Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:
Each owner of a covered mall building or of an open mall building shall provide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan without prior approval of the building official.
Exception: The type of construction allowable building height and building area of anchor buildings greater than three stories above grade plane shall comply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506.
Parking garages, open or enclosed, which are separated from covered mall buildings, open mall buildings or anchor buildings shall comply with the provisions of Table 602.
Pedestrian walkways and tunnels which connect garages to mall buildings or anchor buildings shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.
Covered and open mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the all of the following:
Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages separated from the covered or open mall building in accordance with Section 402.4.2.3 and constructed in accordance with Section 406.5.
Exception: A smoke control system is not required in covered mall buildings where an atrium connects only two stories.
|OLF = (0.00007) (GLA) + 25||(Equation 4-1)|
|OLF||=||The occupant load factor (square feet per |
|GLA||=||The gross leasable area (square feet).|
Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.
Exception: Access to exits are permitted by way of a dead-end mall which does not exceed a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.
Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall not be permitted to be reduced.
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
|HEIGHT OF BUILDINGa||SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH|
|Up to 420 feet||430 psf|
|Greater than 420 feet||1,000 psf|
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kW/m2.|
|a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.|
Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through no fewer than one of the connections.
Exception: An additional exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.
Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented where the area is not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.
Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.
Exception: Vehicle barriers are not required in vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.
Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION||AREA PER TIER |
|HEIGHT (in tiers)|
|Ramp access||Mechanical access|
|Automatic sprinkler system|
|IB||Unlimited||12 tiers||12 tiers||18 tiers|
|IIA||50,000||10 tiers||10 tiers||15 tiers|
|IIB||50,000||8 tiers||8 tiers||12 tiers|
|IV||50,000||4 tiers||4 tiers||4 tiers|
|For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.|
Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.
In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.
The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.
The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm).
Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.
Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.
Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.
Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities with 10 or fewer locks complying with the exception to Section 408.4.1.
The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.
Exception: Stages need not be constructed of the same materials as required for the type of construction provided the construction complies with one of the following:
Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.
Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.
Exception: A means of escape to a roof in place of a second means of egress is permitted.
For flammable decorative materials, see the International Fire Code.
HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION||HEIGHTa |
|MAXIMUM AREA |
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.|
|a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.|
Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Section 1022.10 are not required where required stairways are pressurized.
Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.
Exception: Where a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.
[F] TABLE 412.4.6
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c
|MAXIMUM SINGLE |
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION|
|≥ 40,001||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I|
|40,000||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|30,000||Group III||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|20,000||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|15,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group III||Group II||Group III||Group II||Group II|
|12,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group II|
|8,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II|
|5,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III|
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.|
|a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.|
|b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.|
|c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.|
Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.
[F] TABLE 414.2.2
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS
|FLOOR LEVEL||PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE |
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa
|NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS |
|FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR |
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
|Above grade plane||Higher than 9 |
|Below grade plane||1 |
Lower than 2
|a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.|
|b. Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.|
Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:
[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES
NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd,e,f
|CONDITION||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA|
|A. Health-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Corrosivesb,c||Not Applicable||9,750||975|
|2. Highly toxics||Not Applicable||20b,c||2b,c|
|3. Toxicsb,c||Not Applicable||1,000||100|
|B. Physical-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Oxidizersb,c||4||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|1||18,000 i, j||1,800 i, j|
|2. Unstable (reactives)b,c||4||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|3. Water reactives||3b,c||550||55|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.|
|a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code.|
|b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.|
|c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.|
|d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.|
|e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.|
|f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.|
|g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.|
|h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.|
|i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.|
|j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.|
[F] TABLE 414.2.5(2)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES
OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREAa
|TYPE OF LIQUID||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)|
|Sprinklered in accordance with note |
b densities and arrangements
|Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 3404.3.6.3(4)|
through 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of the
International Fire Code
|Class IB, IC, II and IIIA||7,500c||15,000c||1,600|
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.|
|a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.|
|b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:|
|1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.|
|2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.|
|c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.|
Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building without entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or through ducts and plenums.
The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accordance with the International Fire Code.
A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.
[F] TABLE 414.5.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSa
|MATERIAL||CLASS||EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS|
|Barricade construction||Explosion (deflagration) venting|
or explosion (deflagration)
|Combustible dustsc||—||Not Required||Required|
|Cryogenic flammables||—||Not Required||Required|
|Explosives||Division 1.1 |
|Not Required |
|Flammable gas||Gaseous |
|Not Required |
|Not Required |
|Organic peroxides||U |
|Not Permitted |
|Oxidizer liquids and solids||4||Required||Not Permitted|
|Pyrophoric gas||—||Not Required||Required|
|Unstable (reactive)||4 |
|Not Permitted |
|Water-reactive liquids and solids||3 |
|Not Required |
|Acetylene generator rooms||—||Not Required||Required|
|Grain processing||—||Not Required||Required|
|Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities||—||Not Required||Required|
|Where explosion hazards existf||Detonation |
|Not Permitted |
|a. See Section 414.1.3.|
|b. See the International Fire Code.|
|c. As generated during manufacturing or processing.|
|d. Storage or use.|
|e. In open use or dispensing.|
|f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.|
|g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.|
Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct portions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that the obstructed area is not greater than 25 percent of the structure’s perimeter.
Exception: The maximum area is permitted to be increased as provided by Section 506.