About this chapter: Codes, by their very nature, are technical documents. Every word, term and punctuation mark can add to or change the meaning of a technical requirement. It is necessary to maintain a consensus on the specific meaning of each term contained in the code. Chapter 2 performs this function by stating clearly what specific terms mean for the purpose of the code.
Code development reminder: Code change proposals to definitions in this chapter preceded by a bracketed letter are considered by the IRC—Building Code Development Committee [RB], the IRC—Mechanical/Plumbing Code Development Committee [MP] or the IECC—Residential Code Development Committee [RE] during the Group B (2019) Code Development cycle. See page iv for explanation.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
[RB] ACCESS (TO). That which enables a device, an appliance or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar obstruction.
[MP] AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. A one-way valve designed to allow air into the plumbing drainage system where a negative pressure develops in the piping. This device shall close by gravity and seal the terminal under conditions of zero differential pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pressure.
[MP] AIR BREAK (DRAINAGE SYSTEM). An arrangement where a discharge pipe from a fixture, appliance or device drains indirectly into a receptor below the flood-level rim of the receptor and above the trap seal.
[MP] AIR GAP, DRAINAGE SYSTEM. The unobstructed vertical distance through free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste pipe and the flood-level rim of the fixture or receptor into which it is discharging.
[MP] AIR GAP, WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. The unobstructed vertical distance through free atmosphere between the lowest opening from a water supply discharge to the flood-level rim of a plumbing fixture.
[RB] AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATION. An insulation having an air permanence equal to or less than 0.02 L/s-m2 at 75 Pa pressure differential as tested in accordance with ASTM E2178 or E283. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] ALTERATION. Any construction, retrofit or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a building, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.
[MP] ANCHORS. See "Supports."
[MP] ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical devices that eliminate siphonage.
[MP] APPLIANCE. A device or apparatus that is manufactured and designed to utilize energy and for which this code provides specific requirements.
[RB] APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency that is regularly engaged in conducting tests, furnishing inspection services or furnishing product certification, and has been approved by the building official. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[MP] APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or corporation, approved by the building official, who is competent and experienced in the application of engineering principles to materials, methods or systems analyses.
[RB] ASPECT RATIO. The ratio of longest to shortest perpendicular dimensions, or for wall sections, the ratio of height to length.
[MP] BACKFLOW, DRAINAGE. A reversal of flow in the drainage system.
[MP] BACKFLOW PREVENTER, REDUCED-PRESSURE-ZONE TYPE. A backflow-prevention device consisting of two independently acting check valves, internally force loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means of venting to atmosphere internally loaded to a normally open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of relief means.
[MP] BACKPRESSURE, LOW HEAD. A pressure less than or equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot (3048 mm) column of water.
[RB] BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY STORAGE. A rechargeable energy storage system consisting of electrochemical storage batteries, battery chargers, controls and associated electrical equipment designed to provide electrical power to a building. The system is typically used to provide standby or emergency power, an uninterruptable power supply, load shedding, load sharing or similar capabilities.
[MP] BEND. A drainage fitting, designed to provide a change in direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line (see "Elbow" and "Sweep").
[MP] BOILER. A self-contained appliance from which hot water is circulated for heating purposes and then returned to the boiler, and that operates at water pressures not exceeding 160 pounds per square inch gage (psig) (1102 kPa gauge) and at water temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C).
[RB] BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.
[RB] BRACED WALL LINE. A straight line through the building plan that represents the location of the lateral resistance provided by the wall bracing.
[RB] BRACED WALL PANEL. A full-height section of wall constructed to resist in-plane shear loads through interaction of framing members, sheathing material and anchors. The panel's length meets the requirements of its particular bracing method, and contributes toward the total amount of bracing required along its braced wall line in accordance with Section R602.10.1.
[MP] BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal branch connection.
[RB] BUILDING. Any one- or two-family dwelling or portion thereof, including townhouses, used or intended to be used for human habitation, for living, sleeping, cooking or eating purposes, or any combination thereof, or any accessory structure. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[MP] BUILDING DRAIN. The lowest piping that collects the discharge from all other drainage piping inside the house and extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe, beyond the exterior walls and conveys the drainage to the building sewer.
[RB] BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC ROOF PANEL (BIPV Roof Panel). A photovoltaic panel that functions as a component of the building envelope.
[RB] BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.
[RB] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[MP] BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and conveys its discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage-disposal system or other point of disposal.
[RB] BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material.
[RB] CAP PLATE. The top plate of the double top plates used in structural insulated panel (SIP) construction. The cap plate is cut to match the panel thickness such that it overlaps the wood structural panel facing on both sides.
[RB] CARBON MONOXIDE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm intended to detect carbon monoxide gas and alert occupants by a distinct audible signal. It incorporates a sensor, control components and an alarm notification appliance in a single unit.
[RB] CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR. A device with an integral sensor to detect carbon monoxide gas and transmit an alarm signal to a connected alarm control unit.
[RB] CEILING HEIGHT. The clear vertical distance from the finished floor to the finished ceiling.
[RB] CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of Portland or blended cement, Portland cement or blended cement and hydrated lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in this code.
[RB] CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the use of a building or portion of a building that involves a change in the application of the requirements of this code.
[MP] CHIMNEY TYPES.
Residential-type appliance. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, residential-type appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, and capable of producing combustion gases of 1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to 1 hour. All temperatures shall be measured at the appliance flue outlet. Residential-type appliance chimneys include masonry and factory-built types.
[MP] CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to fixtures and back to the water-heating equipment. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] CLADDING. The exterior materials that cover the surface of the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind.
[RB] CLOSET. A small room or chamber used for storage.
[RB] COLLAPSIBLE SOILS. Soils that exhibit volumetric reduction in response to partial or full wetting under load.
[MP] COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks, lavatories or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.
[RB] COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Any material not defined as noncombustible.
[RB] COMPRESSIBLE SOILS. Soils that exhibit volumetric reduction in response to the application of load even in the absence of wetting or drying.
[MP] CONDENSATE. The liquid that separates from a gas due to a reduction in temperature; for example, water that condenses from flue gases and water that condenses from air circulating through the cooling coil in air conditioning equipment.
[RB] CONDITIONED AIR. Air treated to control its temperature, relative humidity or quality.
[RB] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.
[MP] CONTAMINATION. A high-hazard or health-hazard impairment of the quality of the potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids or waste.
[MP] CONTROL, PRIMARY SAFETY. A safety control responsive directly to flame properties that senses the presence or absence of flame and, in event of ignition failure or unintentional flame extinguishment, automatically causes shutdown of mechanical equipment.
[MP] CONVECTOR. A system incorporating a heating element in an enclosure in which air enters an opening below the heating element, is heated and leaves the enclosure through an opening located above the heating element.
[RB] CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties where exposed to its environment.
[MP] CROSS CONNECTION. Any connection between two otherwise separate piping systems that allows a flow from one system to the other.
[RB] CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER. A prefabricated engineered wood product consisting of not less than three layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber where the adjacent layers are cross-oriented and bonded with structural adhesive to form a solid wood element.
[RB] DEAD LOADS. The weight of the materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding, and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment.
[RB] DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or glazing material with a purpose that is decorative or artistic, not functional; with coloring, texture or other design qualities or components that cannot be removed without destroying the glazing material; and with a surface, or assembly into which it is incorporated, that is divided into segments.
[MP] DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. See "Registered design professional."
[MP] DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured along the center line of the pipe and fittings.
[RB] DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. Where the term "diaphragm" is used, it includes horizontal bracing systems.
[MP] DIRECT-VENT APPLIANCE. A fuel-burning appliance with a sealed combustion system that draws all air for combustion from the outside atmosphere and discharges all flue gases to the outside atmosphere.
[MP] DRAFT. The pressure difference existing between the appliance or any component part and the atmosphere, that causes a continuous flow of air and products of combustion through the gas passages of the appliance to the atmosphere.
[MP] DRAFT HOOD. A device built into an appliance, or a part of the vent connector from an appliance, that is designed to provide for the ready escape of the flue gases from the appliance in the event of no draft, backdraft or stoppage beyond the draft hood; prevent a backdraft from entering the appliance; and neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent on the operation of the appliance.
[RB] DRAFT STOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies and attics.
[MP] DRAINAGE FITTING. A pipe fitting designed to provide connections in the drainage system that have provisions for establishing the desired slope in the system. These fittings are made from a variety of both metals and plastics. The methods of coupling provide for required slope in the system.
[RB] DWELLING. Any building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended, or designed to be built, used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or that are occupied for living purposes.
[RB] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[MP] EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water-supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of diameter of a circle and if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. (This is applicable to air gap.)
[RB] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable exterior window, door or similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency. (See also "Grade floor opening.")
[RB] ENGINEERED WOOD RIM BOARD. A full-depth structural composite lumber, wood structural panel, structural glued laminated timber or prefabricated wood I-joist member designed to transfer horizontal (shear) and vertical (compression) loads, provide attachment for diaphragm sheathing, siding and exterior deck ledgers and provide lateral support at the ends of floor or roof joists or rafters.
[MP] EQUIPMENT. Piping, ducts, vents, control devices and other components of systems other than appliances that are permanently installed and integrated to provide control of environmental conditions for buildings. This definition shall also include other systems specifically regulated in this code.
[MP] EQUIVALENT LENGTH. For determining friction losses in a piping system, the effect of a particular fitting equal to the friction loss through a straight piping length of the same nominal diameter.
[MP] ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; mineral oil; polydimethy oil oxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers.
[MP] EVAPORATIVE COOLER. A device used for reducing air temperature by the process of evaporating water into an airstream.
[RB] EXPANSIVE SOILS. Soils that exhibit volumetric increase or decrease (swelling or shrinking) in response to partial or full wetting or drying under load.
[RB] EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing exterior wall cladding systems that consist of an insulation board attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat; and a textured protective finish coat.
[RB] EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier.
[RB] EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. A material or assembly of materials applied on the exterior side of exterior walls for the purpose of providing a weather-resistive barrier, insulation or for aesthetics, including but not limited to, veneers, siding, exterior insulation and finish systems, architectural trim and embellishments such as cornices, soffits, and fascias.
[MP] FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEY. A listed and labeled chimney composed of factory-made components assembled in the field in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the conditions of the listing.
[RE] FENESTRATION. Products classified as either vertical fenestration or skylights and sloped glazing, installed in such a manner as to preserve the weather-resistant barrier of the wall or roof in which they are installed. Fenestration includes products with glass or other transparent or transluscent materials.
[RE] FENESTRATION, VERTICAL. Windows that are fixed or movable, opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque and glazed doors installed in a wall at less than 15 degrees from vertical.
[RB] FIBER-CEMENT (BACKERBOARD, SIDING, SOFFIT, TRIM AND UNDERLAYMENT) PRODUCTS. Manufactured thin section composites of hydraulic cementitious matrices and discrete nonasbestos fibers.
[RB] FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:
The distance shall be measured at a right angle from the face of the wall.
Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace and chimney system composed of factory-made components, and assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and the conditions of the listing.
[RB] FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.
[RB] FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED WOOD. Pressure-treated lumber and plywood that exhibit reduced surface burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire.
Other means during manufacture. A process where the wood raw material is treated with a fire-retardant formulation while undergoing creation as a finished product.
Pressure process. A process for treating wood using an initial vacuum followed by the introduction of pressure above atmospheric.
[MP] FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture."
[MP] FIXTURE FITTING.
Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume or directional flow or both of water and that is either attached to or accessed from a fixture or is used with an open or atmospheric discharge.
[MP] FIXTURE GROUP, MAIN. The main water-distribution pipe (or secondary branch) serving a plumbing fixture grouping such as a bath, kitchen or laundry area to which two or more individual fixture branch pipes are connected.
[MP] FIXTURE UNIT, DRAINAGE (d.f.u.). A measure of probable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures, used to size DWV piping systems. The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a single drainage operation and on the average time between successive operations.
[MP] FIXTURE UNIT, WATER-SUPPLY (w.s.f.u.). A measure of the probable hydraulic demand on the water supply by various types of plumbing fixtures used to size water-piping systems. The water-supply fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of supply, on the time duration of a single supply operation and on the average time between successive operations.
[RB] FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.
[RB] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
[MP] FLEXIBLE AIR CONNECTOR. A conduit for transferring air between an air duct or plenum and an air terminal unit, an air inlet or an air outlet. Such conduit is limited in its use, length and location.
[MP] FLOOR DRAIN. A plumbing fixture for recess in the floor having a floor-level strainer intended for the purpose of the collection and disposal of wastewater used in cleaning the floor and for the collection and disposal of accidental spillage to the floor.
[MP] FLOOR FURNACE. A self-contained furnace suspended from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for combustion from outside such space, and with means for lighting the appliance from such space.
[MP] FLUE. See "Vent."
[MP] FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.
[RB] FOAM BACKER BOARD. Foam plastic used in siding applications where the foam plastic is a component of the siding.
[RB] FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intentionally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open or closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal insulating or acoustic purposes and that has a density less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3) unless it is used as interior trim.
[RB] FOAM PLASTIC INTERIOR TRIM. Exposed foam plastic used as picture molds, chair rails, crown moldings, baseboards, handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim and similar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications.
[MP] FULL-OPEN VALVE. A water control or shutoff component in the water supply system piping that, where adjusted for maximum flow, the flow path through the component's closure member is not a restriction in the component's through-flow area.
[MP] FULLWAY VALVE. A valve that in the full open position has an opening cross-sectional area that is not less than 85 percent of the cross-sectional area of the connecting pipe.
[RB] GLAZING AREA. The interior surface area of all glazed fenestration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing elements, that enclose conditioned space. Includes the area of glazed fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned basements.
[RB] GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening. (See also "Emergency escape and rescue opening.")
[RB] GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building between the structure and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building.
[MP] GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP LOOP SYSTEM. Piping buried in horizontal or vertical excavations or placed in a body of water for the purpose of transporting heat transfer liquid to and from a heat pump. Included in this definition are closed loop systems in which the liquid is recirculated and open loop systems in which the liquid is drawn from a well or other source.
[RB] GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to the lower level.
[RB] GUESTROOM. Any room or rooms used or intended to be used by one or more guests for living or sleeping purposes.
[RB] GYPSUM BOARD. The generic name for a family of sheet products consisting of a noncombustible core primarily of gypsum with paper surfacing. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, predecorated gypsum board and water-resistant gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in Section R702.3 and Part IX of this code are types of gypsum board.
[RB] GYPSUM PANEL PRODUCT. The general name for a family of sheet products consisting essentially of gypsum.
[RB] HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.
[RB] HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.
[MP] HANGERS. See "Supports."
[MP] HAZARDOUS LOCATION. Any location considered to be a fire hazard for flammable vapors, dust, combustible fibers or other highly combustible substances.
[RB] HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.
[MP] HIGH-TEMPERATURE (H.T.) CHIMNEY. A high temperature chimney complying with the requirements of UL 103. A Type H.T. chimney is identifiable by the markings "Type H.T." on each chimney pipe section.
[RB] HILL. With respect to topographic wind effects, a land surface characterized by strong relief in any horizontal direction.
[RB] HISTORIC BUILDING. A building or structure that is one or more of the following:
- Listed, or certified as eligible for listing, by the State Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places in the National Register of Historic Places.
- Designated as historic under an applicable state or local law.
- Certified as a contributing resource within a National Register-listed, or a state-designated or locally designated historic district.
[MP] HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal.
[MP] HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 110°F (43°C).
[RB] HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to hurricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, is greater than 115 miles per hour (51 m/s), and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands and America Samoa.
[MP] HYDROGEN-GENERATING APPLIANCE. A self-contained package or factory-matched packages of integrated systems for generating gaseous hydrogen. Hydrogen-generating appliances utilize electrolysis, reformation, chemical or other processes to generate hydrogen.
[RB] IMPACT PROTECTIVE SYSTEM. Construction that has been shown by testing to withstand the impact of test missiles and that is applied, attached, or locked over exterior glazing.
[MP] INDIRECT SYSTEM. A solar thermal system in which the gas or liquid in the solar collector loop circulates between the solar collector and a heat exchanger and such gas or liquid is not drained from the system or supplied to the load during normal operation.
[MP] INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system for disposal of sewage by means of a septic tank or mechanical treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building.
[RB] INSULATED SIDING. A type of continuous insulation, with manufacturer-installed insulating material as an integral part of the cladding product, having a minimum R-value of R-2. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] INSULATED VINYL SIDING. A vinyl cladding product, with manufacturer-installed foam plastic insulating material as an integral part of the cladding product, having a thermal resistance of not less than R-2.
[RB] INSULATING CONCRETE FORM (ICF). A concrete forming system using stay-in-place forms of rigid foam plastic insulation, a hybrid of cement and foam insulation, a hybrid of cement and wood chips, or other insulating material for constructing cast-in-place concrete walls.
[RB] JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code.
[RB] LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material, and the name and identification of an approved agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency. (See also "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark.")
[RB] LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, approved agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of such labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. Construction whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel framing members.
[RB] LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.
[MP] LOCKING-TYPE TAMPER-RESISTANT CAP. A cap designed to be unlocked by a specially designed tool or key to prevent removal of the cap by means of hand-loosening or by commonly available tools.
[RB] LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.
[RB] LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.
[MP] MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. A system comprised of a sump with macerating pump and with connections for a water closet and other plumbing fixtures, that is designed to accept, grind and pump wastes to an approved point of discharge.
[MP] MANIFOLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. A fabricated piping arrangement in which a large supply main is fitted with multiple branches in close proximity in which water is distributed separately to fixtures from each branch.
[RB] MANUFACTURED HOME. Manufactured home means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, that in the traveling mode is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length, or, where erected on site, is 320 square feet (30 m2) or more, and that is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation where connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include any structure that meets all the requirements of this paragraph except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the secretary (HUD) and complies with the standards established under this title. For mobile homes built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compliance to the Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, in effect at the time of manufacture is required. For the purpose of these provisions, a mobile home shall be considered to be a manufactured home.
[RB] MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a product or material complies with a specified standard or set of rules. (See also "Mark" and "Label.")
[RB] MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the function of a product or material. (See also "Manufacturer's designation" and "Label.")
[RB] MASONRY HEATER. A masonry heater is a solid fuel burning heating appliance constructed predominantly of concrete or solid masonry having a mass of not less than 1,100 pounds (500 kg), excluding the chimney and foundation. It is designed to absorb and store a substantial portion of heat from a fire built in the firebox by routing exhaust gases through internal heat exchange channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox includes not less than one 180-degree (3.14-rad) change in flow direction before entering the chimney and that deliver heat by radiation through the masonry surface of the heater.
Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates.
[RB] MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. The average of the roof eave height and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except that eave height shall be used for roof angle of less than or equal to 10 degrees (0.18 rad).
[MP] MECHANICAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system designed to remove flue or vent gases by mechanical means, that consists of an induced draft portion under nonpositive static pressure or a forced draft portion under positive static pressure.
[MP] MECHANICAL EXHAUST SYSTEM. A system for removing air from a room or space by mechanical means.
[MP] MECHANICAL JOINT.
- A connection between pipes, fittings or pipes and fittings that is not welded, brazed, caulked, soldered, solvent cemented or heat-fused.
- A general form of gas- or liquid-tight connections obtained by the joining of parts through a positive holding mechanical construction such as, but not limited to, flanged, screwed, clamped or flared connections.
[RB] METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having an installed weather exposure of not less than 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per sheet.
[RB] METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet having an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per sheet.
[RB] MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more layers of polymer modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate or held in place with an approved ballast layer.
[RB] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate.
[RB] NAILABLE SUBSTRATE. A product or material such as framing, sheathing or furring, composed of wood or wood-based materials, or other materials and fasteners providing equivalent fastener withdrawal resistance.
[RB] NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species with the exception that an occasional piece with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood.
Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.
Termite resistant. Alaska yellow cedar, redwood, Eastern red cedar and Western red cedar including all sapwood of Western red cedar.
[RB] NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Materials that pass the test procedure for defining noncombustibility of elementary materials set forth in ASTM E136.
[RB] OCCUPIED SPACE. The total area of all buildings or structures on any lot or parcel of ground projected on a horizontal plane, excluding permitted projections as allowed by this code.
[MP] OFFSET. A combination of fittings that makes two changes in direction, bringing one section of the pipe out of line and into a line parallel with the other section.
[MP] ON-SITE NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE SYSTEMS. Water systems for the collection, treatment, storage, distribution, and reuse of nonpotable water generated on site, including but not limited to graywater systems. This definition does not include rainwater harvesting systems.
[RB] OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the property.
[RB] PAN FLASHING. Corrosion-resistant flashing at the base of an opening that is integrated into the building exterior wall to direct water to the exterior and is premanufactured, fabricated, formed or applied at the job site.
[RB] PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.
[RB] PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE. A complete, environmentally protected unit consisting of solar cells, optics and other components, exclusive of a tracker, designed to generate DC power where exposed to sunlight.
[MP] PITCH. See "Slope."
[MP] PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A device or assembly that is an adjunct to the basic plumbing system and does not demand additional water supply or add any discharge load to the system. It is presumed that it performs some useful function in the operation, maintenance, servicing, economy or safety of the plumbing system. Examples include filters, relief valves and aerators.
[MP] PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is connected to a water supply system or discharges to a drainage system or both. Such receptacles or devices require a supply of water; or discharge liquid waste or liquidborne solid waste; or require a supply of water and discharge waste to a drainage system.
[MP] PLUMBING SYSTEMS. Includes the water distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and building drains; in addition to their respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a structure or premises; and the water service, building sewer and building storm sewer serving such structure or premises.
[MP] POLLUTION. A low-hazard or nonhealth-hazard impairment of the quality of the potable water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public health and that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use.
[RB] POLYPROPYLENE SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from polypropylene homopolymer, or copolymer, that in some cases contains fillers or reinforcements, that is used to clad exterior walls or buildings.
[MP] PORTABLE-FUEL-CELL APPLIANCE. A fuel cell generator of electricity that is not fixed in place. A portable-fuel-cell appliance utilizes a cord and plug connection to a grid-isolated load and has an integral fuel supply.
[RB] POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in which consideration has been made for the loading deflections of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation.
[MP] POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming in bacteriological and chemical quality to the requirements of the public health authority having jurisdiction.
[MP] PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed to automatically relieve pressure at the pressure at which it is set.
[MP] PUBLIC SEWER. A common sewer directly controlled by public authority.
[MP] PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use controlled by public authority.
[RB] PUBLIC WAY. Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a public street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and that has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).
[MP] PURGE. To clear of air, gas or other foreign substances.
[MP] QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes automatically where released manually or controlled by mechanical means for fast-action closing.
[MP] RECLAIMED WATER. Nonpotable water that has been derived from the treatment of wastewater by a facility or system licensed or permitted to produce water meeting the jurisdiction's water requirements for its intended uses. Also known as "Recycled water."
[MP] REFRIGERANT. A substance used to produce refrigeration by its expansion or evaporation.
[MP] REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected parts forming a closed circuit in which refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting, then rejecting, heat. A direct refrigerating system is one in which the evaporator or condenser of the refrigerating system is in direct contact with the air or other substances to be cooled or heated. An indirect refrigerating system is one in which a secondary coolant cooled or heated by the refrigerating system is circulated to the air or other substance to be cooled or heated.
[RB] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.
[MP] RELIEF VALVE, VACUUM. A device to prevent excessive buildup of vacuum in a pressure vessel.
[RB] ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof deck, underlayment and roof covering, and can also include a thermal barrier, ignition barrier, insulation or a vapor retarder. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] ROOF REPLACEMENT. The process of removing the existing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and installing a new roof covering. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[RB] SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC). A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site.
[MP] SEPTIC TANK. A water-tight receptor that receives the discharge of a building sanitary drainage system and is constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of open joint or perforated piping or a seepage pit.
[RB] SHALL. The term, where used in the code, is construed as mandatory.
[RB] SHEAR WALL. A general term for walls that are designed and constructed to resist racking from seismic and wind by use of masonry, concrete, cold-formed steel or wood framing in accordance with Chapter 6 of this code and the associated limitations in Section R301.2 of this code.
[RB] SHINGLE FASHION. A method of installing roof or wall coverings, water-resistive barriers, flashing or other building components such that upper layers of material are placed overlapping lower layers of material to provide drainage and protect against water intrusion at unsealed penetrations and joints or in combination with sealed joints.
[RB] SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is field applied using one layer of membrane material (either homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers.
[RB] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, control equipment and alarm sounding device in one unit that is operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.
[RB] SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material, that allows for natural daylighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.
[RB] SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Unit skylights, tubular daylighting devices and glazing materials in solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition. For the definition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.6.
[MP] SLIP JOINT. A mechanical-type joint used primarily on fixture traps. The joint tightness is obtained by compressing a friction-type washer such as rubber, nylon, neoprene, lead or special packing material against the pipe by the tightening of a (slip) nut.
[MP] SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe.
[RB] SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
[MP] SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM. A system that converts solar radiation to thermal energy for use in heating or cooling.
[RB] SOLID MASONRY. Load-bearing or nonload-bearing construction using masonry units where the net cross-sectional area of each unit in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is not less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area. Solid masonry units shall conform to ASTM C55, C62, C73, C145 or C216.
[RB] SPLINE. A strip of wood structural panel cut from the same material used for the panel facings, used to connect two structural insulated panels. The strip (spline) fits into a groove cut into the vertical edges of the two structural insulated panels to be joined. Splines are used behind each facing of the structural insulated panels being connected as shown in Figure R610.8.
[RB] STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for stack bond shall apply to all masonry laid in other than running bond.
[RB] STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either interior or exterior, with the necessary landings and connecting platforms to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another within or attached to a building, porch or deck.
[MP] STATIONARY FUEL CELL POWER PLANT. A self-contained package or factory-matched packages that constitute an automatically-operated assembly of integrated systems for generating useful electrical energy and recoverable thermal energy that is permanently connected and fixed in place.
[RB] STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above.
- More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane.
- More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.
[RB] STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. Structural members manufactured using wood elements bonded together with exterior adhesives.
Examples of structural composite lumber are:
Laminated strand lumber (LSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.10 inch (2.54 mm) or less and their average lengths are not less than 150 times the least dimension of the wood strand elements.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). A composite of wood veneer elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the veneer element thicknesses are 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) or less.
Oriented strand lumber (OSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.10 inch (2.54 mm) or less and their average lengths are not less than 75 times and less than 150 times the least dimension of the wood strand elements.
Parallel strand lumber (PSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member, where the least dimension of the wood strand elements is 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) or less and their average lengths are not less than 300 times the least dimension of the wood strand elements.
[RB] STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
[MP] SUMP PUMP. A pump installed to empty a sump. These pumps are used for removing storm water only. The pump is selected for the specific head and volume of the load and is usually operated by level controllers.
[MP] SWEEP. A drainage fitting designed to provide a change in direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line. Sweeps provide a longer turning radius than bends and a less turbulent flow pattern (see "Bend" and "Elbow").
[MP] TEMPERATURE-RELIEF VALVE. A temperature-actuated valve designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at which it is set.
[RB] TERMITE-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Pressure-preservative-treated wood in accordance with the AWPA standards in Section R317.1, naturally durable termite-resistant wood, steel, concrete, masonry or other approved material.
[RE] THERMAL RESISTANCE, R-VALUE. See "R-value."
[RE] THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE, U-FACTOR. See "U-factor."
[MP] THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An approved agency operating a product or material certification system that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system.
[MP] THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the manufacturer indicating that the function and performance characteristics of a product or material have been determined by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of identification in accordance with the requirements of the third-party certification agency.
[RB] TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from foundation to roof and with a yard or public way on not less than two sides.
[MP] TRAP. A fitting, either separate or built into a fixture, that provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through it.
[MP] TRAP PRIMER. A device or system of piping to maintain a water seal in a trap, typically installed where infrequent use of the trap would result in evaporation of the trap seal, such as floor drains.
[RB] TRUSS DESIGN DRAWING. The graphic depiction of an individual truss, that describes the design and physical characteristics of the truss.
[RB] TUBULAR DAYLIGHTING DEVICE (TDD). A nonoperable fenestration unit primarily designed to transmit daylight from a roof surface to an interior ceiling via a tubular conduit. The basic unit consists of an exterior glazed weathering surface, a light-transmitting tube with a reflective interior surface, and an interior-sealing device such as a translucent ceiling panel. The unit may be factory assembled, or field assembled from a manufactured kit.
[RB] UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing paper, nonbituminous saturated felt, or other approved material over which a roof covering, with a slope of 2 to 12 (17-percent slope) or greater, is applied.
[MP] VACUUM BREAKER. A device that prevents back-siphonage of water by admitting atmospheric pressure through ports to the discharge side of the device.
[RB] VAPOR PERMEABLE. The property of having a moisture vapor permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9 × 10-10 kg/Pa • s • m2) or greater, where tested in accordance with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E96. A vapor permeable material permits the passage of moisture vapor.
[RB] VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of the ability of a material or assembly to limit the amount of moisture that passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be defined using the desiccant method with Procedure A of ASTM E96 as follows:
Class I: ≤ 0.1 perm rating
Class II: > 0.1 to ≤ 1.0 perm rating
Class III: > 1.0 to ≤ 10 perm rating
[MP] VENT DAMPER DEVICE, AUTOMATIC. A device intended for installation in the venting system, in the outlet of an individual, automatically operated fuel burning appliance and that is designed to open the venting system automatically where the appliance is in operation and to close off the venting system automatically where the appliance is in a standby or shutdown condition.
[RB] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.
[MP] VENTING. Removal of combustion products to the outdoors.
[MP] VENTING SYSTEM. A continuous open passageway from the flue collar of an appliance to the outside atmosphere for the purpose of removing flue or vent gases. A venting system is usually composed of a vent or a chimney and vent connector, if used, assembled to form the open passageway.
[MP] VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal.
[RB] WALL, RETAINING. A wall not laterally supported at the top, that resists lateral soil load and other imposed loads.
Load-bearing wall. A wall supporting any vertical load in addition to its own weight.
Nonbearing wall. A wall which does not support vertical loads other than its own weight.
[MP] WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. Piping that conveys water from the service to the plumbing fixtures, appliances, appurtenances, equipment, devices or other systems served, including fittings and control valves.
[MP] WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for public use.
[MP] WATER OUTLET. A valved discharge opening, including a hose bibb, through which water is removed from the potable water system supplying water to a plumbing fixture or plumbing appliance that requires either an air gap or backflow prevention device for protection of the supply system.
[RB] WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further intruding into the exterior wall assembly.
[MP] WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, the water-distributing pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and appurtenances in or adjacent to the building or premises.
[MP] WHOLE-HOUSE MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM. An exhaust system, supply system, or combination thereof that is designed to mechanically exchange indoor air for outdoor air where operating continuously or through a programmed intermittent schedule to satisfy the whole-house ventilation rate.
- Within 1 mile (1.61 km) of the coastal mean high-water line where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, is 130 mph (58 m/s) or greater.
- In areas where the ultimate design wind speed, Vult, is 140 mph (63.6 m/s) or greater; or Hawaii.
[RB] WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.
[RB] WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers; or wood strands or wafers; bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples of wood structural panels are plywood, orientated strand board (OSB) or composite panels.