The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered or open mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered and open mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.
- Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.
- Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section where they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.
A covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space or not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm). An open mall building and anchor buildings and parking garages adjoining the perimeter line shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm).
Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:
- The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered or open mall building and anchor buildings;
- The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours;
- Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a fire protection rating of not less than 3 hours; and
- Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not located within the covered or open mall building or anchor buildings.
The building area of any covered mall or open mall building, including anchor buildings, of Type I, II, III and IV construction shall not be limited provided the anchor buildings do not exceed three stories above grade plane.
Exception: The type of construction allowable building height and building area of anchor buildings greater than three stories above grade plane shall comply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506.
- Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers complying with Section 707.
- The exterior walls of anchor buildings separated from an open mall building by an open mall shall comply with Table 602.
An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered or open mall building or anchor building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
- The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.
- Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall building shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchor buildings.
- Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open mall building shall be independent from that provided for anchor buildings.
- Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall.
- Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.
- 1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.
- 1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.
- 1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended.
- Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved automatic sprinkler system and detection devices.
- The horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).
- Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have an area not greater than 300 square feet (28 m2).
Where the total floor area is greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided.
In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered or open mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by Equation 4-1.
OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).
GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).
Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.
The distance of travel from any point within a mall of a covered mall building to an exit shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The maximum distance of travel from any point within an open mall to the perimeter line of the open mall building shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).
Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall of a covered mall building to separate exits or from any point in an open mall of an open mall building to two separate locations on the perimeter line, provided neither location is an exterior wall of an anchor building or parking garage. The width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be not less than 66 inches (1676 mm).
Exception: Access to exits are permitted by way of a dead-end mall which does not exceed a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.
Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:
- They shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
- Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.
- The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.
- Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.
- Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.
- Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.
- Buildings with a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.6.
- Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
- Buildings with a Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.
- For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type IB.
Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall not be permitted to be reduced.
- In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.
- The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.
The face of the wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the enclosures for interior exit stairways or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:
- The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
- The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
- The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.
- Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.
- Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to no fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.
Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through no fewer than one of the connections.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:
For buildings other than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, one additional exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1009 and 1022 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1021.1. The total width of any combination of remaining exit stairways with one exit stairway removed shall be not less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairs shall not be considered the additional exit stairway required by this section.
The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall be used in the atrium space.
- That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
- Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.
- A fire barrier is not required where a glass wall forming a smoke partition is provided. The glass wall shall comply with all of the following:
- Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side. The sprinklers shall be located between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and at intervals along the glass not greater than 6 feet (1829 mm). The sprinkler system shall be designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction;
- The glass wall shall be installed in a gasketed frame in a manner that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates; and
- Where glass doors are provided in the glass wall, they shall be either self-closing or automatic-closing.
- A fire barrier is not required where a glass-block wall assembly complying with Section 2110 and having a 3/4-hour fire protection rating is provided.
- A fire barrier is not required between the atrium and the adjoining spaces of any three floors of the atrium provided such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.
The provisions of Sections 405.2 through 405.10 apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.
Exception: The provisions of Section 405 are not applicable to the following buildings or portions of buildings:
- One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.
- Parking garages provided with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.
- Fixed guideway transit systems.
- Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.
- Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.
- Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.
A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into no fewer than two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.
Group U occupancies used for the storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted to be 3,000 square feet (279 m2) where the following provisions are met:
- For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and opening protection for the Group U portion of the building shall be as required for the major occupancy of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, the allowable floor area of the building shall be as permitted for the major occupancy contained therein.
- For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall not be limited where the fire separation distance is 5 feet (1524 mm) or more.
More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m2) Group U occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same structure, provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m2) area is separated by fire walls complying with Section 706.
Carports shall be open on no fewer than two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.
Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.
Separations shall comply with the following:
- The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of gypsum board, not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to structures supporting the separation from habitable rooms above the garage. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 13/8 inches (34.9 mm) in thickness, or doors in compliance with Section 716.5.3 with a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.
- Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit, including its attic area, from the garage shall be constructed of sheet steel of not less than 0.019 inches (0.48 mm), in thickness, and shall have no openings into the garage.
- A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.
Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) in height shall be placed at the ends of drive lanes, and at the end of parking spaces where the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barriers shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.8.3.
Exception: Vehicle barriers are not required in vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.
Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.
- Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.
- Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.
Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.
Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier shall be not less than 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall be not less than 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be not less than 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.
Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION||AREA PER TIER |
|HEIGHT (in tiers)|
|Ramp access||Mechanical access|
|Automatic sprinkler system|
|IB||Unlimited||12 tiers||12 tiers||18 tiers|
|IIA||50,000||10 tiers||10 tiers||15 tiers|
|IIB||50,000||8 tiers||8 tiers||12 tiers|
|IV||50,000||4 tiers||4 tiers||4 tiers|
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
Where the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.5.4, along with increases allowed by Section 406.5.5.
Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.
In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.
The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.
The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm).
Allowable tier areas in Table 406.5.4 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. No fewer than three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for not less than 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.
Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm). All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.5.2. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.
Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:
- Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible element of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes;
- Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a thickness of not less than 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of not less than 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929; or
- Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall be not greater than 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:
- The spaces are not occupied as care recipient's sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, or hazardous uses.
- The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
- The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.
- The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.
Areas wherein psychiatric care recipients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:
- Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).
- The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.
- The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.
- The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.
- Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.
- The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.
Corridor doors, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 509.4 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 716.5.
- The locks release upon activation of the fire alarm system or the loss of power.
- The building is equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- A manual release device is provided at a nursing station responsible for the area.
- A key-operated switch or other manual device is provided adjacent to each door equipped with the locking device. Such switch or other device, when operated, shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock—independent of the control system electronics.
- All staff shall have keys or other means to unlock the switch or other device or each door provided with the locking device.
Sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be grouped into care suites with one intervening room if one of the following conditions is met:
- Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for each care recipient confined to bed or litter.
- Not less than 6 square feet (0.56 m2) for each ambulatory care recipient not confined to bed or litter and for other occupants.
Corridors in nursing homes, long-term care facilities, detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2.
- Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping rooms are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping room and an audible and visual alarm at the care provider's station attending each unit.
- Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping room doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group I-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy provided provisions are made for the release of occupants at all times.
Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.
One interior exit stairway or ramp in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the interior exit stairway or ramp, provided that the following conditions are met:
- The interior exit stairway or ramp shall not serve more than four floor levels.
- Exit doors shall be not less than 3/4-hour fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5
- The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3.2 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).
- The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.
- The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
- Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanisms required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.
Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.
Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.
- The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel;
- Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occupants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas;
- The height difference between the floor levels of the highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm); and
- Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or exit access door shall not require travel on more than one additional floor level within the housing unit.
In occupancies in Group I-3, windows and doors in 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 708 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 709 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met.
- Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).
- The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.
- The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
- Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
The engineered smoke control system shall provide and maintain a tenable environment in the area of origin and shall comply with all of the following:
- Shall facilitate the timely evacuation and relocation of occupants from the area of origin.
- Shall be independent of exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the IMC.
- Duration of operation in accordance with Section 909.4.6.
- The pressurization method shall be permitted and shall provide a minimum of 24 air changes per hour of exhaust, and 20 air changes per hour of makeup, and shall comply with Section 909.6. If the pressurization method is not utilized, the exhaust method shall be provided and shall comply with Section 909.8.
Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected.
The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.
- Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.
- In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, provided the space below the stage is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system or fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 903 or 904.
- In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks.
Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials consistent with the requirements for the type of construction of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.
Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.
The stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 2 hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and not less than 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less.
Stages shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.
- Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by Type X gypsum board not less than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) in thickness.
- Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.
- Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.
Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. Amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8.
Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke need not comply with this section.
Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.
Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area limitations of Table 412.3.2.
Not less than one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height provided that the occupant load per floor is not greater than 15. The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a distance of not less than one-half of the diagonal of the area served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and elevator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 4-hour fire barrier having no openings. Such stairway shall be pressurized to not less than 0.15 inch of water column (43 Pa) and not greater than 0.35 inch of water column (101 Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in Section 1009.16. The provisions of Section 403 do not apply.
Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.
Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.
Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.
- Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar need not be located in a separate room provided they are mounted not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.
- Entrance to the separated room shall be permitted by a single interior door provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.4.6.
Exception: Where a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.
[F] TABLE 412.4.6
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION|
|≥ 40,001||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I|
|40,000||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|30,000||Group III||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|20,000||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|15,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group III||Group II||Group III||Group II||Group II|
|12,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group II|
|8,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II|
|5,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:
- Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.
- Fuel transfer.
- Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.
- Spray finishing operations.
- Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).
- Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Electrical, mechanical and plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be permitted to be connected outside the structures.
Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.
Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inch (45 mm) in thickness.
The following changes shall be made to the IFC for the use of this section:
- Add the following reference standard to Chapter 80 of the IFC:
|Standard reference number||Title||Referenced in code section number|
A report shall be submitted to the building official identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official and provided without charge to the enforcing agency.
For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.
[F] TABLE 414.2.2
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS
|FLOOR LEVEL||PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE|
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa
|NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS|
|FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR|
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
|Higher than 9||5||1||2|
|Lower than 2||Not Allowed||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
- Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.
- Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:
The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.5(1).
In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code.
The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
|Materiala||Class||Solids pounds||Liquids gallons|
|A. Health-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Corrosivesb,c||Not Applicable||9,750||975|
|2. Highly toxics||Not Applicable||20b,c||2b,c|
|3. Toxicsb,c||Not Applicable||1,000||100|
|B. Physical-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Oxidizersb,c||4||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|1||18,000 i, j||1,800 i, j|
|2. Unstable (reactives)b,c||4||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|3. Water reactives||3b,c||550||55|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
- Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code.
- Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
- Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
- See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.
- Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.
- Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
- Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
- Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
- The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.
[F] TABLE 414.2.5(2)
|TYPE OF LIQUID||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)|
|Sprinklered in accordance with |
note b densities and arrangements
|Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) through |
3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of the International Fire Code
|Class IB, IC, II and IIIA||7,500c||15,000c||1,600|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
- Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.
- For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.
- For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.
- Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.
Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the International Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code.
Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building without entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or through ducts and plenums.
The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accordance with the International Fire Code.
A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.
Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the International Fire Code.
[F] TABLE 414.5.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSa
|MATERIAL||CLASS||EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS|
|Barricade construction||Explosion (deflagration) venting|
or explosion (deflagration)
|Combustible dustsc||—||Not Required||Required|
|Cryogenic flammables||—||Not Required||Required|
|Explosives||Division 1.1||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.2||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.3||Not Required||Required|
|Division 1.4||Not Required||Required|
|Division 1.5||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.6||Required||Not Required|
|Flammable gas||Gaseous||Not Required||Required|
|Flammable liquid||IAd||Not Required||Required|
|Organic peroxides||U||Required||Not Permitted|
|Oxidizer liquids and solids||4||Required||Not Permitted|
|Pyrophoric gas||—||Not Required||Required|
|Unstable (reactive)||4||Required||Not Permitted|
|3 Detonable||Required||Not Permitted|
|3 Nondetonable||Not Required||Required|
|Water-reactive liquids and solids||3||Not Required||Required|
|Acetylene generator rooms||—||Not Required||Required|
|Grain processing||—||Not Required||Required|
|Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities||—||Not Required||Required|
|Where explosion hazards existf||Detonation||Required||Not Permitted|
- See Section 414.1.3.
- See the International Fire Code.
- As generated during manufacturing or processing.
- Storage or use.
- In open use or dispensing.
- Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
- A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.
[F] TABLE 415.5.2
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED
|A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN|
|Material||Class||Solids and Liquids (tons)a, b||Gases (cubic feet)a, b|
|Explosives||Division 1.1||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Not Applicable|
|Division 1.2||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Division 1.3||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Division 1.4||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Division 1.5||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Division 1.6||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Oxidizers||Class 4||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Unstable (reactives) detonable||Class 3 or 4||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Oxidizer, liquids and solids||Class 3||1,200||Not Applicable|
|Class 2||2,000||Not Applicable|
|Organic peroxides||Detonable||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Not Applicable|
|Class I||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Not Applicable|
|Class II||25||Not Applicable|
|Class III||50||Not Applicable|
|Unstable (reactives) nondetonable||Class 3||1||2,000|
|Water reactives||Class 3||1||Not Applicable|
|Class 2||25||Not Applicable|
|Pyrophoric gases||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||2,000|
For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
- For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be in accordance with Chapter 56 of the International Fire Code based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 56 of the International Fire Code.
- "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.1(1).
- Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, provided the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.
- Emergency or standby power are not required for the following storage areas:
- Mechanical ventilation for storage of Class IB and Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) capacity.
- Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.
- Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.
- Storage, use and handling areas for asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.
- For storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2 of the International Fire Code.
- Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
Group H occupancies shall be located on property in accordance with the other provisions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall.
- Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter of the building where they are in accordance with the International Fire Code and NFPA 30.
- Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with the International Fire Code and NFPA 30.
- Spray paint booths that comply with the International Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter.