ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

International Wildland-Urban Interface Code 2018 (IWUIC 2018)

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

User note:

About this chapter: Chapter 4 provides requirements that apply to all occupancies in the wildland-urban interface and pertain to all of the following:

  1. Fire service access to the property that is to be protected, including fire apparatus access roads and off-road driveways.
  2. Premises identification.
  3. Key boxes to provide ready access to properties secured by gated roadways or other impediments to rapid fire service access.
  4. Fire protection water supplies, including adequate water sources, pumper apparatus drafting sites, fire hydrant systems and system reliability.
  5. Fire department access to equipment such as fire suppression equipment and fire hydrants.
  6. Fire protection plans.
Wildland-urban interface areas shall be provided with emergency vehicle access and water supply in accordance with this chapter.
The objective of this chapter is to establish the minimum requirements for emergency vehicle access and water supply for buildings and structures located in the wildland-urban interface areas.

General safety precautions shall be in accordance with this chapter. See also Appendix A.

Subdivisions shall comply with Sections 402.1.1 and 402.1.2.
New subdivisions, as determined by this jurisdiction, shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads in accordance with the International Fire Code and access requirements in accordance with Section 403.
New subdivisions as determined by this jurisdiction shall be provided with water supply in accordance with Section 404.
Individual structures shall comply with Sections 402.2.1 and 402.2.2.
Individual structures hereafter constructed or relocated into or within wildland-urban interface areas shall be provided with fire apparatus access in accordance with the International Fire Code and driveways in accordance with Section 403.2. Marking of fire protection equipment shall be provided in accordance with Section 403.5 and address markers shall be provided in accordance with Section 403.6.

Individual structures hereafter constructed or relocated into or within wildland-urban interface areas shall be provided with a conforming water supply in accordance with Section 404.

Exceptions:

  1. Structures constructed to meet the requirements for the class of ignition-resistant construction specified in Table 503.1 for a nonconforming water supply.
  2. Buildings containing only private garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings with a floor area of not more than 600 square feet (56 m2).
Existing buildings shall be provided with address markers in accordance with Section 403.6. Existing roads and fire protection equipment shall be provided with markings in accordance with Sections 403.4 and 403.5, respectively.
Where emergency vehicle access is restricted because of secured access roads or driveways or where immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting purposes, the code official is authorized to require a key box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of a type approved by the code official and shall contain keys to gain necessary access as required by the code official.
Driveways shall be provided where any portion of an exterior wall of the first story of a building is located more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a fire apparatus access road.
Driveways shall provide a minimum unobstructed width of 12 feet (3658 mm) and a minimum unobstructed height of 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm).
Driveways in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided with turnarounds. Driveways in excess of 200 feet (60 960 mm) in length and less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width shall be provided with turnouts in addition to turnarounds.

A driveway shall not serve in excess of five dwelling units.

Exception: Where such driveways meet the requirements for fire apparatus access road in accordance with Section 503 of the International Fire Code.

Driveway turnarounds shall have inside turning radii of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) and outside turning radii of not less than 45 feet (13 716 mm). Driveways that connect with a road or roads at more than one point shall be considered as having a turnaround if all changes of direction meet the radii requirements for driveway turnarounds.
Driveway turnouts shall be an all-weather road surface not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) wide and 30 feet (9144 mm) long. Driveway turnouts shall be located as required by the code official.
Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to bridges on driveways and private roads. Design loads for bridges shall be established by the code official.
Where required, fire apparatus access roads shall be all-weather roads with a minimum width of 20 feet (6096 mm) and a clear height of 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm); shall be designed to accommodate the loads and turning radii for fire apparatus; and shall have a gradient negotiable by the specific fire apparatus normally used at that location within the jurisdiction. Dead-end roads in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided with turnarounds as approved by the code official. An all-weather road surface shall be any surface material acceptable to the code official that would normally allow the passage of emergency service vehicles typically used to respond to that location within the jurisdiction.
Approved signs or other approved notices shall be provided and maintained for access roads and driveways to identify such roads and prohibit the obstruction thereof.
Road identification signs and supports shall be of noncombustible materials. Signs shall have minimum 4-inch-high (102 mm) reflective letters with 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) stroke on a contrasting 6-inch-high (152 mm) sign. Road identification signage shall be mounted at a height of 7 feet (2134 mm) from the road surface to the bottom of the sign.
Fire protection equipment and fire hydrants shall be clearly identified in a manner approved by the code official to prevent obstruction.
Buildings shall have a permanently posted address, which shall be placed at each driveway entrance and be visible from both directions of travel along the road. In all cases, the address shall be posted at the beginning of construction and shall be maintained thereafter, and the address shall be visible and legible from the road on which the address is located.
Address signs along one-way roads shall be visible from both the intended direction of travel and the opposite direction.
Where multiple addresses are required at a single driveway, they shall be mounted on a single post, and additional signs shall be posted at locations where driveways divide.
Where a roadway provides access solely to a single commercial or industrial business, the address sign shall be placed at the nearest road intersection providing access to that site.
The gradient for fire apparatus access roads and driveways shall not exceed the maximum approved by the code official.

Where provided in order to qualify as a conforming water supply for the purpose of Table 503.1 or as required for new subdivisions in accordance with Section 402.1.2, an approved water source shall have an adequate water supply for the use of the fire protection service to protect buildings and structures from exterior fire sources or to suppress structure fires within the wildland-urban interface area of the jurisdiction in accordance with this section.

Exception: Buildings containing only private garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings with a floor area of not more than 600 square feet (56 m2).

The point at which a water source is available for use shall be located not more than 1,000 feet (305 m) from the building and be approved by the code official. The distance shall be measured along an unobstructed line of travel.

Water sources shall comply with the following:

  1. Man-made water sources shall have a minimum usable water volume as determined by the adequate water supply needs in accordance with Section 404.5. This water source shall be equipped with an approved hydrant. The water level of the water source shall be maintained by rainfall, water pumped from a well, water hauled by a tanker or by seasonal high water of a stream or river. The design, construction, location, water level maintenance, access and access maintenance of man-made water sources shall be approved by the code official.
  2. Natural water sources shall have a minimum annual water level or flow sufficient to meet the adequate water supply needs in accordance with Section 404.5. This water level or flow shall not be rendered unusable because of freezing. This water source shall have an approved draft site with an approved hydrant. Adequate water flow and rights for access to the water source shall be ensured in a form acceptable to the code official.
Approved draft sites shall be provided at natural water sources intended for use as fire protection for compliance with this code. The design, construction, location, access and access maintenance of draft sites shall be approved by the code official.
The draft site shall have emergency vehicle access from an access road in accordance with Section 403.
The pumper access point shall be either an emergency vehicle access area alongside a conforming access road or an approved driveway not longer than 150 feet (45 720 mm). Pumper access points and access driveways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with all codes and ordinances enforced by this jurisdiction. Pumper access points shall not require the pumper apparatus to obstruct a road or driveway.
Hydrants shall be designed and constructed in accordance with nationally recognized standards. The location and access shall be approved by the code official.

Adequate water supply shall be determined for purposes of initial attack and flame front control as follows:

  1. One- and two-family dwellings. The required water supply for one- and two-family dwellings having a fire flow calculation area that does not exceed 3,600 square feet (334 m2) shall be 1,000 gallons per minute (63.1 L/s) for a minimum duration of 30 minutes. The required water supply for one- and two-family dwellings having a fire flow calculation area in excess of 3,600 square feet (334 m2) shall be 1,500 gallons per minute (95 L/s) for a minimum duration of 30 minutes.

    Exception: A reduction in required flow rate of 50 percent, as approved by the code official, is allowed where the building is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

  2. Buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings. The water supply required for buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings shall be as approved by the code official but shall be not less than 1,500 gallons per minute (95 L/s) for a duration of 2 hours.

    Exception: A reduction in required flow rate of up to 75 percent, as approved by the code official, is allowed where the building is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. The resulting water supply shall not be less than 1,500 gallons per minute (94.6 L/s).

The water supply required by this code shall only be approved where a fire department, rated Class 9 or better in accordance with ISO Commercial Rating Service, 1995, is available.
Access to water sources required by this code shall be unobstructed at all times. The code official shall not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access to water source equipment, fire protection equipment or hydrants.
Water sources, draft sites, hydrants and fire protection equipment and hydrants shall be clearly identified in a manner approved by the code official to identify location and to prevent obstruction by parking and other obstructions.
Water sources, draft sites, hydrants and other fire protection equipment required by this code shall be subject to periodic tests as required by the code official. Such equipment installed under the provisions of this code shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times and shall be repaired or replaced where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and servicing of such fire protection equipment and resources shall be in accordance with approved standards.
Water supply reliability shall comply with Sections 404.10.1 through 404.10.3.
The objective of this section is to increase the reliability of water supplies by reducing the exposure of vegetative fuels to electrically powered systems.
Defensible space shall be provided around water tank structures, water supply pumps and pump houses in accordance with Section 603.

Standby power shall be provided to pumps, controllers and related electrical equipment so that stationary water supply facilities within the wildland-urban interface area that are dependent on electrical power can provide the required water supply. The standby power system shall be in accordance with Section 2702 of the International Building Code, and Section 1203 of the International Fire Code. The standby power source shall be capable of providing power for not less than 2 hours.

Exceptions:

  1. Where approved by the code official, a standby power supply is not required where the primary power service to the stationary water supply facility is underground.
  2. A standby power supply is not required where the stationary water supply facility serves not more than one single-family dwelling.
Where required by the code official, a fire protection plan shall be prepared.
The plan shall be based on a site-specific wildfire risk assessment that includes considerations of location, topography, aspect, flammable vegetation, climatic conditions and fire history. The plan shall address water supply, access, building ignition and fire-resistance factors, fire protection systems and equipment, defensible space and vegetation management.
The cost of fire protection plan preparation and review shall be the responsibility of the applicant.
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