Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
24-HOUR BASIS. The actual time that a person is an occupant within a facility for the purpose of receiving care. It shall not include a facility that is open for 24 hours and is capable of providing care to someone visiting the facility during any segment of the 24 hours.
AAC MASONRY. Masonry made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) units, manufactured without internal reinforcement and bonded together using thin- or thick-bed mortar.
ABOVEGROUND LIQUID FERTILIZER STORAGE TANK (ALFST). A device that contains an accumulation of liquid fertilizer (i) constructed of nonearthen materials, such as concrete, steel or plastic, that provide structural support; (ii) having a capacity of 100,000 gallons (378 500 L) or greater; and (iii) the volume of which is more than 90 percent above the surface of the ground. The term does not include any wastewater treatment or wastewater storage tank, utility or industry pollution control equipment.
ACCESSIBLE. A site, building, facility or portion thereof that complies with Chapter 11.
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way.
ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed path that complies with Chapter 11.
ACCESSIBLE UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit that complies with this code and the provisions for Accessible units in ICC A117.1.
ACCREDITATION BODY. An approved, third-party organization that is independent of the grading and inspection agencies, and the lumber mills, and that initially accredits and subsequently monitors, on a continuing basis, the competency and performance of a grading or inspection agency related to carrying out specific tasks.
[A] ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure.
ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured and supported through the adhesion of an approved bonding material applied to an approved backing.
ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. Construction in which the exterior load-bearing and nonload-bearing walls and partitions are of unfired clay masonry units, and floors, roofs and interior framing are wholly or partly of wood or other approved materials.
Adobe, stabilized. Unfired clay masonry units to which admixtures, such as emulsified asphalt, are added during the manufacturing process to limit the units’ water absorption so as to increase their durability.
Adobe, unstabilized. Unfired clay masonry units that do not meet the definition of “Adobe, stabilized.”
[F] AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol container by a propellant. Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calculation of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be designated Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3.
Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g).
Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).
Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).
[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or plastic bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be limited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml). Glass or plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid ounces (118 ml).
AGGREGATE. In roofing, crushed stone, crushed slag or water-worn gravel used for surfacing for roof coverings.
AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. (Deleted)
AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure that uses air-pressurized membrane beams, arches or other elements to enclose space. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy the pressurized area used to support the structure.
AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure wherein the shape of the structure is attained by air pressure and occupants of the structure are within the elevated pressure area. Air-supported structures are of two basic types:
Double skin. Similar to a single skin, but with an attached liner that is separated from the outer skin and provides an airspace which serves for insulation, acoustic, aesthetic or similar purposes.
Single skin. Where there is only the single outer skin and the air pressure is directly against that skin.
AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.
AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle.
[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any combination thereof.
[F] ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.
[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. A method of proportioning structural members, such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called “working stress design”).
[A] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition.
ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.
AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITY. Buildings or portions thereof that are licensed by the Virginia Department of Health as outpatient surgical hospitals.
ANCHOR. Metal rod, wire or strap that secures masonry to its structural support.
ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a group other than H having direct access to a covered or open mall building but having required means of egress independent of the mall.
ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured with approved mechanical fasteners to an approved backing
ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating item.
[F] ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.
[A] APPROVED. Acceptable to the building official or authority having jurisdiction.
[A] APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services, when such agency has been approved.
APPROVED FABRICATOR. An established and qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official pursuant to Chapter 17 of this code.
APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or corporation, approved by the building official, who is competent and experienced in the application of engineering principles to materials, methods or systems analyses.
ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. Plain or ornamental hard-burned modified clay units, larger in size than brick, with glazed or unglazed ceramic finish.
AREA (for masonry).
Gross cross-sectional. The area delineated by the out-to-out specified dimensions of masonry in the plane under consideration.
Net cross-sectional. The area of masonry units, grout and mortar crossed by the plane under consideration based on out-to-out specified dimensions.
AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.
AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.
AREAWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard.
ASSEMBLY SEATING, MULTILEVEL. See “Multilevel assembly seating.”
ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505.
ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters.
[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.
AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). Low density cementitious product of calcium silicate hydrates, whose material specifications are defined in ASTM C 1386.
[F] AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products.
AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment that automatically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire and includes among other systems an automatic sprinkler system, unless otherwise expressly stated.
[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire.
[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.
[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less.
AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is partially or wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached.
BACKING. The wall or surface to which the veneer is secured.
[F] BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process).
[F] BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton made into banded bales with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per cubic foot (360 kg/m3), and dimensions complying with the following: a length of 55 inches (1397 mm), a width of 21 inches (533.4 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 to 899 mm).
BALLAST. In roofing, ballast comes in the form of large stones or paver systems or light-weight interlocking paver systems and is used to provide uplift resistance for roofing systems that are not adhered or mechanically attached to the roof deck.
[F] BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier.
Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).
Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the magazine or building containing explosives when the trees are bare of leaves.
BASE FLOOD. The flood having a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the base flood, including wave height, relative to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD), North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) or other datum specified on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM).
BASEMENT (for flood loads). The portion of a building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides. This definition of “Basement” is limited in application to the provisions of Section 1612.
BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane (see “Story above grade plane”). This definition of “Basement” does not apply to the provisions of Section 1612 for flood loads.
BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. A building or other structure in which vertical loads from floors and roofs are primarily supported by walls.
BED JOINT. The horizontal layer of mortar on which a masonry unit is laid.
BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see “Grandstands”).
BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.
[F] BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mercury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.
BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.
Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). A pressed and subsequently autoclaved unit that consists of sand and lime, with or without the inclusion of other materials.
Clay or shale. A solid or hollow masonry unit of clay or shale, usually formed into a rectangular prism, then burned or fired in a kiln; brick is a ceramic product.
Concrete. A concrete masonry unit made from Portland cement, water, and suitable aggregates, with or without the inclusion of other materials.
BUILDING. A combination of materials, whether portable or fixed, having a roof to form a structure for the use or occupancy by persons, or property. The word “building” shall be construed as though followed by the words “or part or parts thereof” unless the context clearly requires a different meaning. “Building” shall not include roadway tunnels and bridges owned by the Virginia Department of Transportation, which shall be governed by construction and design standards approved by the Virginia Commonwealth Transportation Board.
For application of this code, each portion of a building that is completely separated from other portions by fire walls complying with Section 706 shall be considered as a separate building (see Section 503.1).
BUILDING AREA. See “Area, building.”
BUILDING ELEMENT. A fundamental component of building construction, listed in Table 601, which may or may not be of fire-resistance-rated construction and is constructed of materials based on the building type of construction.
BUILDING HEIGHT. See “Height, building.”
BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.
[A] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
BUILDING REGULATIONS. Any law, rule, resolution, regulation, ordinance or code, general or special, or compilation thereof, heretofore or hereafter enacted or adopted by the Commonwealth or any county or municipality, including departments, boards, bureaus, commissions, or other agencies thereof, relating to construction, reconstruction, alteration, conversion, repair, maintenance, or use of structures and buildings and installation of equipment therein. The term does not include zoning ordinances or other land use controls that do not affect the manner of construction or materials to be used in the erection, alteration or repair of a building or structure.
BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material.
CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure in which the uplift is resisted by cables or webbings which are anchored to either foundations or dead men. Reinforcing cable or webbing is attached by various methods to the membrane or is an integral part of the membrane. This is not a cable-supported structure.
CANOPY. A permanent structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration. A canopy is permitted to be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one or more sides.
[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism.
CARE SUITE. A group of treatment rooms, care recipient sleeping rooms and their associated support rooms or spaces and circulation space within Group I-2 occupancies where staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recipients within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Section 407.4.3.
CAST STONE. A building stone manufactured from Portland cement concrete precast and used as a trim, veneer or facing on or in buildings or structures.
[F] CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed. The ceiling limits utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit (REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value—Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists (ACGIH), Ceiling Work place Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.
CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listed device installed in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening.
CELL (Group I-3 occupancy). A room within a housing unit in a detention or correctional facility used to confine inmates or prisoners.
CELL (masonry). A void space having a gross cross-sectional area greater than 11/2 square inches (967 mm2).
CELL TIER. Levels of cells vertically stacked above one another within a housing unit.
CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of portland or blended cement, Portland cement or blended cement and hydrated lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in this code.
CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A mineral wool insulation material made of alumina-silica fibers and weighing 4 to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m3).
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. A certificate stating that materials and products meet specified standards or that work was done in compliance with approved construction documents.
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the use or occupancy of any building or structure that would place the building or structure in a different division of the same group of occupancies or in a different group of occupancies; or a change in the purpose or level of activity within a building or structure that involves a change in application of the requirements of this code.
[M] CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or more passageways for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.
High-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.3).
Low-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to 1 hour. Temperatures shall be measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Masonry type. A field-constructed chimney of solid masonry units or stones.
Medium-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases not exceeding 2000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.2).
CIRCULATION PATH. An exterior or interior way of passage from one place to another for pedestrians.
[F] CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon vaporation.
CLEANOUT. An opening to the bottom of a grout space of sufficient size and spacing to allow the removal of debris.
CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to persons who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.
[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment.
COLLAR JOINT. Vertical longitudinal space between wythes of masonry or between masonry wythe and backup construction that is permitted to be filled with mortar or grout.
COLLECTOR. A horizontal diaphragm element parallel and in line with the applied force that collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system and/or distributes forces within the diaphragm.
COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center
[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve.
[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton.
[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows:
Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).
Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).
Class IIIB. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
The category of combustible liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.
COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included within the permitted travel distance.
COMMON USE. Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people.
[F] COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials, that:
- Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and
- Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution, except those gases which have no other health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).
The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows:
- Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than those in solution, which are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
- Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
- Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.
- Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. Maximum compressive force resisted per unit of net cross-sectional area of masonry, determined by the testing of masonry prisms
Carbonate aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or magnesium carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, and containing 40 percent or less quartz, chert or flint.
Cellular. A lightweight insulating concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with Portland cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3).
Lightweight aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and weighing 85 to 115 pcf (1360 to 1840 kg/m3).
Perlite. A lightweight insulating concrete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3) made with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggregate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure.
Sand-lightweight. Concrete made with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally between 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m3).
Siliceous aggregate. Concrete made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium carbonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert or flint.
Vermiculite. A light weight insulating concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the ore at high temperatures. When added to a Portland cement slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3).
CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bathroom and/or kitchen facilities.
[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.
CONSTRUCTION. The construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair, or conversion of buildings and structures.
[A] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit.
CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602.
Type I. See Section 602.2.
Type II. See Section 602.2.
Type III. See Section 602.3.
Type IV. See Section 602.4.
Type V. See Section 602.5.
[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes.
[F] CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See also the definition of “Outdoor control area” in the International Fire Code.
CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in place of compacted fill.
CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose primary structural elements are formed by a system of repetitive wood-framing members. See Section 2308 for conventional light-frame construction provisions.
CORNICE. A projecting horizontal molded element located at or near the top of an architectural feature.
CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.
CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment.
[F] CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such chemical destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.
COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.
COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. Anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term “covered mall building” shall include open mall buildings as defined below.
Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term “mall” shall include open malls as defined below.
Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.
Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. Anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.
CRIPPLE WALL. A framed stud wall extending from the top of the foundation to the underside of floor framing for the lowest occupied floor level.
[F] CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower than -150°F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa).
CUSTODIAL CARE. Assistance with day-to-day living tasks, such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, bathing, using toilet facilities, and other tasks of daily living. In other than in hospice facilities, custodial care includes occupants that have the ability to respond to emergency situations and evacuate at a slower rate or who have mental and psychiatric complications, or both.
DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast matrix of concrete or epoxy.
DAMPER. See “Ceiling radiation damper,” “Combination fire/smoke damper,” “Fire damper” and “Smoke damper.”
DANGEROUS. Any building, structure or portion thereof that meets any of the conditions described below shall be deemed dangerous:
- The building or structure has collapsed, has partially collapsed, has moved off its foundation or lacks the necessary support of the ground.
- There exists a significant risk of collapse, detachment or dislodgment of any portion, member, appurtenance or ornamentation of the building or structure under service loads.
[F] DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 56 of the International Fire Code.
DAY-NIGHT AVERAGE SOUND LEVEL (LDN). A 24-hour energy average sound level expressed in dBA, with a 10 decibel penalty applied to noise occurring between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m.
DEAD LOAD. The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and the weight of fixed service equipment, such as cranes, plumbing stacks and risers, electrical feeders, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and automatic sprinkler systems.
DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing material and whose surface, or assembly into which it is incorporated, is divided into segments.
[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for decorative effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.
DEEP FOUNDATION. A deep foundation is a foundation element that does not satisfy the definition of a shallow foundation.
[F] DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.
[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.
DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1905.1.1.
DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. The earthquake ground motion that buildings and structures are specifically proportioned to resist in Section 1613.
DESIGN FLOOD. The flood associated with the greater of the following two areas:
- Area with a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or greater chance of flooding in any year; or
- Area designated as a flood hazard area on a community’s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.
DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the “design flood,” including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community’s legally designated flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO, the design flood elevation shall be the elevation of the highest existing grade of the building’s perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO where a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number shall be taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm).
DESIGN PROFESSIONAL, REGISTERED. See “Registered design professional.”
DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPONSIBLE CHARGE, REGISTERED. See “Registered design professional in responsible charge.”
DESIGN STRENGTH. The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor).
DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. Those nonstructural components that require design in accordance with Chapter 13 of ASCE 7 and for which the component importance factor, Ip, is greater than 1 in accordance with Section 13.1.3 of ASCE 7.
[F] DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures.
DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1905.1.1
DETECTABLE WARNING. A standardized surface feature built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn visually impaired persons of hazards on a circulation path.
[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat—either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.
[F] DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Detonations have an explosive effect.
DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that provide treatment for substance abuse, serving care recipients who are incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to themselves or others.
DHCD. The Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development.
DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or sloped system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. When the term “diaphragm” is used, it shall include horizontal bracing systems.
Diaphragm, blocked. In light-frame construction, a diaphragm in which all sheathing edges not occurring on a framing member are supported on and fastened to blocking.
Diaphragm boundary. In light-frame construction, a location where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to another force-resisting element.
Diaphragm chord. A diaphragm boundary element perpendicular to the applied load that is assumed to take axial stresses due to the diaphragm moment.
Diaphragm flexible. A diaphragm is flexible for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment where so indicated in Section 12.3.1 of ASCE 7.
Diaphragm, rigid. A diaphragm is rigid for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is less than or equal to two times the average story drift.
Diaphram, unblocked. A diaphragm that has edge nailing at supporting members only. Blocking between supporting structural members at panel edges is not included. Diaphragm panels are field nailed to supporting members.
Nominal. The specified dimension plus an allowance for the joints with which the units are to be laid. Nominal dimensions are usually stated in whole numbers. Thickness is given first, followed by height and then length.
Specified. Dimensions specified for the manufacture or construction of a unit, joint element.
[F] DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere.
DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounter balanced swing action when opening.
DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.
DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics.
DRAG STRUT. See “Collector.”
DRILLED SHAFT. A drilled shaft is a cast-in-place deep foundation element constructed by drilling a hole (with or without permanent casing) into soil or rock and filling it with fluid concrete.
Socketed drilled shaft. A socketed drilled shaft is a drilled shaft with a permanent pipe or tube casing that extends down to bedrock and an uncased socket drilled into the bedrock.
[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.
DRY FLOODPROOFING. A combination of design modifications that results in a building or structure, including the attendant utility and sanitary facilities, being water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capacity to resist loads as identified in ASCE 7.
DURATION OF LOAD. The period of continuous application of a given load, or the aggregate of periods of intermittent applications of the same load.
DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes.
DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, MULTISTORY. See definition for “Multistory unit.”
EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a public way for one or more exits.
[F] ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that responds to common hall call buttons.
[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of emergency situations involving hazardous materials.
EMERGENCY COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT. Emergency communication equipment, includes but is not limited to two-way radio communications, signal booster, bi-directional amplifiers, radiating cable systems, or internal multiple antenna, or a combination of the foregoing.
[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises where signals from emergency equipment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel.
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.
EMERGENCY PUBLIC SAFETY PERSONNEL. Emergency public safety personnel includes firefighters, emergency medical personnel, law-enforcement officers, and other emergency public safety personnel routinely called upon to provide emergency assistance to members of the public in a wide variety of emergency situations, including but not limited to fires, medical emergencies, violent crimes, and terrorist attacks.
[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building.
EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. All or any portion of a space used only by employees and only for work. Corridors, toilet rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas.
ENTRANCE, PUBLIC. See “Public entrance.”
ENTRANCE, RESTRICTED. See “Restricted entrance.”
ENTRANCE, SERVICE. See “Service entrance.”
EQUIPMENT. Plumbing, heating, electrical, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment, elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, and other mechanical additions or installations.
EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walkways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.3).
ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. Buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in the event of extreme environmental loading from flood, wind, snow or earthquakes.
[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of equipment that consists of a top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to locally retain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures.
EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. Any buildings and structures for which the start of construction commenced before the effective date of the community’s first flood plain management code, ordinance or standard. “Existing construction” is also referred to as “existing structures.”
EXISTING STRUCTURE (For Section 1612.2). See “Existing construction”.
EXISTING STRUCTURE (For Chapter 34). (Deleted)
EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system between the exit access and the exit discharge or public way. Exit components include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways and exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits.
EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit.
EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, exit access stair or exit access ramp.
EXIT ACCESS RAMP. An interior ramp that is not a required interior exit ramp.
EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAY. An interior stairway that is not a required interior exit stairway.
EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.
EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.
EXIT HARDWARE, FIRE. See “Fire exit hardware.”
EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one building to an area in another building on approximately the same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the area of incidence and areas communicating therewith.
EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to an exit or to the exit discharge.
EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. Wall covering consisting of a woven textile backing, an expanded vinyl base coat layer and a nonexpanded vinyl skin coat. The expanded base coat layer is a homogeneous vinyl layer that contains a blowing agent. During processing, the blowing agent decomposes, causing this layer to expand by forming closed cells. The total thickness of the wall covering is approximately 0.055 inch to 0.070 inch (1.4 mm to 1.78 mm).
[F] EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or structures. An explosion could result from any of the following:
- Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway polymerization (usually detonations).
- Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures.
- Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion).
[F] EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and display fireworks, 1.3G.
The term “explosive” includes any material determined to be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes any material classified as an explosive other than consumer fireworks, 1.4G by the hazardous materials regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.
High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap when unconfined.
Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or deflagrate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G and propellants, 1.3C.
Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes.
UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification system used by DOTn included the terms “high” and “low” explosives as defined herein. The following terms further define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the division to specify further limitations on each division noted (i.e., the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and similar materials).
Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously.
Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.
Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion hazard, but that are so insensitive there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.
Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised of articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.
EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing, exterior wall cladding systems that consist of an insulation board attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat and a textured protective finish coat.
EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier.
EXTERIOR SURFACES. Weather-exposed surfaces.
EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or greater with the horizontal plane.
EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. A material or assembly of materials applied on the exterior side of exterior walls for the purpose of providing a weather-resisting barrier, insulation or for aesthetics, including but not limited to, veneers, siding, exterior insulation and finish systems, architectural trim and embellishments such as cornices, soffits, facias, gutters and leaders.
EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. A system or assembly of exterior wall components, including exterior wall finish materials, that provides protection of the building structural members, including framing and sheathing materials, and conditioned interior space, from the detrimental effects of the exterior environment.
F RATING. The time period that the through-penetration firestop system limits the spread of fire through the penetration when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479.
FABRIC PARTITION. A partition consisting of a finished surface made of fabric, without a continuous rigid backing, that is directly attached to a framing system in which the vertical framing members are spaced greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center.
FABRICATED ITEM. Structural, load-bearing or lateral load-resisting assemblies consisting of materials assembled prior to installation in a building or structure, or subjected to operations such as heat treatment, thermal cutting, cold working or reforming after manufacture and prior to installation in a building or structure. Materials produced in accordance with standard specifications referenced by this code, such as rolled structural steel shapes, steel reinforcing bars, masonry units and wood structural panels, or in accordance with a referenced standard which provides requirements for quality control done under the supervisions of a third-party quality control agency, shall not be considered “fabricated items.”
[F] FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fabrication area processes.
FACILITY. All or any portion of buildings, structures, site improvements, elements and pedestrian or vehicular routes located on a site.
FACTORED LOAD. The product of a nominal load and a load factor.
FARM BUILDING OR STRUCTURE. A building or structure not used for residential purposes, located on property where farming operations take place, and used primarily for any of the following uses or combination thereof:
- Storage, handling, production, display, sampling or sale of agricultural, horticultural, floricultural or silvicultural products produced in the farm.
- Sheltering, raising, handling, processing or sale of agricultural animals or agricultural animal products.
- Business or office uses relating to the farm operations.
- Use of farm machinery or equipment or maintenance or storage of vehicles, machinery or equipment on the farm.
- Storage or use of supplies and materials used on the farm.
- Implementation of best management practices associated with farm operations.
FIBER-CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-reinforcing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium silicate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced with discrete organic or inorganic nonasbestos fibers, or both. Additives that enhance manufacturing or product performance are permitted. Fiber-cement siding products have either smooth or textured faces and are intended for exterior wall and related applications.
FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER. A polymeric composite material consisting of reinforcement fibers, such as glass, impregnated with a fiber-binding polymer which is then molded and hardened. Fiber-reinforced polymers are permitted to contain cores laminated between fiber-reinforced polymer facings.
FIBERBOARD. A fibrous, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers (usually wood or cane) and having a density of less than 31 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (497 kg/m3) but more than 10 pcf (160 kg/m3).
FIELD NAILING. See “Nailing, field.”
[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See “Manual fire alarm box.”
[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponders or off-premises transmitters. The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices.
[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.
[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals.
FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above.
FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.
[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the systems can be manually controlled.
FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.
[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.
FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assembly.
FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening.
FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY, FLOOR. See “Floor fire door assembly.”
FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for use on fire door assemblies.
[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus.
FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are protected.
FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an opening protective will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 716. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.
[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof.
FIRE-RATED GLAZING. Glazing with either a fire protection rating or a fire-resistance rating.
FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use.
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703.
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated assemblies.
[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for occupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of fire.
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:
- The closest interior lot line;
- To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or
- To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot.
The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall.
FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. A window constructed and glazed to give protection against the passage of fire.
FIREBLOCKING. Building materials, or materials approved for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to other areas of the building through concealed spaces.
FIREPLACE. A hearth and fire chamber or similar prepared place in which a fire may be made and which is built in conjunction with a chimney.
FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.
FIRESTOP, MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See “Membrane penetration firestop.”
FIRESTOP, PENETRATION. See “Penetration firestop.”
FIRESTOP SYSTEM, THROUGH PENETRATION. See “Through penetration firestop system.”
[F] FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth herein.
Fireworks, 1.3G. Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as fireworks, UN0335 by the DOTn.
Fireworks, 1.4G. Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks which comply with the construction, chemical composition and labeling regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, UN0336, and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explosive materials for the purpose of this code.
FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.
FIXED SEATING. Furniture or fixture designed and installed for the use of sitting and secured in place including bench-type seats and seats with or without backs or arm rests.
FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.
[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which:
- Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or
- Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit.
The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 kPa) of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance with ASTM E 681.
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable.
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further categorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I category is subdivided as follows:
Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C).
Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C).
Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F (23°C) and below 100°F (38°C). The category of flammable liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.
[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 600°F (316°C) or less.
[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which burns so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 CFR; Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along its major axis.
[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).
[F] FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278.
FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, winders or combination thereof from one landing to another.
FLOOD or FLOODING. A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land from:
- The overflow of inland or tidal waters.
- The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.
FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. Any construction material capable of withstanding direct and prolonged contact with floodwaters without sustaining any damage that requires more than cosmetic repair.
FLOOD, DESIGN. See “Design flood.”
FLOOD ELEVATION, DESIGN. See “Design flood elevation.”
FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two areas:
- The area within a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or greater chance of flooding in any year.
- The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community’s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.
FLOOD HAZARD AREAS, SPECIAL. See “Special flood hazard areas.”
FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH-VELOCITY WAVE ACTION. Area within the flood hazard area that is subject to high-velocity wave action, and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) or other flood hazard map as Zone V, VO, VE or V1-30.
FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). An official map of a community on which the Federal emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has delineated both the special flood hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. The official report provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency containing the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the Flood Boundary and Floodway Map (FBFM), the water surface elevation of the base flood and supporting technical data.
FLOODWAY. The channel of the river, creek or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than a designated height.
FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts.
FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.
FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of a fire door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a horizontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire protection to a through-opening in a fire-resistance-rated floor (see Section 711.8).
[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected.
FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intentionally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open or closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal insulating or acoustical purposes and that has a density less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).
FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating having an overall shape and size that is capable of being reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a building element.
FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces.
FOSTER CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care to more than five children, 21/2 years of age or less.
FOUNDATION PIER. An isolated vertical foundation member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness does not exceed three times its thickness and whose height is equal to or less than four times its thickness.
FRAME STRUCTURE. A building or other structure in which vertical loads from floors and roofs are primarily supported by columns.
[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, ventilated noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are allowed to be included.
[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.
[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, contain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-containing mixture having at least 95-percent hydrogen gas by volume and not more than 1-percent oxygen by volume. Gaseous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, compressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls.
GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation consisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with asphalt and kraft reinforced with glass fiber.
GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. A structural element, the section of which is composed of built-up lumber, wood structural panels or wood structural panels in combination with lumber, all parts bonded together with structural adhesives.
GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.
GRADE (LUMBER). The classification of lumber in regard to strength and utility in accordance with American Softwood Lumber Standard DOC PS 20 and the grading rules of an approved lumber rules-writing agency.
GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building.
GRADE PLANE, STORY ABOVE. See “Story above grade plane.”
GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see “Bleachers”).
GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross leasable area.
GROUP HOME. A facility for social rehabilitation or substance abuse or mental health problems that contains a group housing arrangement that provides custodial care but does not provide medical care.
GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.
GYPSUM BOARD. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, predecorated gypsum board or water-resistant gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in Tables 2506.2, 2507.2 and Chapter 35.
GYPSUM PLASTER. A mixture of calcined gypsum or calcined gypsum and lime and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in this code.
GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. Gypsum plaster applied to an approved base in one or more coats normally not exceeding 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in total thickness.
HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.
[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an element from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
[F] HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point of storage or use.
HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.
HARDBOARD. A fibrous-felted, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers consolidated under heat and pressure in a hot press to a density not less than 31 pcf (497 kg/m3).
[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances that are physical hazards or health hazards as classified in Section 307 and the International Fire Code, whether the materials are in usable or waste condition.
[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes which have as their end product materials that are not hazardous.
HEAD JOINT. Vertical mortar joint placed between masonry units within the wythe at the time the masonry units are laid.
[F] HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals that are toxic or highly toxic, and corrosive.
HEAT DETECTOR. See “Detector, heat.”
HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface.
HELICAL PILE. Manufactured steel deep foundation element consisting of a central shaft and one or more helical bearing plates. A helical pile is installed by rotating it into the ground. Each helical bearing plate is formed into a screw thread with a uniform defined pitch.
HELIPAD. A structural surface that is used for the landing, taking off, taxiing and parking of helicopters.
HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for the use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facilities.
HELISTOP. The same as “heliport,” except that no fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is permitted.
HIGH-PRESSURE DECORATIVE EXTERIOR-GRADE COMPACT LAMINATE (HPL). Panels consisting of layers of cellulose fibrous material impregnated with thermosetting resins and bonded together by a high-pressure process to form a homogeneous nonporous core suitable for exterior use.
HIGH-PRESSURE DECORATIVE EXTERIOR-GRADE COMPACT LAMINATE (HPL) SYSTEM. An exterior wall covering fabricated using HPL in a specific assembly including joints, seams, attachments, substrate, framing and other details as appropriate to a particular design.
HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A building with an occupied floor located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or lethal concentration that falls within any of the following categories:
- A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
- A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
- A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evaluation that is required for the precise categorization of this type of material shall be performed by experienced, technically competent persons.
HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law (see Sections 3409 and 3411.9).
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.
HORIZONTAL EXIT. See “Exit, horizontal.”
HOSPICE FACILITY. An institution, place, or building owned or operated by a hospice provider and licensed by the Virginia Department of Health as a hospice facility to provide room, board, and palliative and supportive medical and other health services to terminally ill patients and their families, including respite and symptom management, on a 24-hour basis to individuals requiring such care pursuant to the orders of a physician.
HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. Facilities that provide care or treatment for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation.
HOUSING UNIT. A dormitory or a group of cells with a common dayroom in Group I-3.
[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquid.
[F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.
HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to hurricanes defined as:
- The U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, for Risk Category II buildings is greater than 115 mph (51.4 m/s); and
- Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands and American Samoa.
[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. A room or space that is intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system.
ICE-SENSITIVE STRUCTURE. A structure for which the effect of an atmospheric ice load governs the design of a structure or portion thereof. This includes, but is not limited to, lattice structures, guyed masts, overhead lines, light suspension and cable-stayed bridges, aerial cable systems (e.g., for ski lifts or logging operations), amusement rides, open catwalks and platforms, flagpoles and signs.
[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppmv/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). If adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the building official shall make such determination.
IMPACT LOAD. The load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles and other similar forces and kinetic loads, pressure and possible surcharge from fixed or moving loads.
INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION. Persons because of age, physical limitations, mental limitations, chemical dependency, or medical treatment who cannot respond as an individual to an emergency situation.
[F] INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or property.
INDUSTRIALIZED BUILDING. A combination of one or more sections or modules, subject to state regulations and including the necessary electrical, plumbing, heating, ventilating and other service systems, manufactured off-site and transported to the point of use for installation or erection, with or without other specified components, to comprise a finished building. Manufactured homes shall not be considered industrialized buildings for the purpose of this code.
[F] INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other materials only under abnormal conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physical or health hazard properties as defined (other than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon.
[F] INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box or supervisory switch.
INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. An identification applied on a product by an approved agency containing the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics, and the name and identification of an approved agency that indicates that the product or material has been inspected and evaluated by an approved agency (see Section 1703.5 and “Label,” “Manufacturer’s designation” and “Mark”).
INTENDED TO BE OCCUPIED AS A RESIDENCE. This refers to a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that can or will be used all or part of the time as the occupant’s place of abode.
INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way.
INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way.
INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall and ceiling finish and interior floor finish.
INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. The exposed floor surfaces of buildings including coverings applied over a finished floor or stair, including risers.
INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. Interior floor finish trim used to provide a functional or decorative border at the intersection of walls and floors.
INTERIOR SURFACES. Surfaces other than weather exposed surfaces.
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim.
INTERLAYMENT. A layer of felt or nonbituminous saturated felt not less than 18 inches (457 mm) wide, shingled between each course of a wood-shake roof covering.
INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Thin film liquid mixture applied to substrates by brush, roller, spray or trowel which expands into a protective foamed layer to provide fire-resistant protection of the substrates when exposed to flame or intense heat.
JOINT. The opening in or between adjacent assemblies that is created due to building tolerances, or is designed to allow independent movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seismic, wind or any other loading.
[A] JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.
L RATING. The air leakage rating of a through penetration firestop system or a fire-resistant joint system when tested in accordance with UL 1479 or UL 2079, respectively.
[A] LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material, and the name and identification of an approved agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency (see Section 1703.5 and “Inspection certificate,” “Manufacturer’s designation” and “Mark”).
[A] LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which has been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LBBCA. Local board of building code appeals.
LEVEL OF EXIT DISCHARGE. See “Exit discharge, level of.”
LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. Construction consisting in whole or in part of lenses, panels, grids or baffles made with light-transmitting plastics positioned below independently mounted electrical light sources, skylights or light-transmitting plastic roof panels. Lenses, panels, grids and baffles that are part of an electrical fixture shall not be considered as a light-diffusing system.
LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel framing members.
LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. Structural plastic panels other than skylights that are fastened to structural members, or panels or sheathing and that are used as light-transmitting media in the plane of the roof.
LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. Plastic materials that are fastened to structural members, or to structural panels or sheathing, and that are used as light-transmitting media in exterior walls.
LIMIT STATE. A condition beyond which a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state).
[F] LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term “liquid” includes both flammable and combustible liquids.
LIQUID FERTILIZER. A fluid in which a fertilizer is in true solution. This term does not include anhydrous ammonia or a solution used in pollution control.
[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.
[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. A room in which Class I, II and IIIA flammable or combustible liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers.
[A] LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the building official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LIVE/WORK UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit in which a significant portion of the space includes a nonresidential use that is operated by the tenant.
LIVE LOAD. A load produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure that does not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.
LIVE LOAD, ROOF. A load on a roof produced:
- During maintenance by workers, equipment and materials;
- During the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters or other similar small decorative appurtenances that are not occupancy related; or
- By the use and occupancy of the roof such as for roof gardens or assembly areas.
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). A method of proportioning structural members and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. The term “LRFD” is used in the design of steel and wood structures.
LOAD EFFECTS. Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads.
LOAD FACTOR. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously.
LOADS. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement and restrained dimensional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude, such as dead loads. All other loads are variable loads (see also “Nominal loads”).
LOCAL BUILDING DEPARTMENT. The agency or agencies of any local governing body charged with the administration, supervision, or enforcement of this code, approval of construction documents, inspection of buildings or structures, or issuance of permits, licenses, certificates or similar documents.
LOCAL GOVERNING BODY. The governing body of any city, county or town in this Commonwealth.
LOCALITY. A city, county or town in this Commonwealth.
[A] LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.
[A] LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.
[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as “LEL” or “lower explosive limit.”
LOWEST FLOOR. The floor of the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but excluding any unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for vehicle parking, building access or limited storage provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of Section 1612.
MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. An assemblage of structural elements assigned to provide support and stability for the overall structure. The system generally receives wind loading from more than one surface
MALL BUILDING, COVERED and MALL BUILDING, OPEN. See “Covered mall building.”
[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.
MANUFACTURED HOME. A structure subject to federal regulation, which is transportable in one or more sections; is 8 body feet or more in width and 40 body feet or more in length in the traveling mode, or is 320 or more (29.7 m2) square feet when erected on site; is built on a permanent chassis; is designed to be used as a single-family dwelling, with or without a permanent foundation, when connected to the required utilities; and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained in the structure.
[A] MANUFACTURER’S DESIGNATION. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a product or material complies with a specified standard or set of rules (see also “Inspection certificate,” “Label” and “Mark”).
MARINA. Any installation, operating under public or private ownership, that has a structure providing dockage or moorage for boats, other than paddleboats or rowboats, and provides, through sale, rental, fee, or on a free basis, any equipment, supply, or service, including fuel, electricity, or water, for the convenience of the public or its lessees, renters, or users of its facilities. A dock or pier with or without slips that exclusively serves a single-family residential lot for the use of the owner of the lot is not a marina.
[A] MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the function of a product or material (see also “Inspection certificate,” “Label” and “Manufacturer’s designation”).
MARQUEE. A canopy that has a top surface which is sloped less than 25 degrees from the horizontal and is located less than 10 feet (3.05 m) from operable openings above or adjacent to the level of the marquee.
MASONRY. A built-up construction or combination of building units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone or other approved units bonded together with or without mortar or grout or other accepted methods of joining.
Ashlar masonry. Masonry composed of various-sized rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces, properly bonded and laid in mortar.
Coursed ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone of equal height for each course, although different courses shall be permitted to be of varying height.
Glass unit masonry. Masonry composed of glass units bonded by mortar.
Plain masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of the masonry is taken into consideration and the effects of stresses in reinforcement are neglected.
Random ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone set without continuous joints and laid up without drawn patterns. When composed of material cut into modular heights, discontinuous but aligned horizontal joints are discernible.
Reinforced masonry. Masonry construction in which reinforcement acting in conjunction with the masonry is used to resist forces.
Solid masonry. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled with mortar.
Unreinforced (plain) masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of masonry is taken into consideration and the resistance of the reinforcing steel, if present, is neglected.
MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 2103.
Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is 75 percent or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
MASTIC FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Liquid mixture applied to a substrate by brush, roller, spray or trowel that provides fire-resistant protection of a substrate when exposed to flame or intense heat.
MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.
MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. A rooftop structure, not covered by a roof, used to aesthetically conceal plumbing, electrical or mechanical equipment from view.
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. For the purposes of determining seismic loads in ASCE 7, mechanical systems shall include plumbing systems as specified therein.
MEDICAL CARE. Care involving medical or surgical procedures, nursing or for psychiatric purposes.
MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. A nonpressurized structure in which a mast and cable system provides support and tension to the membrane weather barrier and the membrane imparts stability to the structure.
MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. A nonpressurized building wherein the structure is composed of a rigid framework to support a tensioned membrane which provides the weather barrier.
MEMBRANE PENETRATION. A breach in one side of a floor-ceiling, roof-ceiling or wall assembly to accommodate an item installed into or passing through the breach.
MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A material, device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a protective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items.
MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An assemblage consisting of a fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling, roof-ceiling or wall assembly, one or more penetrating items installed into or passing through the breach in one side of the assembly and the materials or devices, or both, installed to resist the spread of fire into the assembly for a prescribed period of time.
MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 from which customers browse or shop.
METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). A factory manufactured panel consisting of metal skins bonded to both faces of a plastic core.
METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. An exterior wall covering fabricated using MCM in a specific assembly including joints, seams, attachments, substrate, framing and other details as appropriate to a particular design.
METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having a minimum installed weather exposure of 3 square feet (0.279 m2) per sheet.
METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet having an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.279 m2) per sheet.
MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 505.
MICROPILE. A micropile is a bored, grouted-in-place deep foundation element that develops its load-carrying capacity by means of a bond zone in soil, bedrock or a combination of soil and bedrock.
MINERAL BOARD. A rigid felted thermal insulation board consisting of either felted mineral fiber or cellular beads of expanded aggregate formed into flat rectangular units.
MINERAL FIBER. Insulation composed principally of fibers manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or without binders.
MINERAL WOOL. Synthetic vitreous fiber insulation made by melting predominately igneous rock or furnace slag, and other inorganic materials, and then physically forming the melt into fibers.
MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more layers of polymer-modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate or held in place with an approved ballast layer.
MORTAR. A mixture consisting of cementitious materials, fine aggregates, water, with or without admixtures, that is used to construct unit masonry assemblies.
MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. A mixture to bond concrete masonry units that contains hydraulic cement, glass fiber reinforcement with or without inorganic fillers or organic modifiers and water.
MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating that is arranged in distinct levels where each level is comprised of either multiple rows, or a single row of box seats accessed from a separate level.
[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.
[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms.
MULTISTORY UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit with habitable space located on more than one story.
NAILING, BOUNDARY. A special nailing pattern required by design at the boundaries of diaphragms.
NAILING, EDGE. A special nailing pattern required by design at the edges of each panel within the assembly of a diaphragm or shear wall.
NAILING, FIELD. Nailing required between the sheathing panels and framing members at locations other than boundary nailing and edge nailing.
NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species except for the occasional piece with corner sapwood, provided 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood.
Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.
Termite resistant. Redwood, Alaska yellow cedar, Eastern red cedar and both heartwood and all sapwood of Western red cedar.
NIGHT CLUB. Any building in which the main use is a place of public assembly that provides exhibition, performance or other forms of entertainment; serves alcoholic beverages; and provides music and space for dancing.
NOMINAL LOADS. The magnitudes of the loads specified in Chapter 16 (dead, live, soil, wind, snow, rain, flood and earthquake).
NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). The commercial size designation of width and depth, in standard sawn lumber and glued-laminated lumber grades; somewhat larger than the standard net size of dressed lumber, in accordance with DOCPS 20 for sawn lumber and with the AF&PA NDS for glued-laminated lumber.
NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. A membrane structure in which the membrane and all component parts of the structure are noncombustible.
[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].
NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights.
[F] NOTIFICATION ZONE. See “Zone, notification.”
[F] NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined.
NURSING HOMES. Facilities that provide care, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities where any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation.
OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed.
OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space designed for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occupants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the requirements of this code.
OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.5.2 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.5.3.
[F] OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.
[F] OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances
ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1905.1.1.
ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1905.1.1.
ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE WALL. See Section 1905.1.1.
[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detonation or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can also decompose into various unstable compounds over an extended period of time.
Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagration but not detonation.
Class II. Those formulations that burn very rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.
Class III. Those formulations that burn rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.
Class IV. Those formulations that burn in the same manner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity hazard.
Class V. Those formulations that burn with less intensity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion and that pose no reactivity hazard.
Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition.
ORTHOGONAL. To be in two horizontal directions, at 90 degrees (1.57 rad) to each other.
OTHER STRUCTURES. Structures, other than buildings, for which loads are specified in Chapter 16.
OUTPATIENT CLINIC. See “Clinic, outpatient.”
OWNER. The owner or owners of the freehold of the premises or lesser estate therein, a mortgagee or vendee in possession, assignee of rents, receiver, executor, trustee or lessee in control of a building or structure.
[F] OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contaminated, can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposition.
Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes into contact. Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase in the burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles.
Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.
Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.
Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the burning rate of combustible materials.
[F] OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate combustion of other materials more than air does.
PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). The section of a floor, wall or roof comprised between the supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor or roof construction.
PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the direction of egress travel. See also “Fire exit hardware.”
PARTICLEBOARD. A generic term for a panel primarily composed of cellulosic materials (usually wood), generally in the form of discrete pieces or particles, as distinguished from fibers. The cellulosic material is combined with synthetic resin or other suitable bonding system by a process in which the interparticle bond is created by the bonding system under heat and pressure.
PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A through-penetration firestop or a membrane-penetration firestop.
PENTHOUSE. An enclosed, unoccupied rooftop structure used for sheltering mechanical and electrical equipment, tanks, elevators and related machinery, and vertical shaft openings.
PERFORMANCE CATEGORY. A designation of wood structural panels as related to the panel performance used in Chapter 23.
PERMISSIBLE FIREWORKS. Any sparklers, fountains, Pharaoh’s serpents, caps for pistols, or pinwheels commonly known as whirligigs or spinning jennies.
[A] PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of a specified activity.
[A] PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.
PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of persons who do not require medical care. Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the persons while inside the building
PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed.
PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES/SHINGLES. A roof covering composed of flat-plate photovoltaic modules fabricated in sheets that resemble three-tab composite shingles.
[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evidence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric (solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid).
[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), that represents the concentration at which persons can sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or other quick-acting physiological response. When used in conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) the physiological warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classification system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of “Permissible exposure limit (PEL)” in the International Fire Code.
PLACE OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. See “Religious worship, place of.”
PLASTIC, APPROVED. Any thermoplastic, thermosetting or reinforced thermosetting plastic material that conforms to combustibility classifications specified in the section applicable to the application and plastic type.
PLASTIC GLAZING. Plastic materials that are glazed or set in frame or sash and not held by mechanical fasteners that pass through the glazing material.
PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for worship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for not more than 30 days.
POLYPROPYLENE SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from polypropylene homopolymer, or copolymer, which in some cases contains fillers or reinforcements, that is used to clad exterior walls of buildings.
PORCELAIN TILE. Porcelain tile shall conform to the requirements of ANSI 137.1.3 for ceramic tile having an absorption of 0.5 percent or less according to ANSI 137.4.1– Class Table and ANSI 126.96.36.199 Allowable Properties by Tile Type–Table 10.
POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in which consideration has been made for all loading deflections of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation.
PREFABRICATED WOOD I-JOIST. Structural member manufactured using sawn or structural composite lumber flanges and wood structural panel webs bonded together with exterior exposure adhesives, which forms an “I” cross-sectional shape.
PRESTRESSED MASONRY. Masonry in which internal stresses have been introduced to counteract potential tensile stresses in masonry resulting from applied loads.
PRIMARY FUNCTION. A primary function is a major activity for which the facility is intended. Areas that contain a primary function include, but are not limited to, the customer service lobby of a bank, the dining area of a cafeteria, the meeting rooms in a conference center, as well as offices and other work areas in which the activities of the public accommodation or other private entity using the facility are carried out. Mechanical rooms, boiler rooms, supply storage rooms, employee lounges or locker rooms, janitorial closets, entrances, corridors and restrooms are not areas containing a primary function.
PRIMARY STRUCTURAL FRAME. The primary structural frame shall include all of the following structural members:
- The columns;
- Structural members having direct connections to the columns, including girders, beams, trusses and spandrels;
- Members of the floor construction and roof construction having direct connections to the columns; and
- Bracing members that are essential to the vertical stability of the primary structural frame under gravity loading shall be considered part of the primary structural frame whether or not the bracing member carries gravity loads.
PRISM. An assemblage of masonry units and mortar with or without grout used as a test specimen for determining properties of the masonry.
PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage from the auditorium or assembly seating area.
PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. See “Hospitals.”
PUBLIC ENTRANCE. An entrance that is not a service entrance or a restricted entrance.
PUBLIC-USE AREAS. Interior or exterior rooms or spaces that are made available to the general public.
[A] PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).
[F] PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an auto-ignition temperature in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C).
[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture that produces visible light displays or sounds through a self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is initiated by ignition.
RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).
RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level.
[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings (“as builts”) that document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire alarm system as installed.
REFLECTIVE PLASTIC CORE FOIL INSULATION. An insulation material packaged in rolls, that is less than 0.5 inches thick, with at least one exterior low emittance surface (0.1 or less) and a core material containing voids or cells.
REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL (RDP). An architect or professional engineer, licensed to practice architecture or engineering, as defined under Section 54.1-400 of the Code of Virginia.
[A] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPONSIBLE CHARGE. A registered design professional engaged by the owner to review and coordinate certain aspects of the project, as determined by the building official, for compatibility with the design of the building or structure, including submittal documents prepared by others, deferred submittal documents and phased submittal documents.
RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion thereof intended for the performance of religious services.
[A] REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance.
REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an existing roof covering. See “Roof recover” and “Roof replacement.”
RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height constructed on a one- or two-family property where aircraft are stored. Such use will be considered as a residential accessory use incidental to the dwelling.
RESISTANCE FACTOR. A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called “strength reduction factor”).
RESTRICTED ENTRANCE. An entrance that is made available for common use on a controlled basis, but not public use, and that is not a service entrance.
RETRACTABLE AWNING. A retractable awning is a cover with a frame that retracts against a building or other structure to which it is entirely supported.
RISK CATEGORY. A categorization of buildings and other structures for determination of flood, wind, snow, ice and earthquake loads based on the risk associated with unacceptable performance.
RISK-TARGETED MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE (MCER) GROUND MOTION RESPONSE ACCELERATIONS. The most severe earthquake effects considered by this code, determined for the orientation that results in the largest maximum response to horizontal ground motions and with adjustment for targeted risk.
ROOF ASSEMBLY (For application to Chapter 15 only). A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insulation, vapor retarder and roof covering.
ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance.
ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See “Roof assembly.”
ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface constructed on top of the exterior walls of a building or other supports for the purpose of enclosing the story below, or sheltering an area, to protect it from the elements, not including its supporting members or vertical supports.
ROOF DRAINAGE, POSITIVE. See “Positive roof drainage.”
ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering.
ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance.
ROOF REPLACEMENT. The process of removing the existing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and installing a new roof covering.
ROOF VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, attics, cathedral ceilings or other enclosed spaces over which a roof assembly is installed.
ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. A structure erected on top of the roof deck or on top of any part of a building.
RUBBLE MASONRY. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones.
Coursed rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones fitting approximately on level beds and well bonded.
Random rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded and fitted together to form well-divided joints.
Rough or ordinary rubble. Masonry composed of unsquared field stones laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded.
RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length.
SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only one door or gate at a time.
SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure.
SCUPPER. An opening in a wall or parapet that allows water to drain from a roof.
SECONDARY MEMBERS. The following structural members shall be considered secondary members and not part of the primary structural frame:
- Structural members not having direct connections to the columns;
- Members of the floor construction and roof construction not having direct connections to the columns; and
- Bracing members other than those that are part of the primary structural frame.
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. A classification assigned to a structure based on its risk category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site.
SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. That part of the structural system that has been considered in the design to provide the required resistance to the prescribed seismic forces.
SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening protective, means equipped with an device that will ensure closing after having been opened.
SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained power source, other than batteries, and operated independently of external power sources.
SELF-PRESERVATION, INCAPABLE OF. See “Incapable of self-preservation.”
SELF-SERVICE STORAGE FACILITY. Real property designed and used for the purpose of renting or leasing individual storage spaces to customers for the purpose of storing and removing personal property on a self-service basis.
[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of egress.
SERVICE ENTRANCE. An entrance intended primarily for delivery of goods or services.
SHAFT. An enclosed space extending through one or more stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in successive floors, or floors and roof.
SHAFT ENCLOSURE. The walls or construction forming the boundaries of a shaft.
SHALLOW FOUNDATION. A shallow foundation is an individual or strip footing, a mat foundation, a slab-on-grade foundation or a similar foundation element.
SHEAR WALL. (For Chapter 23) A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall.
Shear wall, perforated. A wood structural panel sheathed wall with openings, that has not been specifically designed and detailed for force transfer around openings.
Shear wall segment, perforated. A section of shear wall with full-height sheathing that meets the height-to-width ratio limits of Section 4.3.4 of AF&PA SDPWS.
SHEAR WALL (For Chapter 21)
Detailed plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.
Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.
Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.
Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.
Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.
Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.
Special prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1 except that only grouted, laterally restrained tendons are used.
Special reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.
SHORT-TERM HOLDING AREA. An area containing a holding cell or cells, or a holding room or rooms, including associated rooms or spaces where the occupants are restrained or detained by the use of security measures not under the occupant’s control for less than 24 hours.
SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is field applied using one layer of membrane material (either homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers.
[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.
SITE. A parcel of land bounded by a lot line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.
SITE CLASS. A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their engineering properties as defined in Section 1613.3.2.
SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. A system, fabricated on site and intended for acoustical, tackable or aesthetic purposes, that is comprised of three elements:
- A frame (constructed of plastic, wood, metal or other material) used to hold fabric in place,
- A core material (infill, with the correct properties for the application), and
- An outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric or vinyl, that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or mechanical fasteners via the frame.
SKIRTING. A weather-resistant material used to enclose the space from the bottom of the manufactured home to grade.
SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.
SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this definition.
SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.
SLIP. A berth or space where a boat may be secured to a fixed or floating structure, including a dock, finger pier, boat lift, or mooring buoy.
[F] SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke. See also definitions of “Multiple-station smoke alarm” and “Single station smoke alarm.”
SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.
SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.
SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.
[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.
SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.
SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure.
SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited.
[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C).
SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (STC) RATING. A single number characterizing the sound reduction performance of a material tested in accordance with ASTM E90-90, “Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building Partitions.”
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amusement building is any temporary or permanent building or portion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or educational purposes and that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available because of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance through the building or structure.
SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The land area subject to flood hazards and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map or other flood hazard map as Zone A, AE, A1-30, A99, AR, AO, AH, V, VO, VE or V1-30.
SPECIAL INSPECTION. Inspection of construction requiring the expertise of an approved special inspector in order to ensure compliance with this code and the approved construction documents.
Continuous special inspection. Special inspection by the special inspector who is continuously present when and where the work to be inspected is being performed.
Periodic special inspection. Special inspection by the special inspector who is intermittently present where the work to be inspected has been or is being performed.
SPECIAL INSPECTOR. A qualified person employed or retained by an approved agency and approved by the building official as having the competence necessary to inspect a particular type of construction requiring special inspection.
SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1905.1.1.
SPECIFIED. Required by construction documents.
SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY, f'm. Minimum compressive strength, expressed as force per unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the masonry used in construction by the construction documents, and upon which the project design is based. Whenever the quantity f'm is under the radical sign, the square root of numerical value only is intended and the result has units of pounds per square inch (psi) (MPa).
SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method of joining or connecting two or more lengths of a fire-resistant joint system into a continuous entity.
SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. Cementitious or fibrous materials that are sprayed to provide fire-resistant protection of the substrates.
STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for stack bond shall apply to masonry laid in other than running bond.
STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound.
STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers.
STAIR, SCISSOR. See “Scissor stair.”
STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.
STAIRWAY, EXIT ACCESS. See “Exit access stairway.”
STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least one side, except for required structural columns, beams, handrails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway need not be open.
STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the definition of an exterior stairway.
STAIRWAY, INTERIOR EXIT. See “Interior exit stairway.”
STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting column.
[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe classes are as follows:
Class I system. A system providing 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
Class II system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the building occupants or by the fire department during initial response.
Class III system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows:
Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand automatically.
Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire department connection in order to meet the system demand.
Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but does not have a water supply capable of delivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to meet the system demand.
Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
START OF CONSTRUCTION. The date of issuance for new construction and substantial improvements to existing structures, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, placement or other improvement is within 180 days after the date of issuance. The actual start of construction means the first placement of permanent construction of a building (including a manufactured home) on a site, such as the pouring of a slab or footings, installation of pilings or construction of columns.
Permanent construction does not include land preparation (such as clearing, excavation, grading or filling), the installation of streets or walkways, excavation for a basement, footings, piers or foundations, the erection of temporary forms or the installation of accessory buildings such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main building. For a substantial improvement, the actual “start of construction” means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
STATE REGULATED CARE FACILITY (SRCF). A building with an occupancy in Group R-2, R-3, R-4 or R-5 occupied by persons in the care of others where program oversight is provided by the Virginia Department of Social Services, the Virginia Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, the Virginia Department of Education or the Virginia Department of Juvenile Justice.
STATE REVIEW BOARD. The Virginia State Building Code Technical Review Board as established under Section 36-108 of the Code of Virginia.
STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. That type of construction made up entirely or in part of steel structural members cold formed to shape from sheet or strip steel such as roof deck, floor and wall panels, studs, floor joists, roof joists and other structural elements.
STEEL JOIST. Any steel structural member of a building or structure made of hot-rolled or cold-formed solid or open-web sections, or riveted or welded bars, strip or sheet steel members, or slotted and expanded, or otherwise deformed rolled sections.
STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. Any steel structural member of a building or structure consisting of a rolled steel structural shape other than cold-formed steel, or steel joist members.
STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope).
STONE MASONRY. Masonry composed of field, quarried or cast stone units bonded by mortar.
Ashlar stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces and bonded by mortar.
Rubble stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of irregular-shaped units bonded by mortar.
[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed containers, tanks, cylinders, or similar vessels; or vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel.
STORM SHELTER. A building, structure or portions thereof, constructed in accordance with ICC 500 and designated for use during a severe wind storm event, such as a hurricane or tornado.
Community storm shelter. A storm shelter not defined as a “Residential Storm Shelter.”
Residential storm shelter. A storm shelter serving occupants of dwelling units and having an occupant load not exceeding 16 persons.
STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (also see “Basement,” “Building height,” “Grade plane” and “Mezzanine”). It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.
STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the finished surface of the floor next above is:
- More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or
- More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.
STRENGTH (For Chapter 21).
Design strength. Nominal strength multiplied by a strength reduction factor.
Nominal strength. Strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with these provisions before application of any strength-reduction factors.
Required strength. Strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads.
STRENGTH (For Chapter 16).
Nominal strength. The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads, as determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and equations derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differences between laboratory and field conditions.
Required strength. Strength of a member, cross section or connection required to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated by these provisions.
Strength Design. A method of proportioning structural members such that the computed forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength [also called “load and resistance factor design” (LRFD)]. The term “strength design” is used in the design of concrete and masonry structural elements.
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. Structural member manufactured using wood elements bonded together with exterior adhesives. Examples of structural composite lumber are:
Laminated strand lumber (LSL). A compsite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.10 inches (2.54 mm) or less and their average lengths are a minimum of 150 times the least dimension of the wood strand elements.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). A composite of wood veneer sheet elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the veneer element thicknesses are 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) or less.
Oriented strand lumber (OSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.10 inches (2.54 mm) or less and their average lengths are a minimum of 75 times and less than 150 times the least dimension of the wood strand elements.
Parallel strand lumber (PSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) or less and their average lengths are a minimum of 300 times the least dimension of the wood strand elements.
STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. An engineered, stress-rated product of a timber laminating plant, comprised of assemblies of specially selected and prepared wood laminations in which the grain of all laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally and the laminations are bonded with adhesives.
STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. The visual observation of the structural system by a registered design professional for general conformance to the approved construction documents. Structural observation does not include or waive the responsibility for the inspection required by Section 110, 1705 or other sections of this code.
STRUCTURE. An assembly of materials forming a construction for occupancy or use including stadiums, gospel and circus tents, reviewing stands, platforms, stagings, observation towers, radio towers, water tanks, storage tanks (underground and aboveground), trestles, piers, wharves, swimming pools, amusement devices, storage bins, and other structures of this general nature but excluding water wells. The word “structure” shall be construed as though followed by the words “or part or parts thereof” unless the context clearly requires a different meaning. “Structure” shall not include roadway tunnels and bridges owned by the Virginia Department of Transportation, which shall be governed by construction and design standards approved by the Virginia Commonwealth Transportation Board.
SUBDIAPHRAGM. A portion of a larger wood diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main diaphragm.
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. Any repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a building or structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the improvement or repair is started. If the structure has sustained substantial damage, any repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, include either:
- Any project for improvement of a building required to correct existing health, sanitary or safety code violations identified by the building official and that are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions.
- Any alteration of a historic structure provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure’s continued designation as a historic structure.
SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. A condition where:
- In any story, the vertical elements of the lateral force-resisting system have suffered damage such that the lateral load-carrying capacity of the structure in any horizontal direction has been reduced by more than 33 percent from its predamage condition; or
- The capacity of any vertical gravity load-carrying component, or any group of such components, that supports more than 30 percent of the total area of the structure’s floors and roofs has been reduced more than 20 percent from its predamage condition and the remaining capacity of such affected elements, with respect to all dead and live loads, is less than 75 percent of that required by this code for new buildings of similar structure, purpose and location.
[E] SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a building with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure’s exterior walls and roof.
[F] SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals.
[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life and property.
[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire suppression systems or equipment or the maintenance features of related systems.
[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, water-level indicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system, whose change of state signals an off-normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system, or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment or maintenance features of related systems.
SUSCEPTIBLE BAY. A roof or portion thereof with:
- A slope less than 1/4-inch per foot (0.0208 rad); or
- On which water is impounded upon it, in whole or in part, and the secondary drainage system is functional but the primary drainage system is blocked.
A roof surface with a slope of 1/4-inch per foot (0.0208 rad) or greater towards points of free drainage is not a susceptible bay.
SWIMMING POOL. An aquatic vessel as defined in the International Swimming Pool and Spa Code (ISPSC).
T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop system, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum temperature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial temperature through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479.
TECHNICAL ASSISTANT. Any person employed by or under an extended contract to a local building department or local enforcing agency for enforcing the USBC, including but not limited to inspectors and plans reviewers. For the purpose of this definition, an extended contract shall be a contract with an aggregate term of 18 months or longer.
TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREA. Open elevated areas or spaces intended for entertainment technicians to walk on and occupy for servicing and operating entertainment technology systems and equipment. Galleries, including fly and lighting galleries, gridirons, catwalks, and similar areas are designed for these purposes.
TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. An alteration of a facility that has little likelihood of being accomplished because the existing structural conditions require the removal or alteration of a load-bearing member that is an essential part of the structural frame, or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces or features which are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements for new construction and which are necessary to provide accessibility.
TENABLE ENVIRONMENTAL. An environment in which the products of combustion, including smoke, toxic gases, particulates, and heat, are limited or otherwise restricted in order to maintain the impact on occupants, including those in the area of fire origin, to a level that is not life threatening, and permits the rescue of occupants for a limited time.
TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material supported in any manner except by air or the contents it protects.
[E] THERMAL ISOLATION. A separation of conditioned spaces, between a sunroom and a dwelling unit, consisting of existing or new walls, doors or windows.
THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. A plastic material that is capable of being repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and hardened by decrease of temperature.
THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. A plastic material that is capable of being changed into a substantially nonreformable product when cured.
THIN-BED MORTAR. Mortar for use in construction of AAC unit masonry with joints 0.06 inch (1.5 mm) or less.
THROUGH PENETRATION. A breach in both sides of a floor, floor-ceiling or wall assembly to accommodate an item passing through the breaches.
THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An assemblage consisting of a fire-resistance-rated floor, floor-ceiling, or wall assembly, one or more penetrating items passing through the breaches in both sides of the assembly and the materials or devices, or both, installed to resist the spread of fire through the assembly for a prescribed period of time.
TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). A device used to resist uplift of the chords of shear walls.
TIE, WALL. Metal connector that connects wythes of masonry walls together.
TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. A hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixture thereof, and having parallel cells.
[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3).
[A] TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at least two sides.
[F] TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following categories:
- A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
- A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
- A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million, but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit for not more than 30 days.
TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location and that is at the transient location for not more than 90 days.
TREATED WOOD. Wood and wood-based materials that use vacuum-pressure impregnation processes to enhance fire retardant or preservative properties.
Fire-retardant-treated wood. Pressure-treated lumber and plywood that exhibit reduced surface-burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire.
Preservative-treated wood. Pressure-treated wood products that exhibit reduced susceptibility to damage by fungi, insects or marine borers.
TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door and window frames and similar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications.
[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or component.
TUBULAR DAYLIGHTING DEVICE (TDD). A non-operable fenestration unit primarily designed to transmit daylight from a roof surface to an interior ceiling via a tubular conduit. The basic unit consists of an exterior glazed weathering surface, a light-transmitting tube with a reflective interior surface, and an interior-sealing device such as a translucent ceiling panel. The unit can be factory assembled, or field-assembled from a manufactured kit.
24-HOUR CARE. See “24-hour care” located preceding “AAC masonry.”
TYPE A UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit designed and constructed for accessibility in accordance with this code and the provisions for Type A units in ICC A117.1.
TYPE B UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit designed and constructed for accessibility in accordance with this code and the provisions for Type B units in ICC A117.1, consistent with the design and construction requirements of the federal Fair Housing Act.
UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing paper, nonbituminous saturated felt or other approved material over which a steep-slope roof covering is applied.
UNIT SKYLIGHT. See “Skylight, unit.”
UNSAFE BUILDING OR STRUCTURE. Any building or structure that is under construction and has not received a permanent certificate of occupancy, final inspection, or for which a permit was never issued or has expired and has been determined by the building official to be of faulty construction that is so damaged, decayed, dilapidated, structurally unsafe, or of such faulty construction or unstable foundation that partial or complete collapse is likely, or any unfinished construction that does not have a valid permit, or the permit has been revoked, and the condition of the unfinished construction presents an immediate serious and imminent threat to the life and safety of the occupants or the public.
[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows:
Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures.
Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but which require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation. This class includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressure.
[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, including solids, liquids and gases.
VADR. The Virginia Amusement Device Regulations (13VAC5-31).
VAPOR PERMEABLE. The property of having a moisture vapor permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9 × 10-10 kg/Pa × s × m2) or greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor permeable material permits the passage of moisture vapor.
VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of a material or assembly’s ability to limit the amount of moisture that passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be defined using the desiccant method of ASTM E 96 as follows:
Class I: 0.1 perm or less.
Class II: 0.1 < perm ≤ 1.0 perm.
Class III: 1.0 < perm ≤ 10 perm.
VCS. The Virginia Certification Standards (13VAC5-21).
VEHICLE BARRIER. A component or a system of components, near open sides or walls of garage floors or ramps, that acts as a restraint for vehicles.
VEHICULAR GATE. A gate that is intended for use at a vehicular entrance or exit to a facility, building or portion thereof, and that is not intended for use by pedestrian traffic.
VENEER. A facing attached to a wall for the purpose of providing ornamentation, protection or insulation, but not counted as adding strength to the wall.
[M] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.
VINYL SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that is used as an exterior wall covering.
[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.
WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as a pedestrian trafficway.
WALL. A vertical element with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio greater than three, used to enclose space.
Cavity wall. A wall built of masonry units or of concrete, or a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties.
Composite wall. A wall built of a combination of two or more masonry units bonded together, one forming the backup and the other forming the facing elements.
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. A wall built of concrete masonry units where the units are stacked dry, without mortar on the bed or head joints, and where both sides of the wall are coated with a surface-bonding mortar.
Masonry-bonded hollow wall. A multi-wythe wall built of masonry units arranged to provide an air space between the wythes and with the wythes bonded together with masonry units.
Parapet wall. The part of any wall entirely above the roof line.
WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the following classifications:
- Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
- Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a load-bearing wall.
WALL PIER. See Section 1905.1.1.
[F] WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows:
Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without requiring heat or confinement.
Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases or evolve enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture.
Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of energy, but not violently.
WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further intruding into the exterior wall assembly.
WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. Surfaces of walls, ceilings, floors, roofs, soffits and similar surfaces exposed to the weather except the following:
- Ceilings and roof soffits enclosed by walls, fascia, bulkheads or beams that extend a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) below such ceiling or roof soffits.
- Walls or portions of walls beneath an unenclosed roof area, where located a horizontal distance from an open exterior opening equal to at least twice the height of the opening.
- Ceiling and roof soffits located a minimum horizontal distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the outer edges of the ceiling or roof soffits.
[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, forming an extinguishing agent.
WHEELCHAIR SPACE. A space for a single wheelchair and its occupant.
WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurricane-prone regions located:
- Within 1 mile (1.61 km) of the coastal mean high water line where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, is 130 mph (58 m/s) or greater; or
- In areas where the ultimate design wind speed is 140 mph (63.6 m/s) or greater.
For Risk Category II buildings and structures and Risk Category III buildings and structures, except health care facilities, the windborne debris region shall be based on Figure 1609A. For Risk Category IV buildings and structures and Risk Category III health care facilities, the windborne debris region shall be based on Figure 1609B.
WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM, MAIN. See “Main Windforce-Resisting System.”
WIND SPEED, Vult. Ultimate design wind speeds.
WIND SPEED, Vasd. Nominal design wind speeds.
WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.
WIRE BACKING. Horizontal strands of tautened wire attached to surfaces of vertical supports which, when covered with the building paper, provide a backing for cement plaster
[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of wire.
WOOD SHEAR PANEL. A wood floor, roof or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers, wood strands or wafers or a combination of veneer and wood strands or wafers bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples of wood structural panels are:
Composite panels. A wood structural panel that is comprised of wood veneer and reconstituted wood-based material and bonded together with waterproof adhesive;
Oriented strand board (OSB). A mat-formed wood structural panel comprised of thin rectangular wood strands arranged in cross-aligned layers with surface layers normally arranged in the long panel direction and bonded with waterproof adhesive; or
Plywood. A wood structural panel comprised of plies of wood veneer arranged in cross-aligned layers. The plies are bonded with waterproof adhesive that cures on application of heat and pressure.
WORKING DAY. A day other than Saturday, Sunday or a legal local, state or national holiday.
[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other processing and scientific equipment.
WYTHE. Each continuous, vertical section of a wall, one masonry unit in thickness.
YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by this code, on the lot on which a building is situated.
[F] ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed.
[F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or facility covered by notification appliances which are activated simultaneously.