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User note:

Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC- Plumbing and Mechanical Code Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.
The provisions of this chapter shall govern the installation of plumbing not specifically covered in other chapters applicable to plumbing systems. The installation of plumbing, appliances, equipment and systems not addressed by this code shall comply with the applicable provisions of the International Plumbing Code.
Plumbing fixtures, drains and appliances used to receive or discharge liquid wastes or sewage shall be directly connected to the sanitary drainage system of the building or premises, in accordance with the requirements of this code. This section shall not be construed to prevent indirect waste systems.

Exception: Bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers and laundry trays shall not be required to discharge to the sanitary drainage system where such fixtures discharge to an approved nonpotable gray water system in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections P2910, P2911, and P2912.
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In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), plumbing fixtures, drains, and appliances shall be located or installed in accordance with Section R322.1.6.
The water and drainage system of any building or premises where plumbing fixtures are installed shall be connected to a public or private water supply and a public or private sewer system. As provided for in Section 103.5 of Part I of the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63) for functional design, water supply sources and sewage disposal systems are regulated and approved by the Virginia Department of Health and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

Note: See also the Memorandums of Agreement in the "Related Laws Package," which is available from the Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development.
In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1):
  1. Water supply systems shall be designed and constructed to prevent infiltration of floodwaters.
  2. Pipes for sewage disposal systems shall be designed and constructed to prevent infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters.
Nonmetallic water service piping that connects to public systems shall be locatable. An insulated copper tracer wire, 18 AWG minimum in size and suitable for direct burial or an equivalent product, shall be utilized. The wire shall be installed in the same trench as the water service piping and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the pipe and shall be installed to within five feet (1524 mm) of the building wall to the point where the building water service pipe intersects with the public water supply. At a minimum, one end of the wire shall terminate above grade to provide access to the wire in a location that is resistant to physical damage, such as with a meter vault or at the building wall.
In the process of installing or repairing any part of a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished floors, walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the building or premises that must be changed or replaced shall be left in a safe structural condition in accordance with the requirements of the building portion of this code.
Wood-framed structural members shall not be drilled, notched or altered in any manner except as provided in Sections R502.8, R602.6, R802.7 and R802.7.1. Holes in load-bearing members of cold-formed steel light-frame construction shall be made only in accordance with Sections R505.2.6, R603.2.6 and R804.2.6. In accordance with the provisions in Sections R505.3.5, R603.3.3 and R804.3.4, cutting and notching of flanges and lips of load-bearing members of cold-formed steel light-frame construction shall be prohibited. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) shall be drilled and notched or altered in accordance with the provisions of Section R613.7.
In concealed locations, where piping, other than cast-iron or galvanized steel, is installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, rafters or similar members less than 11/4 inches (31.8 mm) from the nearest edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by steel shield plates. Such shield plates shall have a thickness of not less than 0.0575 inch (1.463 mm) (No. 16 Gage). Such plates shall cover the area of the pipe where the member is notched or bored, and shall extend not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above sole plates and below top plates.
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Metallic piping, except for cast iron, ductile iron and galvanized steel, shall not be placed in direct contact with steel framing members, concrete or masonry. Metallic piping shall not be placed in direct contact with corrosive soil. Where sheathing is used to prevent direct contact, the sheathing material thickness shall be not less than 0.008 inch (8 mil) (0.203 mm) and shall be made of plastic. Where sheathing protects piping that penetrates concrete or masonry walls or floors, the sheathing shall be installed in a manner that allows movement of the piping within the sheathing.
A pipe that passes through a foundation wall shall be provided with a relieving arch, or a pipe sleeve shall be built into the foundation wall. The sleeve shall be two pipe sizes greater than the pipe passing through the wall.
In localities having a winter design temperature of 32°F (0°C) or lower as shown in Table R301.2(1) of this code, a water, soil or waste pipe shall not be installed outside of a building, in exterior walls, in attics or crawl spaces, or in any other place subjected to freezing temperature unless adequate provision is made to protect it from freezing by insulation or heat or both. Water service pipe shall be installed not less than 12 inches (305 mm) deep and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) below the frost line.
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Building sewers that connect to private sewage disposal systems shall be a not less than [NUMBER] inches (mm) below finished grade at the point of septic tank connection. Building sewers shall be not less than [NUMBER] inches (mm) below grade.
Where trenches are excavated such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the pipe, solid and continuous load-bearing support shall be provided between joints. Where over-excavated, the trench shall be backfilled to the proper grade with compacted earth, sand, fine gravel or similar granular material. Piping shall not be supported on rocks or blocks at any point. Rocky or unstable soil shall be over-excavated by two or more pipe diameters and brought to the proper grade with suitable compacted granular material.
Where the water service piping and building sewer piping is installed in same trench, the installation shall be in accordance with Section P2906.4.1.
Backfill shall be free from discarded construction material and debris. Backfill shall be free from rocks, broken concrete and frozen chunks until the pipe is covered by not less than 12 inches (305 mm) of tamped earth. Backfill shall be placed evenly on both sides of the pipe and tamped to retain proper alignment. Loose earth shall be carefully placed in the trench in 6-inch (152 mm) layers and tamped in place.
Trenching installed parallel to footings and walls shall not extend into the bearing plane of a footing or wall. The upper boundary of the bearing plane is a line that extends downward, at an angle of 45 degrees from horizontal, from the outside bottom edge of the footing or wall.
Piping shall be supported in accordance with the following:
  1. Piping shall be supported to ensure alignment and prevent sagging, and allow movement associated with the expansion and contraction of the piping system.
  2. Piping in the ground shall be laid on a firm bed for its entire length, except where support is otherwise provided.
  3. Hangers and anchors shall be of sufficient strength to maintain their proportional share of the weight of pipe and contents and of sufficient width to prevent distortion to the pipe. Hangers and strapping shall be of approved material that will not promote galvanic action. Rigid support sway bracing shall be provided at changes in direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) for pipe sizes 4 inches (102 mm) and larger.
  4. Piping shall be supported at distances not to exceed those indicated in Table P2605.1.
TABLE P2605.1
SPACING (feet)
SPACING (feet)
ABS pipe 4 10b
Aluminum tubing 10 15
Cast-iron pipe 5a 15
Copper or copper alloy pipe 12 10
Copper or copper alloy tubing (11/4 inches in diameter and smaller) 6 10
Copper or copper alloy tubing (11/2 inches in diameter and larger) 10 10
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe, 1 inch and smaller 2.67 (32 inches) 10b
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe, 11/4 inch and larger 4 10b
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 2.67 (32 inches) 4b
CPVC pipe or tubing (1 inch in diameter and smaller) 3 10b
CPVC pipe or tubing (11/4 inches in diameter and larger) 4 10b
Lead pipe Continuous 4
PB pipe or tubing 2.67 (32 inches) 4
Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) pipe, 1 inch and smaller 2.67 (32 inches) 10b
Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) pipe, 11/4 inch and larger 4 10b
Polypropylene (PP) pipe or tubing (1 inch and smaller) 2.67 (32 inches) 10b
Polypropylene (PP) pipe or tubing (11/4 inches and larger) 4 10b
PVC pipe 4 10b
Stainless steel drainage systems 10 10b
Steel pipe 12 15

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be increased to 10 feet where 10-foot lengths of pipe are installed.
  2. For sizes 2 inches and smaller, a guide shall be installed midway between required vertical supports. Such guides shall prevent pipe movement in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the pipe.
The annular space between the outside of a pipe and the inside of a pipe sleeve or between the outside of a pipe and an opening in a building envelope wall, floor, or ceiling assembly penetrated by a pipe shall be sealed with caulking material or foam sealant or closed with a gasketing system. The caulking material, foam sealant or gasketing system shall be designed for the conditions at the penetration location and shall be compatible with the pipe, sleeve and building materials in contact with the sealing materials. Annular spaces created by pipes penetrating fire-resistance-rated assemblies or membranes of such assemblies shall be sealed or closed in accordance with the building portion of this code.
Where a pipe penetrates a roof, a flashing of lead, copper, galvanized steel or an approved elastomeric material shall be installed in manner that prevents water entry into the building. Counterflashing into the opening of pipe serving as a vent terminal shall not reduce the required internal cross-sectional area of the vent pipe to less than the internal cross-sectional area of one pipe size smaller.
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Where a pipe penetrates an exterior wall, a waterproof seal shall be made on the exterior of the wall by one of the following methods:
  1. A waterproof sealant applied at the joint between the wall and the pipe.
  2. A flashing of an approved elastomeric material.
Valves, pipes and fittings shall be installed in correct relationship to the direction of the flow. Burred ends shall be reamed to the full bore of the pipe.
Each length of pipe and each pipe fitting, trap, fixture, material and device utilized in a plumbing system shall bear the identification of the manufacturer and any markings required by the applicable referenced standards. Nipples created from the cutting and threading of approved pipe shall not be required to be identified.

Exception: Where the manufacturer identification cannot be marked on pipe fittings and pipe nipples because of the small size of such fittings, the identification shall be printed on the item packaging or on documentation provided with the item.
Materials used shall be installed in strict accordance with the standards under which the materials are accepted and approved. In the absence of such installation procedures, the manufacturer's instructions shall be followed. Where the requirements of referenced standards or manufacturer's instructions do not conform to the minimum provisions of this code, the provisions of this code shall apply.
Plastic pipe, fittings and components shall be third-party certified as conforming to NSF 14.
Plumbing products and materials required by the code to be in compliance with a referenced standard shall be listed by a third-party certification agency as complying with the referenced standards. Products and materials shall be identified in accordance with Section P2609.1.
Water service pipes, water distribution pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves, faucets and appurtenances used to dispense water intended for human ingestion shall be evaluated and listed as conforming to the requirements of NSF 61.