ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2018 (IBC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions of this chapter shall control the classification of all buildings and structures as to occupancy and use. Different classifications of occupancy and use represent varying levels of hazard and risk to building occupants and adjacent properties.

Structures or portions of structures shall be classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the groups listed in this section. A room or space that is intended to be occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Structures with multiple occupancies or uses shall be classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resembles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved.

  1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, and A-5.
  2. Business (see Section 304): Group B.
  3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E.
  4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 and F-2.
  5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5.
  6. Institutional (see Section 308 and Section 313 for SRCFs).
  7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M.
  8. Residential (see Section 310 and Section 313 for SRCFs): Groups R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4 and R-5.
  9. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2.
  10. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U.
Occupancy groups contain subordinate uses having similar hazards and risks to building occupants. Uses include, but are not limited to, those functional designations listed within the occupancy group descriptions in Section 302.1. Certain uses require specific limitations and controls in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 4 and elsewhere in this code.
Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation.
A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be permitted to be classified as a Group B occupancy.

The following rooms and spaces shall be permitted to be classified as Group B occupancies or as part of the assembly occupancy:

  1. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and ancillary to another occupancy.
  2. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m2) in area and ancillary to another occupancy.
A room or space used for assembly purposes that is associated with a Group E occupancy is not considered a separate occupancy.
Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 per room or space are not considered separate occupancies.

Group A-1 occupancy includes assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of the performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:

  • Motion picture theaters
  • Symphony and concert halls
  • Television and radio studios admitting an audience
  • Theaters

Group A-2 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to:

  • Banquet halls
  • Casinos (gaming areas)
  • Nightclubs
  • Restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities (including associated commercial kitchens)
  • Taverns and bars

Group A-3 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A including, but not limited to:

  • Amusement arcades
  • Art galleries
  • Bowling alleys
  • Community halls
  • Courtrooms
  • Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption)
  • Exhibition halls
  • Funeral parlors
  • Greenhouses for the conservation and exhibition of plants that provide public access.
  • Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)
  • Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating)
  • Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)
  • Lecture halls
  • Libraries
  • Museums
  • Places of religious worship
  • Pool and billiard parlors
  • Waiting areas in transportation terminals

Group A-4 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to:

Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including:

304.1 Business Group B

ILLUSTRATION

Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Airport traffic control towers
  • Ambulatory care facilities
  • Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds
  • Banks
  • Barber and beauty shops
  • Car wash
  • Civic administration
  • Clinic, outpatient
  • Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service
  • Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade
  • Electronic data processing
  • Food processing establishments and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities not more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area.
  • Laboratories: testing and research
  • Motor vehicle showrooms
  • Post offices
  • Print shops
  • Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)
  • Radio and television stations Telephone exchanges
  • Training and skill development not in a school or academic program (this shall include, but not be limited to, tutoring centers, martial arts studios, gymnastics and similar uses regardless of the ages served, and where not classified as a Group A occupancy).

Day support and day treatment facilities licensed by the Virginia Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services shall be permitted to be classified as Group B occupancies provided all of the following conditions are met:

  1. Participants who may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency situation shall be located on the level of exit discharge.
  2. Any change in elevation within the exit access on the level of exit discharge shall be made by means of a ramp or sloped walkway.
  3. Where the facilities are located more than two stories above grade, an automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the building in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for educational purposes through the 12th grade.
Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 303.1.4 and have occupant loads of less than 100 per room or space, shall be classified as Group A-3 occupancies.
This group includes buildings and structures or portions thereof occupied by more than five children older than 21/2 years of age who receive educational, supervision or personal care services for fewer than 24 hours per day.
Rooms and spaces within places of religious worship providing such day care during religious functions shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.
A facility having five or fewer children receiving such day care shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.
A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer children receiving such day care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with the International Residential Code.
Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazardous or Group S storage occupancy.

Factory industrial uses that are not classified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair)
  • Appliances
  • Athletic equipment
  • Automobiles and other motor vehicles
  • Bakeries
  • Beverages: over 16-percent alcohol content
  • Bicycles
  • Boats
  • Brooms or brushes
  • Business machines
  • Cameras and photo equipment
  • Canvas or similar fabric
  • Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning)
  • Clothing
  • Construction and agricultural machinery
  • Disinfectants
  • Dry cleaning and dyeing
  • Electric generation plants
  • Electronics
  • Engines (including rebuilding)
  • Food processing establishments and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area.
  • Furniture
  • Hemp products
  • Jute products
  • Laundries
  • Leather products
  • Machinery
  • Metals
  • Millwork (sash and door)
  • Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators)
  • Musical instruments
  • Optical goods
  • Paper mills or products
  • Photographic film
  • Plastic products
  • Printing or publishing
  • Recreational vehicles
  • Refuse incineration
  • Shoes
  • Soaps and detergents
  • Textiles
  • Tobacco
  • Trailers
  • Upholstering
  • Wood; distillation
  • Woodworking (cabinet)

Factory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials that during finishing, packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Beverages: up to and including 16-percent alcohol content
  • Brick and masonry
  • Ceramic products
  • Foundries
  • Glass products
  • Gypsum
  • Ice
  • Metal products (fabrication and assembly)
High-hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 414, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this section, the requirements of Section 415 and the International Fire Code. Hazardous materials stored, or used on top of roofs or canopies, shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with the International Fire Code.

An occupancy that stores, uses or handles hazardous materials as described in one or more of the following items shall not be classified as Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that it most nearly resembles.

  1. Buildings and structures occupied for the application of flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Section 416 and the International Fire Code.
  2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to the International Fire Code.
  3. Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment.
  4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher in closed systems employing equipment listed by an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 1-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
  5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
  6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage.
  7. Refrigeration systems.
  8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural purposes on the premises.
  9. Stationary storage battery systems installed in accordance with the International Fire Code.
  10. Corrosive personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display.
  11. Commonly used corrosive building materials.
  12. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol product storage shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of the International Fire Code.
  13. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5.
  14. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M, R-3 and R-5 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the International Fire Code, as amended in Section 307.9.
  15. Stationary fuel cell power systems installed in accordance with the International Fire Code.
  16. Capacitor energy storage systems in accordance with the International Fire Code.
  17. Group B higher education laboratory occupancies complying with Section 428 and Chapter 38 of the International Fire Code.
  18. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks. Distillation, blending, bottling, and other hazardous materials storage or processing shall be in separate control areas complying with Section 414.2.

TABLE 307.1(1)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

MATERIAL CLASS GROUP WHEN THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY IS EXCEEDED STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds) Gas cubic feet at NTP Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds) Gas cubic feet at NTP Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds)
Combustible dust H-2 NA See Note q NA NA See Note q NA NA See Note q NA
Combustible fiberq Loose Baledo H-3 (100)
(1,000)
NA NA (100)
(1,000)
NA NA (20)
(200)
NA
Combustible liquidc, i II
IIIA
IIIB
H-2 or H-3
H-2 or H-3
NA
NA 120d, e
330d, e
13,200e, f
NA NA 120d
330d
13,200f
NA NA 30d
80d
3,300f
Cryogenic flammable NA H-2 NA 45d NA NA 45d NA NA 10d
Cryogenic inert NA NA NA NA NL NA NA NL NA NA
Cryogenic oxidizing NA H-3 NA 45d NA NA 45d NA NA 10d
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.4G
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
H-1
H-1
H-1 or H-2
H-3
H-3
H-1
H-1
1e, g
1e, g
5e, g
50e,g
125e, l
1e, g
1e, g
(1)e, g
(1)e, g
(5)e, g
(50)e,g
NA
(1)e, g
NA
NA 0.25g
0.25g
1g
50g
NA
0.25g
NA
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
(50)g
NA
(0.25)g
NA
NA 0.25g
0.25g
1g
NA
NA
0.25g
NA
(0.25)g
(0.25)g
(1)g
NA
NA
(0.25)g
NA
Flammable gas Gaseous Liquefied H-2 NA NA (150)d, e 1,000d, e NA NA NA (150)d, e 1,000d, e NA NA NA
Flammable liquidc IA
IB and IC
H-2
or H-3 NA
30d, e
120d, e
NA NA 30d
120d
NA NA 10d 30d
Flammable liquid, combination (IA, IB, IC) NA H-2
or H-3
NA 120d,e,h NA NA 120d,h NA NA 30d,h,r
Flammable solid NA H-3 125d, e NA NA 125d NA NA 25d NA
Inert gas Gaseous Liquefied NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NL
NL
NA
NA
NA
NA
NL
NL
NA
NA
NA
NA
Organic peroxide UD
I
II
III
IV
V
H-1
H-2
H-3
H-3
NA
NA
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
125d, e
NL
NL
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
(125)d, e
NL
NL
NA 0.25g
1d
50d
125d
NL
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(50)d
(125)d
NL
NL
NA 0.25g
1d
10d
25d
NL
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
(25)d
NL
NL
Oxidizer 4
3k
21
H-1
H-2 or H-3
H-3
NA
1g
10d, e
250d, e
4,000e, f
(1)e, g
(10)d, e
(250)d, e
(4,000)e, f
NA 0.25g
2d
250d
4,000f
(0.25)g
(2)d
(250)d
(4,000)f
NA 0.25g
2d
50d
1,000f
(0.25)g
(2)d
(50)d
(1,000)f
Oxidizing gas Gaseous Liquefied H-3 NA NA
(150)d, e
1,500d, e
NA
NA NA
(150)d, e
1,500d, e
NA
NA NA
Pyrophoric NA H-2 4e, g (4)e, g 50e, g 1g (1)g 10e, g 0 0
Permissible fireworks 1.4G H-3 125d,e,l NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Unstable (reactive) 4
3
2
1
H-1
H-1 or H-2
H-3
NA
1e, g
5d, e
50d, e
NL
(1)e, g
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
NL
10e, g
50d, e
750d, e
NL
0.25g
1d
50d
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(50)d
NL
2e, g
10d, e
750d, e
NL
0.25g
1d
10d
NL
(0.25)g
(1)d
(10)d
NL
Water reactive 3
2
1
H-2
H-3
NA
5d, e
50d, e
NL
(5)d, e
(50)d, e
NL
NA 5d
50d
NL
(5)d
(50)d
NL
NA 1d
10d
NL
(1)d
(10)d
NL

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

NL = Not Limited; NA = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable.

  1. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2.
  2. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
  3. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited provided the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs or consumer products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
  4. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  5. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, gas rooms or exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 5003.9.10 of the International Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  6. Quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  7. Allowed only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  8. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, IB or IC flammable liquids.
  9. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2 of the International Fire Code.
  10. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.
  11. A maximum quantity of 220 pounds of solid or 22 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment when the storage containers and the manner of storage are approved.
  12. Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packaging, shall be used.
  13. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2 of the International Fire Code.
  14. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2).
  15. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
  16. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities:

    1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles.
    2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with the International Fire Code.
    3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.
    4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code.
    5. Alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids in dispensers that are installed in accordance with Sections 5705.5 and 5705.5.1 of the International Fire Code. The location of the alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers shall be provided in the construction documents.
  17. Where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3.
  18. The tabular value for distilled spirit distillation and blending rooms is 120 gallons.

TABLE 307.1(2)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A HEALTH HAZARDa, c, f, h, i

MATERIAL STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid poundsd, e Liquid gallons (pounds)d, e Gas cubic feet at NTP (pounds)d Solid poundsd Liquid gallons (pounds)d Gas cubic feet at NTP (pounds)d Solid poundsd Liquid gallons (pounds)d
Corrosives 5,000 500 Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)
5,000 500 Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)
1,000 100
Highly Toxic 10 (10) Gaseous 20g
Liquefied (4)g
10 (10) Gaseous 20g
Liquefied (4)g
3 (3)
Toxic 500 (500) Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)e
500 (500) Gaseous 810e
Liquefied (150)e
125 (125)

For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

  1. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2.
  2. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
  3. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs or consumer products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
  4. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  5. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
  6. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2).
  7. Allowed only where stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code.
  8. Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.
  9. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2 of the International Fire Code.
Hazardous materials in any quantity shall conform to the requirements of this code, including Section 414, and the International Fire Code.

Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

The following occupancies containing explosive materials shall be classified as follows:

  1. Division 1.3 explosive materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies.
  2. Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as a Division 1.4 explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 occupancies.

Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa).
  • Combustible dusts where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3.
  • Cryogenic fluids, flammable.
  • Flammable gases.
  • Organic peroxides, Class I.
  • Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa).
  • Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable.
  • Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable.
  • Water-reactive materials, Class 3.

Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Buildings and structures containing materials that are health hazards shall be classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.11.
Buildings and structures containing a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in one or more of Groups H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified.

The following changes shall be made to the International Fire Code (IFC) for the use of Exception 14 in Section 307.1.1:

  1. Change the following definition in Section 202 of the IFC to read:

    • SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS.Solid propellants, commonly referred to as smokeless powders, or any propellants classified by DOTn as smokeless propellants in accordance with NA3178 (Smokeless Powder for Small Arms), used in small arms ammunition, firearms, cannons, rockets, propellant-actuated devices, and similar articles.
  2. Change Section 314.1 of the IFC to read as follows:

    • 314.1 General.Indoor displays constructed within any building or structure shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.5.
  3. Add new Section 314.5 to the IFC to read as follows:

    • 314.5 Smokeless powder and small arms primers.Vendors shall not store, display or sell smokeless powder or small arms primers during trade shows inside exhibition halls except as follows:

      1. The amount of smokeless powder each vendor may store is limited to the storage arrangements and storage amounts established in Section 5506.5.2.1.
      2. Smokeless powder shall remain in the manufacturer's original sealed container and the container shall remain sealed while inside the building. The repackaging of smokeless powder shall not be performed inside the building. Damaged containers shall not be repackaged inside the building and shall be immediately removed from the building in such manner to avoid spilling any powder.
      3. There shall be at least 50 feet (15 240 mm) separation between vendors and 20 feet (6096 mm) from any exit.
      4. Small arms primers shall be displayed and stored in the manufacturer's original packaging and in accordance with the requirements of Section 5506.5.2.3.
  4. Change Exception 4 and add Exceptions 10 and 11 to Section 5601.1 of the IFC as follows:

    1. 4.  The possession, storage and use of not more than 15 pounds (6.75 kg) of commercially manufactured sporting black powder, 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless powder and any amount of small arms primers for hand loading of small arms ammunition for personal consumption.
    2. 10.  The display of small arms primers in Group M when in the original manufacturer's packaging.
    3. 11.  The possession, storage and use of not more than 50 pounds (23 kg) of commercially manufactured sporting black powder, 100 pounds (45 kg) of smokeless powder, and small arms primers for hand loading of small arms ammunition for personal consumption in Group R-3 or R-5, or 200 pounds (91 kg) of smokeless powder when stored in the manufacturer's original containers in detached Group U structures at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from inhabited buildings and are accessory to Group R-3 or R-5.
  5. Change Section 5606.4 of the IFC to read as follows:

    • 5606.4 Storage in residences.Propellants for personal use in quantities not exceeding 50 pounds kg) of black powder or 100 pounds (45 kg) of smokeless powder shall be stored in original containers in occupancies limited to Groups R-3 and R- 5 or 200 pounds (91 kg) of smokeless powder when stored in the manufacturer's original containers in detached Group U structures at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from inhabited buildings and are accessory to Group R-3 or R-5. In other than Group R-3 or R-5, smokeless powder in quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) but not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be kept in a wooden box or cabinet having walls of at least one inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or equivalent.
  6. Delete Sections 5606.4.1 and 5606.4.2 of the IFC.
  7. Change section 5606.5.1.1 of the IFC to read as follows:

    • 5606.5.1.1 Smokeless propellant.No more than 100 pounds (45 kg) of smokeless propellants in containers of eight pounds (3.6 kg) or less capacity shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.
  8. Delete Section 5606.5.1.3 of the IFC.
  9. Change Section 5606.5.2.1 of the IFC as follows:

    • 5606.5.2.1 Smokeless propellant.Commercial stocks of smokeless propellants shall be stored as follows:

      1. Quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg), but not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) shall be stored in portable wooden boxes having walls of at least one inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or equivalent.
      2. Quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg), but not exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), shall be stored in storage cabinets having walls at least one inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or equivalent. Not more than 400 pounds (182 kg) shall be stored in any one cabinet, and cabinets shall be separated by a distance of at least 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.
      3. Storage of quantities exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), but not exceeding 5,000 pounds (2268 kg) in a building shall comply with all of the following:

        3.1.  The warehouse or storage room is not open to unauthorized personnel.

        3.2.  Smokeless propellant shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having wood walls at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or equivalent and having shelves with no more than 3 feet (914 mm) of vertical separation between shelves.

        3.3.  No more than 400 pounds (182 kg) is stored in any one cabinet.

        3.4.  Cabinets shall be located against walls with at least 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets. The minimum required separation between cabinets may be reduced to 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades must extend a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) outward, be firmly attached to the wall, and be constructed of steel not less than 0.25 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick, or concrete block.

        3.5.  Smokeless propellant shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids, or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.

        3.6.  The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

      4. Smokeless propellants not stored according to Item 1, 2, or 3 above shall be stored in a Type 2 or 4 magazine in accordance with Section 5604 and NFPA 495.
Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which care or supervision is provided to persons who are or are not capable of self-preservation without physical assistance or in which persons are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I-1, I-2, I-3 or I-4.
This occupancy shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group I-1, shall be classified as the occupancy condition indicated in Section 308.2.1 or 308.2.2. Assisted living facilities licensed by the Virginia Department of Social Services shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated in Section 308.2.1 or 308.2.2.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care who, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation. Not more than five of the residents may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency situation when all residents who may require the physical assistance reside on a level of exit discharge and the path of egress to the exit does not include steps.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are persons receiving custodial care who require assistance by not more than one staff member while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation. Five of the residents may require physical assistance from more than one staff member to respond to an emergency.
A facility housing not fewer than six and not more than 16 persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R-4.
A facility with five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.
This occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical care on a 24-hour basis for more than five persons who are incapable of selfpreservation.
Buildings of Group I-2 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions specified in Section 308.3.1.1 or 308.3.1.2.
This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care but do not provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics or in-patient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including but not limited to nursing homes and foster care facilities.
This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care and could provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics or in-patient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including but not limited to hospitals.
A facility with five or fewer persons receiving medical care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.

Institutional Group I-3 occupancy shall include buildings and structures that are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. A Group I-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to security measures not under the occupants' control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Correctional centers
  • Detention centers
  • Jails
  • Prerelease centers
  • Prisons
  • Reformatories

Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions specified in Sections 308.4.1 through 308.4.5 (see Section 408.1).

This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remotecontrolled release of means of egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

Institutional Group I-4 occupancy shall include buildings and structures occupied by more than five persons of any age who receive custodial care for fewer than 24 hours per day by persons other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Adult day care
  • Child day care

Exception: Family day homes under Section 313.3.

A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but not more than 100 children 21/2 years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level of exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.
Rooms and spaces within places of religious worship providing such care during religious functions shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.
A facility having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.
A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with the International Residential Code.

Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Department stores
  • Drug stores
  • Markets
  • Greenhouses for display and sale of plants that provide public access.
  • Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
  • Retail or wholesale stores
  • Sales rooms
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.5(1).
Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential Code.

Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units, and:

  1. The occupants are primarily transient, and
  2. There are more than 10 occupants.
Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are not primarily transient.

Residential occupancies containing no more than two dwelling units and where the occupancy is not classified as Group R-1, R-2, R-4, R-5, or I, and:

  1. The occupants are not primarily transient, or
  2. There are no more than 10 transient occupants per dwelling unit.
Group R-3 buildings and structures shall be subject to the radon-resistant construction requirements in Appendix F of the International Residential Code (IRC) in localities enforcing such requirements pursuant to Section R328 of the IRC.
Owner-occupied or proprietor-occupied lodging houses and other transient boarding facilities not more than three stories above grade plane in height, with five or fewer guest rooms and 10 or fewer total occupants shall be permitted to be classified as either Group R-3 or R-5, provided that smoke alarms are installed in compliance with Section 907.2.10.2 for Group R-3, or Section R314 of the IRC for Group R-5.
Residential occupancies with more than five but not more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group R-4, other than assisted living facilities licensed by the Virginia Department of Social Services, shall be classified as the occupancy condition indicated in Section 310.5. Assisted living facilities licensed by the Virginia Department of Social Services shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated in Section 310.5.1 or 310.5.2.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care who, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation or, in which not more than five of the residents may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency situation when all residents who may require the physical assistance from staff reside on a level of exit discharge and the path of egress to the exit does not include steps.
This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.
Group R-4 buildings and structures shall be subject to the radon-resistant construction requirements in Appendix F of the VRC in localities enforcing such requirements pursuant to Section R328 of the VRC.

Residential occupancies within the scope of the VRC, other occupancies specifically permitted in this code to be classified as Group R-5, and manufactured homes in accordance with the Virginia Manufactured Home Safety Regulations (23VAC5-91).

The provisions of the IRC for one- and two-family dwellings shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, removal and demolition of the following when classified as Group R-5:

  1. Detached single-family and two-family dwellings
  2. Townhouses
  3. Care facilities for five or fewer people
  4. Owner- or proprietor-occupied lodging houses with no more than five guest rooms and 10 or fewer total occupants.
  5. Accessory structures of Group R-5 occupancies.

The amendments to the IRC set out in Section 310.8 shall be made to the IRC for its use as part of this code. In addition, all references to the IRC and the International Building Code (IBC) shall be considered to be references to this section.

Methods of construction, materials, systems, equipment or components for Group R-5 structures not addressed by prescriptive or performance provisions of the IRC shall comply with applicable IBC requirements.
Groups R-3 and R-4 structures shall be subject to the radon-resistant construction requirements in Appendix F of the IRC in localities enforcing such requirements pursuant to Section R328 of the IRC.

The following changes shall be made to the IRC for its use as part of this code:

(DHCD Note: The changes to the IRC are available in the Virginia Residential Code published by the ICC, or the pamphlet form of the VCC published by the DHCD. They are not included in the printing of the VCC.)

Storage Group S occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occupancy.
A room or space used for storage purposes that is accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as part of that occupancy.

Storage Group S-1 occupancies are buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following:

  • Aerosol products, Levels 2 and 3
  • Aircraft hangar (storage and repair)
  • Bags: cloth, burlap and paper
  • Bamboos and rattan
  • Baskets
  • Belting: canvas and leather
  • Books and paper in rolls or packs
  • Boots and shoes
  • Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone
  • Cardboard and cardboard boxes
  • Clothing, woolen wearing apparel
  • Cordage
  • Dry boat storage (indoor)
  • Furniture
  • Furs
  • Glues, mucilage, pastes and size
  • Grains
  • Horns and combs, other than celluloid
  • Leather
  • Linoleum
  • Lumber
  • Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 307.1(1) (see Section 406.8)
  • Photo engravings
  • Resilient flooring
  • Self-service storage facility (mini-storage)
  • Silks
  • Soaps
  • Sugar
  • Tires, bulk storage of
  • Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff
  • Upholstery and mattresses
  • Wax candles

Storage Group S-2 occupancies include, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Group S-2 storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following:

  • Asbestos
  • Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, glass or ceramic containers
  • Cement in bags
  • Chalk and crayons
  • Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers
  • Dry cell batteries
  • Electrical coils
  • Electrical motors
  • Empty cans
  • Food products
  • Foods in noncombustible containers
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers
  • Frozen foods
  • Glass
  • Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids
  • Gypsum board
  • Inert pigments
  • Ivory
  • Meats
  • Metal cabinets
  • Metal desks with plastic tops and trim
  • Metal parts
  • Metals
  • Mirrors
  • Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers
  • Parking garages, open or enclosed
  • Porcelain and pottery
  • Stoves
  • Talc and soapstones
  • Washers and dryers

Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Agricultural buildings
  • Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family residence (see Section 412.4)
  • Barns
  • Carports
  • Communication equipment structures with a gross floor area of less than 1,500 square feet (139 m2)
  • Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height
  • Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy
Greenhouses not classified as another occupancy shall be classified as Use Group U.
Notwithstanding any other requirements of this code, this section applies to the use and occupancy classification of state regulated care facilities addressed in this section.
Assisted living facilities licensed by the Virginia Department of Social Services shall be classified as one of the occupancies specified in Sections 313.2.1 through 313.2.6.
Facilities with more than sixteen persons receiving care, in which all persons receiving care, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation, shall be classified as Group I-1 Condition 1. Not more than five of the persons may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency, provided all persons requiring assistance reside on a level of exit discharge and the path of egress to the exit does not include steps.
Facilities with more than sixteen persons receiving care, in which there are persons who require assistance by not more than one staff member while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation, shall be classified as Group I-1 Condition 2. Not more than five of the persons may require physical assistance from more than one staff member to respond to an emergency situation.
Facilities with more than five persons receiving care who require assistance by more than one staff member when responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation, shall be classified as Group I-2 Condition 1.
Facilities with nine to sixteen persons receiving care, where all persons receiving care, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation shall be classified as Group R-4 Condition 1. Not more than five of the persons may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency, provided all persons requiring assistance reside on a level of exit discharge and the path of egress to the exit does not include steps.
Buildings with nine to sixteen persons receiving care, who may require assistance by not more than one staff member when responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation, shall be classified as Group R-4 Condition 2. Not more than five of the persons may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency situation.

Facilities with no more than eight persons receiving care, with one or more resident counselors, and all persons are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from staff, may be classified as Groups R-2, R-3 or R-5. Up to five of the persons may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency situation when in compliance with the following:

  1. All residents that require physical assistance from staff reside on a level of exit discharge and the path of egress to the exit does not include steps.
  2. The building is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 or Section P2904 of the IRC.
Family day homes registered or licensed by the Virginia Department of Social Services shall be classified as Group R-2, R-3 or R-5.
Group Homes licensed by the Virginia Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services shall be classified as one of the occupancies specified in Sections 313.4.1 through 313.4.3.
Facilities with no more than eight persons receiving care, with one or more resident counselors, shall be classified as Group R-2, R-3, R-4 (Condition 1 or 2) or R-5. Not more than five of the persons may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency situation.
Facilities with eight to sixteen persons receiving care, where all persons, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation shall be classified as Group R-4 Condition 1. Not more than five of the persons may require physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency, provided all persons requiring assistance reside on a level of exit discharge and the path of egress to the exit does not include steps.
Facilities with eight to sixteen persons receiving care or facilities with more than five persons requiring physical assistance from staff to respond to an emergency situation shall be classified as Group R-4 Condition 2.
Hospice facilities licensed by the Virginia Department of Health shall be classified as one of the occupancies specified in Sections 313.5.1 through 313.5.3.
Facilities with sixteen or more persons receiving care shall be classified as Group I-2.
Facilities with less than sixteen persons receiving care shall be classified as Group R-4 Condition 1.
Facilities with five or fewer persons receiving care are permitted to be classified as Group R-5.
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