the maximum amount of explosives allowed behind it.
Operations involving explosives shall comply with Sections 5605.6.1 through 5605.6.10.
When the type of material and processing warrants, mechanical operations involving explosives in excess of 1 pound (0.454 kg) shall be carried on at isolated stations or at intraplant distances, and machinery shall be controlled from remote locations behind barricades or at separations so that workers will be at a safe distance while machinery is operating.
The work area where the screening, grinding, blending and other processing of static-sensitive explosives or pyrotechnic materials is done shall be provided with approved static controls.
Bulk explosives shall be kept in approved, nonsparking containers when not being used or processed. Explosives shall not be stored or transported in open containers.
The quantity of explosives at any particular work station shall be limited to that posted on the load limit signs for the individual work station. The total quantity of explosives for multiple workstations shall not exceed that established by the intraplant distances in Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.
Magazines used for storage in processing areas shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 5604.5.1. All explosive materials shall be removed to appropriate storage magazines for unattended storage at the end of the work day. The contents of indoor magazines shall be added to the quantity of explosives contained at individual workstations and the total quantity of material stored, processed or used shall be utilized to establish the intraplant separation distances indicated by Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.
Approved receptacles with covers shall be provided for each location for disposing of waste material and debris. These waste receptacles shall be emptied and cleaned as often as necessary but not less than once each day or at the end of each shift.
General safety rules and operating instructions governing the particular operation or process conducted at that location shall be available at each location.
The number of occupants in each process building and in each magazine shall not exceed the number necessary for proper conduct of production operations.

Not more than 500 pounds (227 kg) of pyrotechnic or explosive composition, including not more than 10 pounds (5 kg) of salute powder shall be allowed at one time in any process building or area. All compositions not in current use shall be kept in covered nonferrous containers.

Exception: Composition that has been loaded or pressed into tubes or other containers as consumer fireworks.

The maximum number of occupants and maximum weight of pyrotechnic and explosive composition permitted in each process building shall be posted in a conspicuous location in each process building or magazine.

Fireworks, explosives or explosive charges in explosive materials manufacturing, assembly or testing shall not be stored near any source of heat.

Exception: Approved drying or curing operations.

Maintenance and repair of explosives-manufacturing facilities and areas shall comply with Section 5604.8.
Detonation of explosive materials or ignition of fireworks for testing purposes shall be done only in isolated areas at sites where distance, protection from missiles, shrapnel or flyrock, and other safeguards provides protection against injury to personnel or damage to property.
Protective clothing and equipment shall be provided to protect persons engaged in the testing, ignition or detonation of explosive materials.
When tests are being conducted or explosives are being detonated, only authorized persons shall be present. Areas where explosives are regularly or frequently detonated or burned shall be approved and posted with adequate warning signs. Warning devices shall be activated before burning or detonating explosives to alert persons approaching from any direction that they are approaching a danger zone.
Disposal of explosive materials waste from manufacturing, assembly or testing operations shall be in accordance with Section 5604.10.
Indoor storage and display of black powder, smokeless propellants, small arms primers and small arms ammunition shall comply with this section and NFPA 495.
Small arms ammunition shall not be stored together with Division 1.1, Division 1.2 or Division 1.3 explosives unless the storage facility is suitable for the storage of explosive materials.
Smokeless propellants shall be stored in approved shipping containers conforming to DOTn 49 CFR Part 173.
The bulk repackaging of smokeless propellants, black powder and small arms primers shall not be performed in retail establishments.

Damaged containers shall not be repackaged.

Exception: Approved repackaging of damaged containers of smokeless propellant into containers of the same type and size as the original container.

Propellants for personal use in quantities not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) of black powder or 100 pounds (45 kg) of smokeless powder shall be stored in original containers in occupancies limited to Groups R-3 and R-5, or 200 pounds (91 kg) of smokeless powder when stored in the manufacturer's original containers in detached Group U structures that are at least 10 feet (3048 m) from inhabited buildings and are accessory to Group R-3 or R-5. In other than Group R-3 or R-5, smokeless powder in quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) but not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be kept in a wooden box or cabinet having walls of at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or equivalent.
(Section deleted.)
(Section deleted.)
(Section deleted.)
The display and storage of small arms ammunition components in Group M occupancies shall comply with Sections 5606.5.1 through 5606.5.2.3.
Display of small arms ammunition components in Group M occupancies shall comply with Sections 5606.5.1.1 through 5606.5.1.3.
No more than 100 pounds (45 kg) of smokeless propellants, in containers of 8 pounds (3.6 kg) or less capacity, shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
No more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of black powder shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
(Section deleted.)
Storage of small arms ammunition components shall comply with Sections 5606.5.2.1 through 5606.5.2.3.

Commercial stocks of smokeless propellants shall be stored as follows:

  1. Quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg), but not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) shall be stored in portable wooden boxes having walls of at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or equivalent.
  2. Quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg), but not exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), shall be stored in storage cabinets having walls at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or equivalent. Not more than 400 pounds (182 kg) shall be stored in any one cabinet, and cabinets shall be separated by a distance of at least 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour.
  3. Storage of quantities exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), but not exceeding 5,000 pounds (2270 kg) in a building shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 3.1. The storage is inaccessible to unauthorized personnel.
    2. 3.2. Smokeless propellant shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having wood walls at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or equivalent and having shelves with no more than 3 feet (914 mm) of vertical separation between shelves.
    3. 3.3. No more than 400 pounds (182 kg) is stored in any one cabinet.
    4. 3.4. Cabinets shall be located against walls with at least 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets. The minimum required separation between cabinets may be reduced to 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades must extend a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) outward, be firmly attached to the wall, and be constructed of steel not less than 0.25 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick, or concrete block.
    5. 3.5. Smokeless propellant shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids, or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.
    6. 3.6. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  4. Smokeless propellants not stored according to Item 1, 2, or 3 above shall be stored in a Type 2 or 4 magazine in accordance with Section 3304 and NFPA 495.
Commercial stocks of black powder in quantities less than 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be allowed to be stored in Type 2 or 4 indoor or outdoor magazines. Quantities greater than 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be stored in outdoor Type 2 or 4 magazines. When black powder and smokeless propellants are stored together in the same magazine, the total quantity shall not exceed that permitted for black powder.

Commercial stocks of small arms primers shall be stored as follows:

  1. Quantities not to exceed 750,000 small arms primers stored in a building shall be arranged such that not more than 100,000 small arms primers are stored in any one pile and piles are at least 15 feet (4572 mm) apart.
  2. Quantities exceeding 750,000 small arms primers stored in a building shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 2.1. The warehouse or storage building shall not be accessible to unauthorized personnel.
    2. 2.2. Small arms primers shall be stored in cabinets. No more than 200,000 small arms primers shall be stored in any one cabinet.
    3. 2.3. Shelves in cabinets shall have vertical separation of at least 2 feet (610 mm).
    4. 2.4. Cabinets shall be located against walls of the warehouse or storage room with at least 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets. The minimum required separation between cabinets shall be allowed to be reduced to 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades shall be firmly attached to the wall and shall be constructed of steel not less than 1/4 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick or concrete block.
    5. 2.5. Small arms primers shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.
    6. 2.6. The building shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. Small arms primers not stored in accordance with Item 1 or 2 of this section shall be stored in a magazine meeting the requirements of Section 5604 and NFPA 495.
Blasting operations shall be conducted only by persons certified by the SFMO as a restricted or unrestricted blaster or shall be supervised on-site by a person properly certified by the SFMO as a restricted or unrestricted blaster.
Blasting operations shall be performed in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer of the explosive materials being used.
When blasting is done in a congested area or in close proximity to a structure, railway or highway, or any other installation, precautions shall be taken to minimize earth vibrations and air blast effects. Blasting mats or other protective means shall be used to prevent fragments from being thrown.
Surface-blasting operations shall only be conducted during daylight hours between sunrise and sunset. Other blasting shall be performed during daylight hours unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

Whenever blasting is being conducted in the vicinity of utility lines or rights-of-way, the blaster shall notify the appropriate representatives of the utilities at least 24 hours in advance of blasting, specifying the location and intended time of such blasting. Verbal notices shall be confirmed with written notice.

Exception: In an emergency situation, the time limit shall not apply when approved.

Precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental discharge of electric detonators from currents induced by radar and radio transmitters, lightning, adjacent power lines, dust and snow storms, or other sources of extraneous electricity.
Precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental initiation of nonelectric detonators from stray currents induced by lightning or static electricity.
During the time that holes are being loaded or are loaded with explosive materials, blasting agents or detonators, only authorized persons engaged in drilling and loading operations or otherwise authorized to enter the site shall be allowed at the blast site. The blast site shall be guarded or barricaded and posted. Blast site security shall be maintained until after the post-blast inspection has been completed.
Holes drilled for the loading of explosive charges shall be made and loaded in accordance with NFPA 495.
After loading for a blast is completed and before firing, excess explosive materials shall be removed from the area and returned to the proper storage facilities.
The initiation of blasts shall be by means conforming to the provisions of NFPA 495.

The blaster shall supervise the connecting of the blastholes and the connection of the loadline to the power source or initiation point. Connections shall be made progressively from the blasthole back to the initiation point.

Blasting lead lines shall remain shunted (shorted) and shall not be connected to the blasting machine or other source of current until the blast is to be fired.

No blast shall be fired until the blaster has made certain that all surplus explosive materials are in a safe place in accordance with Section 5607.10, all persons and equipment are at a safe distance or under sufficient cover and that an adequate warning signal has been given.

After the blast, the following procedures shall be observed.

  1. No person shall return to the blast area until allowed to do so by the blaster in charge.
  2. The blaster shall allow sufficient time for smoke and fumes to dissipate and for dust to settle before returning to or approaching the blast area.
  3. The blaster shall inspect the entire blast site for misfires before allowing other personnel to return to the blast area.
Where a misfire is suspected, all initiating circuits shall be traced and a search made for unexploded charges. Where a misfire is found, the blaster shall provide proper safeguards for excluding all personnel from the blast area. Misfires shall be reported to the blasting supervisor immediately. Misfires shall be handled under the direction of the person in charge of the blasting operation in accordance with NFPA 495.

A record of each blast shall be kept and retained for at least 5 years and shall be readily available for inspection by the code official. The record shall be in a format selected by the blaster and shall contain the minimum data and information indicated in Form 5607.16.

FORM 5607.16

BLAST (SHOT) RECORD

Block 1
General Information
1Blast date:Blast Number:Blast Time:Permit Number:
2Blast location by address including city, county or town:
3Blast location by GPS coordinates:         □check box if unknown
4Name of permit holder:
5Name of blaster in charge (print):
6Signature of blaster in charge:
7Certification number of blaster in charge:
Block 2
General Environmental Conditions
1Weather (clear, cloudy or overcast):Wind direction and speed:
    @________mph
Temperature:
F° / C°
2Topography (flat, hilly or
mountainous):
Distance from blast site to nearestDistance from nearest inhabited building
determined by:
□GPS coordinates
□Measurement
□Estimated
3Use of nearest inhabited building
(dwelling, business, apartment
uilding, school, etc.):
Direction from blast site to nearestDirection from blast site to nearest inhabited
building determined by:
□GPS instrument
□Compass
□Estimated
Additional blaster notations on environmental conditions:
Block 3
Shot Layout and Precautions Taken (N/A = Not Applicable)
1Number of holes:Diameter of hole or holes:Depth of hole or holes:
2Were any holes decked?How many holes were decked?How many decks per hole?
□Yes□N/A□N/A
□No(If applicable, indicate on any attached shot pattern drawing which holes were decked and the number of decks for the holes.)
3Shot pattern:Depth of sub-drilling:Drilling angle:
□ Check this box if only single hole
4Burden:Spacing of holes:Water height:
5Stemming height:Material used for stemming:Check box for flyrock precautions taken:
□ Mats
□ Overburden
□ None taken
Additional blaster notations on shot layout and precautions:
Block 4
Seismic Control Measures (N/A = Not Applicable)
1Was scaled distance
formula used?
Indicate which scaled distance equation was used:
□ N/A
Maximum allowable charge weight
per 8 ms based on scaled distance:
□ N/A
□ Yes
□ No
□ W(lb)=[D(ft)/50]2
□ W(lb)=[D(ft)/55]2
□ W(lb)=[D(ft)/65]2
2Was seismograph used?
□ Yes
□ No
Seismograph manufacturer and model number:
□ N/A
Seismograph serial number:
□N/A
Seismograph's last calibration date:
□ N/A
3Distance and direction seismograph from blast site: □N/ADistance determined by:
□ N/A □ GPS coordinates
□ Estimated□ Measurement
4Seismograph□ N/A
Geophone minimum frequency _______Hz
Seismograph
microphone minimum frequency _______Hz
Seismograph recordings: □ N/A
Transverse _____in/s ____ Hz
Vertical _____in/s ____ Hz
Longitudinal _____in/s ____ Hz
Acoustic ______dB ____ Hz
5Seismograph trigger level: □ N/A
_____ in/s _____dB
Additional blaster notations on seismic control measures:
Block 5
Quantity and Product
1Maximum allowable charge weight per 8 ms interval:
□ Delay not used
_____ lbs
Initiation (check):
□ Electric
□ Non-electric
□ Electronic
2Maximum number of holes/decks per 8 ms interval:
□ Delay not used
_____ lbs
3Maximum weight or sticks of explosive per hole:
_____ lbs
Firing device manufacturer and model:  □ N/A
Explosive product listing (attach additional pages as needed):
4ManufacturerProduct name, description or brandNumber of unitsUnit weight (lb)
5Total explosive weight in this shot:     lbs.
Additional blaster notations on product and quantities:
Block 6
Completion of Shot Record and General Comments
General comments on shot not included in notes above:
Date shot report completed:Time shot report completed:
Printed name and signature of person
completing shot report if different from Block 1, lines 5 and 6.
(Print)
(Signature)
Outdoor fireworks displays, use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience and pyrotechnic special effects in motion picture, television, theatrical and group entertainment productions shall comply with Sections 5608.2 through 5608.10 and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.

Prior to issuing permits for a fireworks display, plans for the fireworks display, inspections of the display site and demonstrations of the display operations shall be approved. A plan establishing procedures to follow and actions to be taken in the event that a shell fails to ignite in, or discharge from, a mortar or fails to function over the fallout area or other malfunctions shall be provided to the fire code official.

In addition to the requirements of Section 5601.2.3.1, a permit to conduct a fireworks display shall not be issued to any applicant without the applicant identifying on the application the pyrotechnician who will be in responsible charge of the fireworks display and who is appropriately certified as a pyrotechnician in accordance with Section 5601.4.1.

Exception: Permits are not required for the use or display of permissible fireworks on private property with the consent of the owner of such property.

In addition to the requirements of Section 403, permit applications for outdoor fireworks displays using Division 1.3G fireworks shall include a diagram of the location at which the fireworks display will be conducted, including the site from which fireworks will be discharged; the location of buildings, highways, overhead obstructions and utilities; and the lines behind which the audience will be restrained.
Where the separation distances required in Section 5608.4 and NFPA 1123 are unavailable or cannot be secured, fireworks displays shall be conducted in accordance with NFPA 1126 for proximate audiences. Applications for use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience shall include plans indicating the required clearances for spectators and combustibles, crowd control measures, smoke control measures and requirements for standby personnel and equipment when provision of such personnel or equipment is required by the fire code official.

Approved fireworks displays shall include only the approved fireworks 1.3G, fireworks 1.4G, fireworks 1.4S and pyrotechnic articles 1.4G. The design, setup, conducting or direct on-site supervision of the design, setup and conducting of any fireworks display, either inside a building or outdoors, shall be performed only by persons certified by the SFMO in accordance with Section 5601.4.1 as a pyrotechnician (firework operator) and at least one person properly certified by the SFMO as a pyrotechnician shall be present at the site where the fireworks display is being conducted. The approved fireworks shall be arranged, located, discharged and fired in a manner that will not pose a hazard to property or endanger any person.

Exception: Certification as a pyrotechnician is not required for the use or display of permissible fireworks when conducted on private property with the consent of the owner of such property.

Spectators, spectator parking areas, and dwellings, buildings or structures shall not be located within the display site. The site for the outdoor land or water display shall have at least 100 feet-per-inch (31 m/2.4 mm) radius of internal mortar diameter of the largest shell to be fired as shown in Table 5608.4.

Exceptions:

  1. This provision shall not apply to pyrotechnic special effects and fireworks displays using Division 1.4G materials before a proximate audience in accordance with NFPA 1126.
  2. This provision shall not apply to unoccupied dwellings, buildings and structures with the approval of the building owner and the fire code official.

TABLE 5608.4

DISTANCES FOR OUTDOOR FIREWORKS DISPLAY SITES: MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FROM MORTARS TO SPECTATORS FOR LAND AND WATER DISPLAYS

MORTAR SIZEaMINIMUM SECURED
DIAMETER OF SITE
VERTICAL MORTARSbANGLED MORTARSc
1/3 OFFSET
MORTARS TO SPECIAL
HAZARDSd
inchmmfeetmfeetmfeetmfeetm
< 3< 7630092150461003130092
3766001833009220061600183
410280024440012226681800244
51271,0003055001523341021,000305
61521,2003666001834001221,200366
71781,4004277002134671421,400427
82031,6004888002445341631,600488
102542,0006101,0003056672032,000610
123052,4007321,2003668002442,400732
> 12Requires the approval of the fire official
  1. Aerial shells, mines and comets shall be classified and described only in terms of the inside diameter of the mortar from which they are fired [e.g., 3-inch (76-mm) aerial shells, mines and comets are only for use in 3-inch (76 mm) mortars].
  2. Where the mortars are positioned vertically, the mortars shall be placed at the approximate center of the display site.
  3. Mortars shall be permitted to be angled during a display to allow for wind and to carry shells away from the main spectator viewing areas. For angled mortars, the minimum secured diameter of the display site does not change. Only the location of the mortars within the secured area changes when the mortars are angled.
  4. Note that this is only the distance to the special hazards. The minimum secured diameter of the display site does not change.
For non-splitting or non-bursting comets and mines containing only stars or non-splitting or non-bursting comets, the minimum required radius of the display site shall be 50 feet per inch (15.24 m per 25.4 mm) of the internal mortar diameter of the largest comet or mine to be fired, one-half that shown in Table 5608.4.

The minimum distance requirements of Table 5608.4 shall be adjusted as follows:

  1. For chain-fused aerial shells and comets and mines to be fired from mortars, racks, or other holders that are sufficiently strong to prevent their being repositioned in the event of an explosive malfunction of the aerial shells, comets, or mines, the minimum required radius shall be the same as that required in Sections 5608.4 and 5608.4.1. For chain-fused aerial shells and comets and mines to be fired from mortars, racks, or other holders that are not sufficiently strong to prevent their being repositioned in the event of an explosive malfunction of the aerial shells, comets, or mines, or if there is doubt concerning the strength of racks holding chain-fused mortars, based upon the largest mortar in the sequence, the minimum required radius shall be double that required in Sections 5608.4 and 5608.4.1.
  2. Distances from the point of discharge of any firework to a health care or detention and correctional facility, or the bulk storage of materials that have flammability, explosive, or toxic hazard shall be at least twice the distances specified in Table 5608.4.
  3. The minimum required spectator separation distance for roman candles and cakes that produce aerial shells, comets, or mine effects shall be the same as the minimum required radius specified in Table 5608.4.
  4. Aerial shells, comets and mines, and roman candles and cakes shall be permitted to be angled if the dud shells or components are carried away from the main spectator area and either of the following requirements is satisfied:

    1. 4.1. The offset specified in Table 5608.4 is followed.
    2. 4.2. The separation distance is correspondingly increased in the direction of the angle.

If the offset provided in Table 5608.4 is followed, the mortars or tubes shall be angled so that any dud shells or components fall at a point approximately equal to the offset of the mortars or tubes from the otherwise required discharge point but in the opposite direction.

The storage of fireworks at the display site shall comply with the requirements of this section and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.
Beginning as soon as fireworks have been delivered to the display site, they shall not be left unattended.
Fireworks shall be kept dry after delivery to the display site.

Shells shall be inspected by the operator or assistants after delivery to the display site. Shells having tears, leaks, broken fuses or signs of having been wet shall be set aside and shall not be fired. Aerial shells shall be checked for proper fit in mortars prior to discharge. Aerial shells that do not fit properly shall not be fired. After the fireworks display, damaged, deteriorated or dud shells shall either be returned to the supplier or destroyed in accordance with the supplier's instructions and Section 5604.10.

Exception: Minor repairs to fuses shall be allowed. For electrically ignited displays, attachment of electric matches and similar tasks shall be allowed.

After delivery to the display site and prior to the fireworks display, all shells shall be separated according to size and their designation as salutes.

Exception: For electrically fired displays, or displays where all shells are loaded into mortars prior to the show, there is no requirement for separation of shells according to size or their designation as salutes.

Display fireworks, 1.3G, that will be temporarily stored at the site during the fireworks display shall be stored in ready boxes located upwind and at least 25 feet (7620 mm) from the mortar placement and separated according to size and their designation as salutes.

Exception: For electrically fired fireworks displays, or fireworks displays where all shells are loaded into mortars prior to the show, there is no requirement for separation of shells according to size, their designation as salutes or for the use of ready boxes.

Mortars for firing fireworks shells shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 1123 and shall be positioned so that shells are propelled away from spectators and over the fallout area. Under no circumstances shall mortars be angled toward the spectator viewing area. Prior to placement, mortars shall be inspected for defects, such as dents, bent ends, damaged interiors and damaged plugs. Defective mortars shall not be used.
Aerial shells shall be carried to mortars by the shell body. For the purpose of loading mortars, aerial shells shall be held by the thick portion of the fuse and carefully loaded into mortars.
Whenever in the opinion of the fire code official or the operator a hazardous condition exists, the fireworks display shall be discontinued immediately until such time as the dangerous situation is corrected.

After the fireworks display, the firing crew shall conduct an inspection of the fallout area for the purpose of locating unexploded aerial shells or live components. This inspection shall be conducted before public access to the site shall be allowed. Where fireworks are displayed at night and it is not possible to inspect the site thoroughly, the operator or designated assistant shall inspect the entire site at first light.

A report identifying any shells that fail to ignite in, or discharge from, a mortar or fail to function over the fallout area or otherwise malfunction, shall be filed with the fire code official.

Any shells found during the inspection required in Section 5608.9 shall not be handled until at least 15 minutes have elapsed from the time the shells were fired. The fireworks shall then be doused with water and allowed to remain for at least 5 additional minutes before being placed in a plastic bucket or fiberboard box. The disposal instructions of the manufacturer as provided by the fireworks supplier shall then be followed in disposing of the fireworks in accordance with Section 5604.10.
Where the temporary storage of consumer fireworks, 1.4G is allowed by Section 5601.1.3, Exception 4, such storage shall comply with the applicable requirements of NFPA 1124.
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