Heat-producing appliances shall be suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall comply with NFPA 30A and the International Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENING FACILITY.
AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.
DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE.
FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG).
MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.
SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.
Dispensing devices shall be located as follows:
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines.
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings having combustible overhangs.
- Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be on the premises of the motor fuel-dispensing facility.
- Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 feet (1524 mm) of building openings.
- Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of ignition.
An approved emergency procedures sign, in addition to the signs required by Section 2305.6, shall be posted in a conspicuous location and shall read:
IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE
1. USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF
2. REPORT THE ACCIDENT!
FIRE DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE NO.______
FACILITY ADDRESS _____________________
Dispensing equipment used at unsupervised locations shall comply with one of the following:
- Dispensing devices shall be programmed or set to limit uninterrupted fuel delivery to 25 gallons (95 L) and require a manual action to resume delivery.
- The amount of fuel being dispensed shall be limited in quantity by a preprogrammed card as approved.
Where maintenance to Class I liquid dispensing devices becomes necessary and such maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions shall be taken before such maintenance is begun:
- Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required maintenance shall perform the work.
- Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main electrical disconnect panel.
- The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where installed, shall be closed.
- Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the dispensing device.
Smoking and open flames shall be prohibited within 20 feet (6096 mm) of a fuel-dispensing device. The engines of vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during fueling. Electrical equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted within sight of each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the following:
- No smoking.
- Shut off motor.
- Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a metal surface away from the nozzle.
- To prevent static charge, do not reenter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping.
- If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle—back away immediately.
- It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unapproved containers.
- No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. Place container on ground before filling.
Fenced and diked areas surrounding above-ground tanks shall be kept free from vegetation, debris and other material that is not necessary to the proper operation of the tank and piping system.
Weeds, grass, brush, trash and other combustible materials shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from fuel-handling equipment.
Accurate inventory records shall be maintained on underground fuel storage tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks and piping. The records shall be kept at the premises or made available for inspection by the fire official within 24 hours of a written or verbal request and shall include records for each tank. Where there is more than one system consisting of tanks serving separate pumps or dispensers for a product, the inventory record shall be maintained separately for each tank system.
Owners and operators of underground fuel storage tanks shall provide release detection for tanks and piping that routinely contain flammable and combustible liquids in accordance with one of the following methods:
- Monthly inventory control to detect a release of at least 1.0 percent of flow-through plus 130 gallons (492 L).
- Manual tank gauging for tanks with 2,000-gallon (7570 L) capacity or less when measurements are taken at the beginning and ending of a 36-hour to 58-hour period during which no liquid is added to or removed from the tank.
- Tank tightness testing capable of detecting a 0.1-gallon (.3785 L) per hour leak rate.
- Automatic tank gauging that tests for loss of liquid.
- Vapor monitoring for vapors within the soil of the tank field.
- Groundwater monitoring when the groundwater is never more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from the ground surface.
- Interstitial monitoring between the underground tank and a secondary barrier immediately around or beneath the tank.
- Other approved methods that have been demonstrated to be as effective in detecting a leak as the methods listed above.
A consistent or accidental loss of product shall be immediately reported to the fire official.
Above-ground tanks shall not be used for the storage of Class I, II or III liquid motor fuels, except as provided by this section.
- Above-ground tanks used for outside, above-grade storage of Class I liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be in accordance with Chapter 57. Such tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.
- Above-ground tanks used for outside, above-grade storage of Class II or IIIA liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 57. Tank locations shall be in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.
- Tanks containing fuels shall not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in individual capacity or 48,000 gallons (181 680 L) in aggregate capacity. Installations with the maximum allowable aggregate capacity shall be separated from other such installations by not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
- Tanks located at farms, construction projects, or rural areas shall comply with Section 5706.2.
- Above-ground tanks used for outside above-grade storage of Class IIIB liquid motor fuel shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 142 or listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 57. Tank locations shall be in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.
MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVE-GROUND TANKS
|CLASS OF LIQUID |
AND TANK TYPE
|INDIVIDUAL TANK |
BUILDING ON SAMEPROPERTY (feet)
DISTANCE FROMNEAREST FUEL
|MINIMUM DISTANCE |
FROM LOT LINE THATIS OR CAN BE BUILT
UPON, INCLUDINGTHE OPPOSITE SIDE
OF A PUBLIC WAY(feet)
DISTANCE FROMNEAREST SIDE OF
ANY PUBLIC WAY(feet)
|MINIMUM DISTANCE |
|Class I protected|
|Less than or equal|
|Greater than 6,000||15||25a||25||15||3|
|Class II and III protected|
|Same as Class I||Same as Class I||Same as Class Ic||Same as Class I||Same as Class I||Same as Class I|
|Tanks in vaults||0-20,000||0b||0||0b||0||Separate compart-|
ment required foreach tank
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
- At fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, no minimum separation distance is required.
- Underground vaults shall be located such that they will not be subject to loading from nearby structures, or they shall be designed to accommodate applied loads from existing or future structures that can be built nearby.
- For Class IIIB liquids in protected above-ground tanks, no minimum separation distance is required.
Where installation of tanks in accordance with Section 5704.2.11 is impractical, or because of property or building limitations, tanks for liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in buildings in special enclosures in accordance with all of the following:
- The special enclosure shall be liquid tight and vapor tight.
- The special enclosure shall not contain backfill.
- Sides, top and bottom of the special enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches (152 mm) thick, with openings for inspection through the top only.
- Tank connections shall be piped or closed such that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space between the special enclosure and any tanks inside the special enclosure.
- Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment can be employed to discharge to the outside any vapors which might accumulate inside the special enclosure should leakage occur.
- Tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids inside a special enclosure shall not exceed 6,000 gallons (22 710 L) in individual capacity or 18,000 gallons (68 130 L) in aggregate capacity.
- Each tank within special enclosures shall be surrounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (910 mm) to allow for maintenance and inspection.
A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open device shall be provided on island-type dispensers used for dispensing Class I, II or III liquids.
Overhead-type dispensing units shall be provided with a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve without a latch-open device.
Exception: A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with latch-open device is allowed to be used on overhead-type dispensing units where the design of the system is such that the hose nozzle valve will close automatically in the event the valve is released from a fill opening or upon impact with a driveway.
Where dispensing of Class I, II or III liquids is performed, a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve shall be used incorporating all of the following features:
- The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an integral latch-open device.
- When the flow of product is normally controlled by devices or equipment other than the hose nozzle valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of being opened unless the delivery hose is pressurized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the nozzle shall close automatically.
- The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling operation.
- The system shall include listed equipment with a feature that causes or requires the closing of the hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser.
Dispensing devices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery shall be listed and labeled. When existing listed or labeled dispensing devices are modified for vapor recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The listing by report shall contain a description of the component parts used in the modification and recommended method of installation on specific dispensers. Such report shall be made available on request of the fire code official.
Means shall be provided to shut down fuel dispensing in the event the vapor return line becomes blocked.
Piping in vapor-balance systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6, 5704.2.9 and 5704.2.11. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Existing and new vent piping shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6 and 5704.2. Vapor return piping shall be installed in a manner that drains back to the tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can become trapped. If necessary, because of grade, condensate tanks are allowed in vapor return piping. Condensate tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can be drained without opening.
Flexible joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 5703.6.9.
An approved shear joint shall be rigidly mounted and connected by a union in the vapor return piping at the base of each dispensing device. The shear joint shall be mounted flush with the top of the surface on which the dispenser is mounted.
Equipment in vapor-processing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for prevention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-processing equipment, shall be individually listed for the intended use in a specified manner.
Vapor-processing systems that introduce air into the underground piping or storage tanks shall be provided with equipment for prevention of flame propagation that has been tested and listed as suitable for the intended use.
Vapor-processing equipment shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dispenser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest building or lot line of a property which can be built upon.
Exception: Where the required distances to buildings, lot lines or fuel-transfer areas cannot be obtained, means shall be provided to protect equipment against fire exposure. Acceptable means shall include but not be limited to:
- Approved protective enclosures, which extend at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the equipment, constructed of fire-resistant or noncombustible materials; or
- Fire protection using an approved water-spray system.
Dispensers shall be listed in accordance with UL 87A. Hoses, nozzles, breakaway fittings, swivels, flexible connectors or dispenser emergency shutoff valves, vapor recovery systems, leak detection devices, and pumps used in alcohol-blended fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed for the specific purpose.
Dispensers shall only be used with the fuels for which they have been listed, which are marked on the product. Field installed components including hose assemblies, breakaway couplings, swivel connectors, and hose nozzle valves shall be provided in accordance with the listing and the marking on the unit.
In addition to the requirements of Section 2306.7, the point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces, buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly, or buildings having combustible overhangs, lot lines of property which could be built on, public streets, or sidewalks and railroads; and at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from driveways and buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 hour or more.
Exception: The point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations need not be separated from canopies that are constructed in accordance with the International Building Code and which provide weather protection for the dispensing equipment.
A manual shutoff valve and an excess flow-control check valve shall be located in the liquid line between the pump and the dispenser inlet where the dispensing device is installed at a remote location and is not part of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a common base.
An excess flow-control check valve or an emergency shutoff valve shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the point at which the dispenser hose is connected to the liquid piping. A differential backpressure valve shall be considered equivalent protection.
A listed shutoff valve shall be located at the discharge end of the transfer hose.
Self-service LP-gas dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall not be open to the public and shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on LP-gas powered vehicles.
- The system shall be provided with an emergency shutoff switch located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, dispensers.
- The owner of the LP-gas motor fuel-dispensing facility shall provide for the safe operation of the system and the training of users.
Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located above ground, outside.
- Compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed in buildings of noncombustible construction, as set forth in the International Building Code, which are unenclosed for three-quarters or more of the perimeter.
- Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be allowed indoors or in vaults in accordance with Chapter 53.
- Not beneath power lines.
- Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from the nearest building or lot line that could be built on, public street, sidewalk or source of ignition.
- Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track or any railroad or transit line where power for train propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source, such as third rail or overhead catenary.
- Fifty feet (15 240 mm) or more from the vertical plane below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line.
Self-service CNG-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles.
In addition to the requirements in Section 2305, the owner of a self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility shall ensure the safe operation of the system and the training of users.
The structure or appurtenance used for stabilizing the cylinder shall be separated from the site equipment, features and exposures and shall be located in accordance with Table 2308.8.1.2.3.
SEPARATION DISTANCE FOR ATMOSPHERIC VENTING OF CNG
|EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE||MINIMUM SEPARATION (feet)|
|CNG compressor and storage vessels||25|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
A vent tube that will divert the gas flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the cylinder prior to commencement of the venting and purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with CNG in accordance with Chapter 53.
The vent tube shall be capable of dispersing the gas a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. The vent tube shall not be provided with a rain cap or other feature which would limit or obstruct the gas flow.
At the connection fitting of the vent tube and the CNG cylinder, a listed bidirectional detonation flame arrester shall be provided.
Generation, compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located in indoor rooms or areas constructed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code and one of the following:
- Inside a building in a hydrogen cutoff room designed and constructed in accordance with Section 421 of the International Building Code.
- Inside a building not in a hydrogen cutoff room where the gaseous hydrogen system is listed and labeled for indoor installation and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
- Inside a building in a dedicated hydrogen fuel-dispensing area having an aggregate hydrogen delivery capacity no greater than 12 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) and designed and constructed in accordance with Section 703.1 of the International Fuel Gas Code.
Self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on hydrogen-powered vehicles.
In addition to the requirements in Section 2311, the owner of a self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility shall provide for the safe operation of the system through the institution of a fire safety plan submitted in accordance with Section 404, the training of employees and operators who use and maintain the system in accordance with Section 406, and provisions for hazard communication in accordance with Section 407.
Class I, II or IIIA liquids stored inside of buildings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in approved containers or portable tanks. Storage of Class I liquids shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).
Exception: Storage in liquid storage rooms in accordance with Section 5704.3.7.
Dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids into the fuel tanks of marine craft shall be by means of an approved-type hose equipped with a listed automatic-closing nozzle without a latch-open device.
Hoses used for dispensing or transferring Class I, II or IIIA liquids, when not in use, shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from mechanical damage.
Fueling of floating marine craft with Class II or III fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be in accordance with all of the following:
- The premises and operations shall be approved by the fire code official.
- Tank vehicles and fueling operations shall comply with Section 5706.6.
- The dispensing nozzle shall be of the listed automatic-closing type without a latch-open device.
- Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in lighted areas.
- The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while dispensing.
- Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase.
Warning signs shall be prominently displayed at the face of each wharf, pier or float at such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of marine craft being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color bearing the following or approved equivalent wording:
NO SMOKING—STOP ENGINE WHILE FUELING,
SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY
DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER BELOW
DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED.
Portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Section 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C, shall be provided as follows:
- One on each float.
- One on the pier or wharf within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the head of the gangway to the float, unless the office is within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the gangway or is on the float and an extinguisher is provided thereon.
Repair garages shall comply with this section and the International Building Code. Repair garages for vehicles that use more than one type of fuel shall comply with the applicable provisions of this section for each type of fuel used.
Where a repair garage also includes a motor fuel-dispensing facility, the fuel-dispensing operation shall comply with the requirements of this chapter for motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
For vehicles powered by gaseous fuels, the fuel shutoff valves shall be closed prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system.
Vehicles powered by gaseous fuels in which the fuel system has been damaged shall be inspected and evaluated for fuel system integrity prior to being brought into the repair garage. The inspection shall include testing of the entire fuel delivery system for leakage.
Repair garages for the conversion and repair of vehicles which use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), hydrogen or other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2311.7 through 23188.8.131.52 in addition to the other requirements of Section 2311.
Exception: Repair garages where work is not performed on the fuel system and is limited to exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame or welding.
Repair garages used for the repair of natural gas- or hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and Sections 23184.108.40.206 and 23220.127.116.11.
Exception: Repair garages with natural ventilation when approved.
Indoor locations shall be ventilated utilizing air supply inlets and exhaust outlets arranged to provide uniform air movement to the extent practical. Inlets shall be uniformly arranged on exterior walls near floor level. Outlets shall be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or the roof.
Ventilation shall be by a continuous mechanical ventilation system or by a mechanical ventilation system activated by a continuously monitoring natural gas detection system or, for hydrogen, a continuously monitoring flammable gas detection system, each activating at a gas concentration of not more than 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). In all cases, the system shall shut down the fueling system in the event of failure of the ventilation system.
The ventilation rate shall be at least 1 cubic foot per minute per 12 cubic feet [0.00139 m3 × (s • m3)] of room volume.
The mechanical ventilation system shall operate continuously.
- Mechanical ventilation systems that are interlocked with a gas detection system designed in accordance with Sections 2311.7.2 through 2318.104.22.168.
- Mechanical ventilation systems in repair garages that are used only for repair of vehicles fueled by liquid fuels or odorized gases, such as CNG, where the ventilation system is electrically interlocked with the lighting circuit.
Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all the following:
- Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.
- Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.
- Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, when the system is interlocked with gas detection.
Each individual manufactured component of a hydrogen generating, compression, storage or dispensing system shall have a label affixed as well as a description in the installation and owner’s manuals describing the procedure for purging air from the system during startup, regular maintenance and for purging hydrogen from the system prior to disassembly (to admit air).
For the interconnecting piping between the individual manufactured components, the pressure rating must be at least 20 times the absolute pressure present in the piping when any hydrogen meets any air.