About this chapter: Chapter 3 covers general regulations for pool and spa installations. As many of these requirements would need to be repeated in Chapters 3 through 10, placing such requirements in only one location eliminates code development coordination issues with the same requirement in multiple locations. These general requirements can be superseded by more specific requirements for certain applications in Chapters 3 through 10.
Pipe, fittings and components shall be listed and labeled in accordance with NSF 50 or NSF 14. Plastic jets, fittings, and outlets used in public spas shall be listed and labeled in accordance with NSF 50.
Time switches or other control methods that can automatically turn off and on heaters and pump motors according to a preset schedule shall be installed for heaters and pump motors. Heaters and pump motors that have built-in time switches shall be in compliance with this section.
- Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.
- Pumps that operate solar- or waste-heat recovery pool heating systems.
Exception: Where more than 70 percent of the energy for heating, computed over an operating season, is from a heat pump or solar energy source, covers or other vapor-retardant means shall not be required.
Exception: Pools and spas located in riverine flood hazard areas that are outside of designated floodways and pools and spas located in flood hazard areas where the source of flooding is tides, storm surges or coastal storms.
Barrier heights and clearances shall be in accordance with all of the following:
- The top of the barrier shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade where measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the pool or spa. Such height shall exist around the entire perimeter of the barrier and for a distance of 3 feet (914 mm) measured horizontally from the outside of the required barrier.
- The vertical clearance between grade and the bottom of the barrier shall not exceed 2 inches (51 mm) for grade surfaces that are not solid, such as grass or gravel, where measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the pool or spa.
- The vertical clearance between a surface below the barrier to a solid surface, such as concrete, and the bottom of the required barrier shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) where measured on the side of the required barrier that faces away from the pool or spa.
- Where the top of the pool or spa structure is above grade, the barrier shall be installed on grade or shall be mounted on top of the pool or spa structure. Where the barrier is mounted on the top of the pool or spa, the vertical clearance between the top of the pool or spa and the bottom of the barrier shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).
Mesh fences, other than chain link fences in accordance with Section 305.2.7, shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and shall comply with the following:
- The bottom of the mesh fence shall be not more than 1 inch (25 mm) above the deck or installed surface or grade.
- The maximum vertical clearance from the bottom of the mesh fence and the solid surface shall not permit the fence to be lifted more than 4 inches (102 mm) from grade or decking.
- The fence shall be designed and constructed so that it does not allow passage of a 4-inch (102 mm) sphere under any mesh panel. The maximum vertical clearance from the bottom of the mesh fence and the solid surface shall be not greater than 4 inches (102 mm) from grade or decking.
- An attachment device shall attach each barrier section at a height not lower than 45 inches (1143 mm) above grade. Common attachment devices include, but are not limited to, devices that provide the security equal to or greater than that of a hook-and-eye-type latch incorporating a spring-actuated retaining lever such as a safety gate hook.
- Where a hinged gate is used with a mesh fence, the gate shall comply with Section 305.3.
- Patio deck sleeves such as vertical post receptacles that are placed inside the patio surface shall be of a nonconductive material.
- Mesh fences shall not be installed on top of onground residential pools.
Where a wall of a dwelling or structure serves as part of the barrier and where doors or windows provide direct access to the pool or spa through that wall, one of the following shall be required:
- Operable windows having a sill height of less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the indoor finished floor and doors shall have an alarm that produces an audible warning when the window, door or their screens are opened. The alarm shall be listed and labeled as a water hazard entrance alarm in accordance with UL 2017. In dwellings or structures not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the operable parts of the alarm deactivation switches shall be located 54 inches (1372 mm) or more above the finished floor. In dwellings or structures required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the operable parts of the alarm deactivation switches shall be located not greater than 54 inches (1372 mm) and not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the finished floor.
- A safety cover that is listed and labeled in accordance with ASTM F1346 is installed for the pools and spas.
- An approved means of protection, such as self-closing doors with self-latching devices, is provided. Such means of protection shall provide a degree of protection that is not less than the protection afforded by Item 1 or 2.
- Where only the pool wall serves as the barrier, the bottom of the wall is on grade, the top of the wall is not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade for the entire perimeter of the pool, the wall complies with the requirements of Section 305.2 and the pool manufacturer allows the wall to serve as a barrier.
- Where a barrier is mounted on top of the pool wall, the top of the barrier is not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade for the entire perimeter of the pool, and the wall and the barrier on top of the wall comply with the requirements of Section 305.2.
- Ladders or steps used as means of access to the pool are capable of being secured, locked or removed to prevent access except where the ladder or steps are surrounded by a barrier that meets the requirements of Section 305.
- Openings created by the securing, locking or removal of ladders and steps do not allow the passage of a 4-inch (102 mm) diameter sphere.
- Barriers that are mounted on top of onground residential pool walls are installed in accordance with the pool manufacturer's instructions.
The minimum slope of decks shall be in accordance with Table 306.5 except where an alternative drainage method is provided that prevents the accumulation or pooling of water. The slope for decks, other than wood decks, shall be not greater than 1/2 inch per foot (1 mm per 24 mm) except for ramps. The slope for wood and wood/plastic composite decks shall be not greater than 1/4 inch per 1 foot (1 mm per 48 mm). Decks shall be sloped so that standing water will not be deeper than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm), 20 minutes after the cessation of the addition of water to the deck.
MINIMUM DRAINAGE SLOPES FOR DECK SURFACES
|SURFACE||MINIMUM DRAINAGE SLOPE|
(INCH PER FOOT)
|Textured, hand-finished concrete||1/8|
|Travertine/brick-set pavers, public pools or spas||3/8|
|Travertine/brick-set pavers, residential pools or spas||1/8|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Hose bibbs shall be provided for rinsing down the entire deck and shall be installed in accordance with the International Plumbing Code or International Residential Code, as applicable in accordance with Section 102.7.1, and shall be located not greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm) apart. Water-powered devices, such as water-powered lifts, shall have a dedicated hose bibb water source.
Exception: Residential pools and spas shall not be required to have hose bibbs located at 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals, or have a dedicated hose bibb for waterpowered devices.
|Fiberglass reinforced plastic||IAPMO Z124.7|
|Stainless steel (Types 316, 316L, 304, 304L)||ASTM A240|
Walls shall intersect with the floor at an angle or a transition profile. Where a transitional profile is provided at water depths of 3 feet (914 mm) or less, a transitional radius shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm) and shall be tangent to the wall and is permitted to be tangent to or intersect the floor.
Suction entrapment avoidance for pools and spas shall be provided in accordance with APSP 7.
The provisions of this section shall apply to circulation systems for pools and spas.
A circulation system consisting of pumps, piping, return inlets and outlets, filters, and other necessary equipment shall be provided for the complete circulation of water. Wading pools and spas shall have separate dedicated filtering systems.
Exception: Separate filtering systems are not required for residential pools and spas.
|Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe||ASTM D1527|
|Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing||ASTM D2846; CSA B137.6|
|Copper or copper-alloy tubing||ASTM B88; ASTM B447|
|Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) hose||ASTM D1785; ASTM D2241; ASTM D2672; CSA B137.3|
|Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe||ASTM D1785; CSA B137.3|
|Stainless steel pipe, Types 304, 304L, 316, 316L||ASTM A312|
CIRCULATION SYSTEM FITTINGS
|Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe||ASTM D1527|
|Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing||ASTM D2846; ASTM F437;|
ASTM F438; ASTM F439; CSA B137.6
|Copper or copper-alloy tubing||ASME B16.15|
|Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe||ASTM D2464; ASTM D2466;|
ASTM D2467; CSA B137.2; CSA B137.3
|Stainless steel pipe, Types 304, 304L, 316, 316L||ASTM A182; ASTM A403|
An emergency shutoff switch shall be provided to disconnect power to recirculation and jet system pumps and air blowers. Emergency shutoff switches shall be: provided with access; located within sight of the pool or spa; and located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the inside walls of the pool or spa.
A surface skimming system shall be provided for public pools and spas. Surface skimming systems shall be listed and labeled in accordance with NSF 50. Either a surface skimming system or perimeter overflow system shall be provided for permanent inground residential pools and permanent residential spas. Where installed, surface skimming systems shall be designed and constructed to create a skimming action on the pool water surface when the water level in the pool is within operational parameters.
Where automatic surface skimmers are used as the sole overflow system, not less than one surface skimmer shall be provided for the square foot (square meter) areas, or fractions thereof, indicated in Table 315.3. Skimmers shall be located to maintain effective skimming action.
|Electric water heater||UL 1261, UL 1563 or CSA C22.2 No. 218.1|
|Gas-fired water heater||ANSI Z21.56/CSA 4.7a|
|Heat exchanger||AHRI 400|
|Heat pump water heater||UL 1995, AHRI 1160, CSA C22.2 No. 236|
When a pool is open during periods of low natural illumination, artificial lighting shall be provided so that all areas of the pool, including all suction outlets on the bottom of the pool, will be visible. Illumination shall be sufficient to enable a lifeguard or other persons standing on the deck or sitting on a lifeguard stand adjacent to the pool edge to determine if a pool user is lying on the bottom of the pool and that the pool water is transparent and free from cloudiness.
These two conditions shall be met when all suction outlets are visible from the edge of the deck at all times when artificial lighting is illuminated and when an 8-inch-diameter (152 mm) black disk, placed at the bottom of the pool in the deepest point, is visible from the edge of the pool deck at all times when artificial lighting is illuminated.
Underwater lighting shall provide not less than 8 horizontal foot-candles (8 lumens per square foot) [86 lux] at the pool water surface area, or not less than a total wattage of 1/2 watt/ft2 (5.4 watts/m2) of pool water surface for incandescent underwater lighting where the fixtures and lamps are rated in watts.
Exception: The requirement of this section shall not apply where overhead lighting provides not less than 15 foot-candles (15 lumens per square foot) [161 lux] of maintained illumination at the pool water surface, the overhead lighting provides visibility, without glare, of all areas of the pool, and the requirements of Section 321.2.2 are met or exceeded.
Where installed, steps and ladders shall be located outside of the minimum diving water envelope as indicated in Figure 322.2.