The provisions of this chapter are intended to maintain or increase the current degree of public safety, health, and general welfare in existing buildings or structures, while permitting changes of occupancy without requiring full compliance with Chapter 7, except where compliance with other provisions of this code is specifically required in this chapter.
Exception: The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to buildings with occupancies in Group H or I.
Where a portion of the building undergoes a change of occupancy and that portion is separated from the remainder of the building with fire barrier or horizontal assemblies having a fire-resistance rating as required by Table 508.4 of the VCC or Section R302 of the International Residential Code for the separate occupancies, or with approved compliance alternatives, the portion changed shall be made to conform to the provisions of this chapter.
Where a portion of the building undergoes a change of occupancy and that portion is not separated from the remainder of the building with fire barriers or horizontal assemblies having a fire-resistance rating as required by Table 508.4 of the VCC or Section R302 of the International Residential Code for the separate occupancies, or with approved compliance alternatives, the provisions of this chapter which apply to each occupancy shall apply to the entire building. Where there are conflicting provisions, those requirements that are the most restrictive shall apply to the entire building or structure.
The following formulas shall be used in computing the building height value:
Note: Where mixed occupancies are separated and individually evaluated as indicated in Section 1404.3.1, the values AH, AS, EBH and EBS shall be based on the height of the occupancy being evaluated.
AH= Allowable height in feet (mm) from Section 504 of the VCC.
EBH= Existing building height in feet (mm).
CF= 1 if (AH) — (EBH) is positive.
CF= Construction-type factor shown in Table 1403.6(2) if (AH) — (EBH) is negative.
The following formula shall be used in computing allowable area:
Aa= Allowable building area per story (square feet).
At= Tabular allowable area factor (NS, S1, S13R, or SM value, as applicable) in accordance with Table 506.2 of the VCC.
NS= Tabular allowable area factor in accordance with Table 506.2 of the VCC for a nonsprinklered building (regardless of whether the building is sprinklered).
If= Area factor increase due to frontage as calculated in accordance with Section 506.3 of the VCC.
The following formula shall be used in computing the area value. Determine the area value for each occupancy floor area on a floor-by-floor basis. For each occupancy, choose the minimum area value of the set of values obtained for the particular occupancy.
i= Value for an individual separated occupancy on a floor.
n= Number of separated occupancies on a floor.
Evaluate the compartments created by fire barriers or horizontal assemblies that comply with Sections 1403.3.1 and 1403.3.2 and which are exclusive of the wall elements considered under Sections 1403.4 and 1403.5. Conforming compartments shall be figured as the net area and do not include shafts, chases, stairways, walls or columns. Using Table 1403.3, determine the appropriate compartmentation value (CV) and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.3, Compartmentation, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety. For compartment sizes that fall between categories, the determination of the CV shall be permitted to be obtained by linear interpolation.
Compartment size equal to or greater than 15,000 square feet
Compartment size of 10,000 square feet
Compartment size of 7,500 square feet
Compartment size of 5,000 square feet
Compartment size of 2,500 square feet or less
|A-4, B, E, S-2||0||5||10||15||20|
|F, M, R, S-1||0||4||10||16||22|
For SI:1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
|A-3, A-4, B, E, F, M, S-1||-4||-3||0||2||4|
The categories for tenant and dwelling unit separations are:
Evaluate the fire-resistance rating and degree of completeness of walls which create corridors serving the floor and that are constructed in accordance with Section 1020 of the VCC. This evaluation shall not include the wall elements considered under Sections 1403.3 and 1403.4. Under the categories and groups in Table 1403.5, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.5, Corridor Walls, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety.
CORRIDOR WALL VALUES
|A-3, F, M, R, S-1||-7||-3||0||2|
|A-4, B, E, S-2||-5||-2||0||5|
The categories for corridor walls are:
Evaluate the fire-resistance rating of interior exit stairways or ramps, hoistways, escalator openings, and other shaft enclosures within the building, and openings between two or more floors. Table1403.6(1) contains the appropriate protection values. Multiply that value by the construction-type factor found in 1403.6(2). Enter the vertical opening value and its sign (positive or negative) in Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.6, Vertical Openings, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety. If the structure is a one-story building or if all the unenclosed vertical openings within the building conform to the requirements of Section 713 of the VCC, enter a value of 2. The maximum positive value for this requirement shall be 2.
VERTICAL OPENING PROTECTION VALUE
|None (unprotected opening)||-2 times number of floors connected|
|Less than 1 hour||-1 times number of floors connected|
|1 to less than 2 hours||1|
|2 hours or more||2|
|FACTOR||TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION|
The categories for HVAC systems are:
Evaluate the smoke detection capability based on the location and operation of automatic fire detectors in accordance with Section 907 of the VCC and Section 606 of the International Mechanical Code. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.8, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.8, Automatic Fire Detection, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety.
AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION VALUES
|A-1, A-3, F, M, R, S-1||-10||-5||0||2||6||—|
|A-4, B, E, S-2||-4||-2||0||4||8||—|
The categories for automatic fire detection are:
Evaluate the capability of the fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907 of the VCC. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.9, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.9, Fire Alarm System, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM VALUES
|A-l, A-2, A-3, A-4, B, E, R||-10||-5||0||5|
|F, M, S||0||5||10||15|
The categories for fire alarm systems are:
Evaluate the ability of a natural or mechanical venting, exhaust or pressurization system to control the movement of smoke from a fire. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.10, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.10, Smoke Control, for means of egress and general safety.
SMOKE CONTROL VALUES
|A-1, A-2, A-3||0||1||2||3||6||6|
|B, M, R||0||2a||3a||3a||3a||4a|
The categories for smoke control are:
Evaluate the means of egress capacity and the number of exits available to the building occupants. In applying this section, the means of egress are required to conform to the following sections of the VCC: 1003.7, 1004, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1016.2, 1026.1, 1028.2, 1028.5, 1029.2, 1029.3, 1029.4 and 1030. The number of exits credited is the number that is available to each occupant of the area being evaluated. Existing fire escapes shall be accepted as a component in the means of egress when conforming to Section 303.
Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.11, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.11, Means of Egress Capacity, for means of egress and general safety.
MEANS OF EGRESS VALUES
|A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, E||-10||0||2||8||10|
|B, F, S||-1||0||0||0||0|
The categories for means-of-egress capacity and number of exits are:
In spaces required to be served by more than one means of egress, evaluate the length of the exit access travel path in which the building occupants are confined to a single path of travel. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.12, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.12, Dead Ends, for means of egress and general safety.
|A-1, A-3, A-4, B, F, M, R, S||-2||0||2||-4|
The categories for dead ends are:
Evaluate the passenger elevator equipment and controls that are available to the fire department to reach all occupied floors. Emergency recall and in-car operation of elevators shall be provided in accordance with the building code under which the building or the affected portion thereof was constructed or previously approved. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.14, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.14, Elevator Control, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety. The values shall be zero for a single-story building.
ELEVATOR CONTROL VALUES
|Less than 25 feet of travel above or below the primary level of elevator access for emergency fire-fighting or rescue personnel||-2||0||0||2|
|Travel of 25 feet or more above or below the primary level of elevator access for emergency fire-fighting or rescue personnel||-4||NP||0||4|
For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NP = Not permitted.
The categories for elevator controls are:
Evaluate the presence of and reliability of means-of-egress emergency lighting. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.15, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.15, Means-of-Egress Emergency Lighting, for means of egress and general safety.
The categories for means-of-egress emergency lighting are:
Where a building has two or more occupancies that are not in the same occupancy classification, the separation between the mixed occupancies shall be evaluated in accordance with this section. Where there is no separation between the mixed occupancies or the separation between mixed occupancies does not qualify for any of the categories indicated in Section 1403.16.1, the building shall be evaluated as indicated in Section 1404.3.1, and the value for mixed occupancies shall be zero. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.16, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.16, Mixed Occupancies, for fire safety and general safety. For buildings without mixed occupancies, the value shall be zero.
MIXED OCCUPANCY VALUESa
|A-1, A-2, R||-10||0||10|
|A-3, A-4, B, E, F, M, S||-5||0||5|
The categories for mixed occupancies are:
Evaluate the ability to suppress a fire based on the installation of an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of the VCC. "Required sprinklers" shall be based on the requirements of this code. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.17, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.17, Automatic Sprinklers, for fire safety, means of egress divided by two, and general safety. High-rise buildings defined in Chapter 2 of the VCC that undergo a change of occupancy to Group R shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 403 of the VCC and Chapter 9 of the VCC.
SPRINKLER SYSTEM VALUES
|A-1, A-3, F, M, R, S-1||-6||-3||0||2||4||6|
|A-4, B, E, S-2||-12||-6||0||3||6||12|
The categories for automatic sprinkler system protection are:
Evaluate the ability to initiate attack on a fire by a making supply of water available readily through the installation of standpipes in accordance with Section 905 of the VCC. "Required Standpipes" shall be based on the requirements of the VCC. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.18, determine the appropriate value and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.18, Standpipes, for fire safety, means of egress, and general safety.
STANDPIPE SYSTEM VALUES
|A-1, A-3, F, M, R, S-1||-6||0||4||6|
|A-4, B, E, S-2||-12||0||6||12|
The categories for standpipe systems are:
Evaluate the protection of incidental uses in accordance with Section 509.4.2 of the VCC. Do not include those where this code requires automatic sprinkler systems throughout the building including covered and open mall buildings, high-rise buildings, public garages and unlimited-area buildings. Assign the lowest score from Table 1403.19 for the building or floor area being evaluated and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.19, Incidental Uses, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety. If there are no specific occupancy areas in the building or floor area being evaluated, the value shall be zero.
INCIDENTAL USE AREA VALUES
|PROTECTION REQUIRED BY TABLE 509 OF THE VCC||PROTECTION PROVIDED|
|None||1 hour||AS||AS with CRS||1 hour and AS||2 hours||2 hours and AS|
|2 hours and AS||-4||-3||-2||-2||-1||-2||0|
|2 hours, or 1 hour and AS||-3||-2||-1||-1||0||0||0|
|1 hour and AS||-3||-2||-1||-1||0||-1||0|
|1 hour, or AS with CRS||-1||0||-1||-1||0||0||0|
|AS with CRS||-1||-1||-1||-1||0||-1||0|
|1 hour or AS||-1||0||0||0||0||0||0|
AS = Automatic sprinkler system;
CRS = Construction capable of resisting the passage of smoke (see Section 509.4.2 of the VCC).
Evaluate the smoke compartments for compliance with Section 407.5 of the VCC. Under the categories and occupancies in Table 1403.20, determine the appropriate smoke compartmentation value (SCV) and enter that value into Table 1404.1 under Safety Parameter 1403.20, Smoke Compartmentation, for fire safety, means of egress and general safety.
SMOKE COMPARTMENTATION VALUES
|A, B, E, F, M, R and S||0||0||0|
For SI:1 square foot = 0.093 m2.
Categories for smoke compartment size are:
After determining the appropriate data from Section 1403, enter those data in Table 1404.1 and total the building score.
SUMMARY SHEET—BUILDING CODE
|Existing occupancy ____________________________________||Proposed occupancy ______________________________________|
|Year building was constructed ____________________________||Number of stories ____________ Height in feet ________________|
|Type of construction ____________________________________||Area per floor ___________________________________________|
|Percentage of open perimeter increase_________ %|
|Completely suppressed: Yes _______ No _____||Corridor wall rating ______________________________________|
|Fire-resistance rating of vertical opening enclosures _______________________________________________________________________|
|Type of HVAC system ___________________________________________, serving number of floors _____________________________|
|Automatic fire detection: Yes_______ No_______||Type and location ________________________________________|
|Fire alarm system: Yes_______ No_______||Type __________________________________________________|
|Smoke control: Yes_______ No_______||Type __________________________________________________|
|Adequate exit routes: Yes_______ No_______||Dead ends: Yes__________ No___________|
|Maximum exit access travel distance _______________________||Elevator controls: Yes__________ No___________|
|Means of egress emergency lighting: Yes_______ No_______||Mixed occupancies: Yes _______ No _____|
|Standpipes Yes_______ No_______||Patient ability for self-preservation __________________________|
|Incidental use Yes_______ No_______||Patient concentration _____________________________________|
|Smoke compartmentation less than 22,500 sq. feet (2092 m2) Yes_______ No_______||Attendant-to-patient ratio __________________________________|
|SAFETY PARAMETERS||FIRE SAFETY (FS)||MEANS OF EGRESS (ME)||GENERAL SAFETY (GS)|
|1403.1 Building Height|
|1403.2 Building Area|
|1403.4 Tenant and Dwelling Unit Separations|
|1403.5 Corridor Walls|
|1403.6 Vertical Openings|
|1403.7 HVAC Systems|
|1403.8 Automatic Fire Detection|
|1403.9 Fire Alarm System|
|1403.10 Smoke Control||* * * *|
|1403.11 Means of Egress||* * * *|
|1403.12 Dead Ends||* * * *|
|1403.13 Maximum Exit Access Travel Distance||* * * *|
|1403.14 Elevator Control|
|1403.15 Means of Egress Emergency Lighting||* * * *|
|1403.16 Mixed Occupancies||* * * *|
|1403.17 Automatic Sprinklers||÷2 =|
|1403.19 Incidental Use|
|1403.20 Smoke Compartmentation|
|Building score—total value|
* * * *No applicable value to be inserted.
The values in Table 1404.2 are the required mandatory safety scores for the evaluation process listed in Section 1403.
MANDATORY SAFETY SCORESa
|OCCUPANCY||FIRE SAFETY (MFS)||MEANS OF EGRESS (MME)||GENERAL SAFETY (MGS)|
a. MFS = Mandatory Fire Safety.
MME = Mandatory Means of Egress.
MGS = Mandatory General Safety.
The mandatory safety score in Table 1404.2 shall be subtracted from the building score in Table 1404.1 for each category. Where the final score for any category equals zero or more, the building is in compliance with the requirements of this section for that category. Where the final score for any category is less than zero, the building is not in compliance with the requirements of this section.
|FORMULA||TABLE 1401.1||TABLE 1401.2||SCORE||PASS||FAIL|
|FS — MFS ≥ 0||_____ (FS) —||_____ (FS)||=||_____||_____||_____|
|ME — MME ≥ 0||_____ (ME) —||_____ (ME)||=||_____||_____||_____|
|GS — MGS ≥ 0||_____ (GS) —||_____ (GS)||=||_____||_____||_____|
a. FS = Fire Safety.
MFS = Mandatory Fire Safety.
ME = Means of Egress.
MME = Mandatory Means of Egress.
GS = General Safety.
MGS = Mandatory General Safety
For mixed occupancies, the following provisions shall apply: