- Design, construction, and compartmentation
- Provision for detection, alarm, and extinguishment
- Fire prevention and planning, training, and drilling programs for the isolation of fire and the transfer of occupants to areas of refuge, for evacuation of the building, or for protection of the occupants in place
- Provision of security to the degree necessary for the safety of the public and the occupants of the facility
Table 184.108.40.206 Construction Type Limitations
|Construction Type||Sprinklereda||Stories in Heightb|
|1 With Basement||1 Without Basement||2||3||>3 But Not High-Rise||High-Rise|
|I (442)c, d||Yes||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|I (332)c, d||Yes||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|II (222)c, d||Yes||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|II (111)c, d||Yes||X||X||X||X||X||X|
NP: Not permitted.
X: Permitted for Use Conditions II, III, IV, and V. (See 220.127.116.11 for Use Condition I.)
X1: Permitted for Use Conditions II, III, and IV. Use Condition V not permitted. (See 18.104.22.168 for Use Condition I.)
cAny building of Type I, Type 11(222), or Type II(111) construction is permitted to include roofing systems involving combustible or steel supports, decking, or roofing, provided that all of the following are met:
(1) The roof covering meets not less than Class C requirements in accordance with ASTM E 108, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, or ANSI/UL 790, Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings.
(2) The roof is separated from all occupied portions of the building by a noncombustible floor assembly that includes not less than 21/2 in. (64 mm) of concrete or gypsum fill, and the attic or other space so developed meets one of the following requirements:
(a) It is unoccupied.
dIn determining building construction type, exposed steel roof members located 16 ft (4875 mm) or more above the floor of the highest cell are permitted to be disregarded.
- The requirement of 22.214.171.124 shall not apply if there is an exit door opening directly to the outside from a room at the finished ground level.
- One adjacent room, such as a day room, a group activity space, or other common space, shall be permitted to intervene, and the following also shall apply:
- Where sleeping rooms directly adjoin a day room or group activity space that is used for access to an exit, such sleeping rooms shall be permitted to open directly to the day room or space.
- Sleeping rooms permitted to open directly to the day room or space shall be permitted to be separated in elevation by a one-half story or full story height.
- A common path of travel shall be permitted for the first 100 ft (30 m ) in smoke compartments protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 126.96.36.199.
- A common path of travel shall be permitted to exceed 50 ft (15 m) in multilevel residential housing units in which each floor level, considered separately, has not less than one-half of its individual required egress capacity accessible by exit access leading directly out of that level without traversing another communicating floor level.
- *Approved existing common paths of travel that exceed 50 ft (15 m) shall be permitted to continue to be used.
- Asmoke barrier shall be provided to divide that level into not less than two compartments, with not less than one exit discharging into each compartment.
- Each smoke compartment shall have an exit discharge to the building exterior.
- The level of discharge shall be provided with automatic sprinkler protection.
- Any other portion of the level of discharge with access to the discharge area shall be provided with automatic sprinkler protection or shall be separated from the discharge area in accordance with the requirements for the enclosure of exits. (See 188.8.131.52.1.)
- Not more than 10 locks need to be unlocked to relocate all occupants from one smoke compartment to an area of refuge as promptly as is required where remote-control unlocking is used. (See 184.108.40.206 for requirements for smoke barrier doors.)
- Unlocking of all necessary locks is accomplished with not more than two separate keys.
- Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks shall be constructed so that, in the event of power failure, a manual mechanical means to release and open the doors is provided at each door, and either emergency power arranged in accordance with 220.127.116.11.2 is provided for the power operation or a remote-control manual mechanical release is provided.
- A combination of the emergency power-operated release of selected individual doors and remote-control manual mechanical ganged release specified in 18.104.22.168.1(1) shall be permitted without mechanical release means at each door.
- Mechanically operated sliding doors or mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a manual mechanical means at each door to release and open the door.
- Failure of a public utility or other outside electrical power supply
- Opening of a circuit breaker or fuse
- Manual act(s), including accidental opening of a switch controlling normal lighting facilities
- Unprotected vertical openings in accordance with 22.214.171.124 shall be permitted.
- In residential housing area smoke compartments protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 126.96.36.199, unprotected vertical openings shall be permitted in accordance with the conditions of 8.6.6, provided that the height between the lowest and highest finished floor levels does not exceed 23 ft (7010 mm), and the following also shall be permitted:
- The requirement of 188.8.131.52 shall not apply to multilevel residential housing areas in accordance with 184.108.40.206.
- Where full enclosure is impractical, the required enclosure shall be permitted to be limited to that necessary to prevent a fire originating in any story from spreading to any other story.
- Enclosures in detention and correctional occupancies shall have a minimum 1-hour fire resistance rating and shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 220.127.116.11.
- A smoke control system is provided to maintain the level of smoke from potential cell fires at not less than 60 in. (1525 mm) above the floor level of any occupied tier involving space that is classified as follows:
- Use Condition IV or Use Condition V
- Use Condition III, unless all persons housed in such space can pass through a free access smoke barrier or freely pass below the calculated smoke level with not more than 50 ft (15 m) of travel from their cells
- The entire building, including cells, is provided with complete automatic sprinkler protection in accordance with 18.104.22.168.
Table 22.214.171.124 Hazardous Area Protection
|Hazardous Area Description||Separation/Protection†|
|Areas not incidental to resident housing||2 hours|
|Boiler and fuel-fired heater rooms||1 hour or sprinklers|
|Central or bulk laundries >100 ft2 (>9.3 m2)||1 hour or sprinklers|
|Commercial cooking equipment||In accordance with 9.2.3|
|Commissaries||1 hour or sprinklers|
|Employee locker rooms||1 hour or sprinklers|
|Hobby/handicraft shops||1 hour or sprinklers|
|Maintenance shops||1 hour or sprinklers|
|Padded cells||1 hour and sprinklers|
|Soiled linen rooms||1 hour or sprinklers|
|Storage rooms >50 ft2 (>4.6 m2) storing combustible material||1 hour or sprinklers|
|Trash collection rooms||1 hour or sprinklers|
†Minimum fire resistance rating.
- Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be locked, provided that staff is present within the area when it is occupied and staff has keys readily available to unlock the boxes.
- Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be located in a staff location, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
- A positive alarm sequence shall be permitted in accordance with 126.96.36.199.
- Any smoke detectors required by this chapter shall not be required to transmit an alarm to the fire department.
- This requirement shall not apply where staff is provided at a constantly attended location that meets one of the following criteria:
- It has the capability to promptly notify the fire department.
- It has direct communication with a control room having direct access to the fire department.
- Protection shall be permitted to be accomplished using horizontal exits. (See 7.2.4.)
- *The requirement for subdivision of building space shall be permitted to be fulfilled by one of the following:
- Smoke compartments having exit to a public way, where such exit serves only one area and has no openings to other areas
- Building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire resistance rating or 50 ft (15 m) of open space
- Secured, open area having a holding space located 50 ft (15 m) from the housing area that provides 15 ft2 (1.4 m2) or more of refuge area for each person (resident, staff, visitors) potentially present at the time of a fire
- They shall limit the occupant load to not more than 200 residents in any smoke compartment.
- *They shall limit the travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier, unless otherwise permitted by 188.8.131.52, in accordance with both of the following criteria:
- The doors shall provide resistance to the passage of smoke.
- Swinging doors shall be self-latching, or the opening resistance of the door shall be not less than 5 lbf (22 N).
- Sliding doors shall be exempt from the latching requirement of 184.108.40.206.
- The doors shall not be required to swing in the direction of egress travel.
Table 23.3.8 Subdivision of Resident Housing Spaces
|Room to room separation||NR||NR||NR||NR||SR||NR||SR||SRa|
|Room face to corridor separation||NR||NR||SRb||NR||SRb||NR||FRb||SRa|
|Room face to common space separation||NR||NR||NR ≤50 ft (≤15 m)c||SRb >50 ft (>15 m)c||NR ≤50 ft (≤15 m)c||SRb >50 ft (>15 m)c||SRb||NR ≤50 ft (≤15 m)c||SRa >50 ft (>15 m)c||SRb||SRa|
|Common space to corridor separation||SR||NR||SR||NR||SR||NR||FR||SRa|
|Total openings in solid room face where room face is required to be smoke resistant or fire ratedd||0.85 ft2
|0.85 ft2 (0.08 m2) where meeting one of the following:
(1) Doors in openings in partitions required to be fire rated (FR) in accordance with Table 23.3.8, in other than required enclosures of exits or hazardous areas, are required to be substantial doors of construction that resists fire for a minimum of 20 minutes. Vision panels with wired glass or glass with not less than 45-minute fire-rated glazing are permitted. Latches and door closers are not required on cell doors.
(2) Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke resistant (SR) in accordance with Table 23.3.8 are required to be substantial doors of construction that resists the passage of smoke. Latches and door closers are not required on cell doors.
(3) Under Use Condition II, Use Condition III, or Use Condition IV, a space subdivided by open construction (any combination of grating doors and grating walls or solid walls) is permitted to be considered one room if housing not more than 16 persons. The perimeter walls of such space are required to be of smoke-resistant construction. Smoke detection is required to be provided in such space. Under Use Condition IV, common walls between sleeping areas within the space are required to be smoke resistant, and grating doors and fronts are permitted to be used. Under Use Condition II and Use Condition III, open dormitories are permitted to house more than 16 persons, as permitted by other sections of this chapter.
aMight be no requirement (NR) where one of the following is provided:
(2) Multitiered cell blocks meeting the requirements of 220.127.116.11
bMight be no requirement (NR) in multitiered, open cell blocks meeting the requirements of 18.104.22.168.
cTravel distance through the common space to the exit access corridor.
d"Total openings in solid room face" include all openings (e.g., undercuts, food passes, grilles), the total of which is not to exceed 0.85 fit2 (0.08 m2). All openings are required to be 36 in. (915 mm) or less above the floor.
- Operable windows on not less than two sides of the building, spaced not more than 30 ft (9.1 m) apart, that provide openings with dimensions of not less than 22 in. (560 mm) in width and 24 in. (610 mm) in height
- *Manual or automatic smoke vents
- Engineered smoke control system
- Mechanical exhaust system providing not less than six air changes per hour
- Other method acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction
- *Doors and other physical restraints to free egress by detainees can be readily released by staff within 2 minutes of the onset of a fire or similar emergency.
- Staff is in sufficient proximity to the lockup so as to be able to effect the 2-minute release required by 22.214.171.124.4(1) whenever detainees occupy the lockup.
- Staff is authorized to effect the release required by 126.96.36.199.4(1).
- Staff is trained and practiced in effecting the release required by 188.8.131.52.4(1).
- Where the release required by 184.108.40.206.4(1) is effected by means of remote release, detainees are not to be restrained from evacuating without the assistance of others.
- Detention-grade hardware meeting the requirements of ASTM F 1577, Standard Test Methods for Detention Locks for Swinging Doors, shall be provided on swinging doors within the required means of egress.
- Sliding doors within the required means of egress shall be designed and engineered for detention and correctional use, and lock cylinders shall meet the cylinder test requirements of ASTM F 1577.
- The alarm system shall be in accordance with Section 9.6.
- Initiation of the alarm system shall be accomplished by all of the following:
- Staff and occupant notification shall be provided automatically in accordance with 9.6.3.
- Emergency force notification shall be provided in accordance with 9.6.4.
- If fuel-fired, such heating devices shall comply with all of the following:
- The heating system shall have safety devices to immediately stop the flow of fuel and shut down the equipment in case of either excessive temperatures or ignition failure.
- Staff shall be within three floors or a 300 ft (91 m) horizontal distance of the access door of each resident housing area.
- For Use Condition III, Use Condition IV, and Use Condition V, the arrangement shall be such that the staff involved starts the release of locks necessary for emergency evacuation or rescue and initiates other necessary emergency actions within 2 minutes of alarm.
- The following shall apply to areas in which all locks are unlocked remotely in compliance with 220.127.116.11: