CODES

ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2012 (IRC 2012)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Residential Code

Legislation

Part I ‒ Administrative

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Part II ‒ Definitions

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part III ‒ Building Planning and Construction

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Part IV ‒ Energy Conservation

Chapter 11 [Re] Energy Efficiency

Part V ‒ Mechanical

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment and Appliances

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Appliances, Equipment and Systems

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Energy Systems

Part VI ‒ Fuel Gas

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Part VII Plumbing Administration

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage

Part VIII ‒ Electrical

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 36 Services

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Part IX ‒ Referenced Standards

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances, and Appliances Listed for Use With Type B Vents

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-Vent Venting Systems

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings

Appendix F Radon Control Methods

Appendix G Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Permit Fees

Appendix M Home Day Care—R-3 Occupancy

Appendix N Venting Methods

Appendix O Automatic Vehicular Gates

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix Q Icc International Residential Code Electrical Provisions/National Electrical Code Cross Reference

(The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.)
These provisions shall be applicable only to a manufactured home used as a single dwelling unit installed on privately owned (nonrental) lots and shall apply to the following:
1. Construction, alteration and repair of any foundation system which is necessary to provide for the installation of a manufactured home unit.
2. Construction, installation, addition, alteration, repair or maintenance of the building service equipment which is necessary for connecting manufactured homes to water, fuel, or power supplies and sewage systems.
3. Alterations, additions or repairs to existing manufactured homes. The construction, alteration, moving, demolition, repair and use of accessory buildings and structures, and their building service equipment, shall comply with the requirements of the codes adopted by this jurisdiction.

These provisions shall not be applicable to the design and construction of manufactured homes and shall not be deemed to authorize either modifications or additions to manufactured homes where otherwise prohibited.

Exception: In addition to these provisions, new and replacement manufactured homes to be located in flood hazard areas as established in Table R301.2(1) of the International Residential Code shall meet the applicable requirements of Section R322 of the International Residential Code.
Manufactured homes and their building service equipment to which additions, alterations or repairs are made shall comply with all the requirements of these provisions for new facilities, except as specifically provided in this section.
Additions made to a manufactured home shall conform to one of the following:
1. Be certified under the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. Section 5401, et seq.).
2. Be designed and constructed to comply with the applicable provisions of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. Section 5401, et seq.).
3. Be designed and constructed in compliance with the code adopted by this jurisdiction.

Additions shall be structurally separated from the manufactured home.

Exception: A structural separation need not be provided when structural calculations are provided to justify the omission of such separation.

Alterations or repairs may be made to any manufactured home or to its building service equipment without requiring the existing manufactured home or its building service equipment to comply with all the requirements of these provisions, provided the alteration or repair conforms to that required for new construction, and provided further that no hazard to life, health or safety will be created by such additions, alterations or repairs.

Alterations or repairs to an existing manufactured home, which are nonstructural and do not adversely affect any structural member or any part of the building or structure having required fire protection, may be made with materials equivalent to those of which the manufactured home structure is constructed, subject to approval by the building official.

Exception: The installation or replacement of glass shall be required for new installations.

Minor additions, alterations and repairs to existing building service equipment installations may be made in accordance with the codes in effect at the time the original installation was made, subject to the approval of the building official, and provided such additions, alterations and repairs will not cause the existing building service equipment to become unsafe, insanitary or overloaded.

Building service equipment lawfully in existence at the time of the adoption of the applicable codes may have their use, maintenance or repair continued if the use, maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original design and no hazard to life, health or property has been created by such building service equipment.
Manufactured homes, which are in existence at the time of the adoption of these provisions, may have their existing use or occupancy continued if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the adoption of these provisions, provided such continued use is not dangerous to life, health and safety.

The use or occupancy of any existing manufactured home shall not be changed unless evidence satisfactory to the building official is provided to show compliance with all applicable provisions of the codes adopted by this jurisdiction. Upon any change in use or occupancy, the manufactured home shall cease to be classified as such within the intent of these provisions.

All manufactured homes and their building service equipment, existing and new, and all parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. All devices or safeguards which are required by applicable codes or by the Manufactured Home Standards shall be maintained in conformance to the code or standard under which it was installed. The owner or the owner’s designated agent shall be responsible for the maintenance of manufactured homes, accessory buildings, structures and their building service equipment. To determine compliance with this section, the building official may cause any manufactured home, accessory building or structure to be reinspected.
Manufactured homes which are to be relocated within this jurisdiction shall comply with these provisions.
For the purpose of these provisions, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives shall be construed as defined or specified herein.
ACCESSORY BUILDING. Any building or structure, or portion thereto, located on the same property as a manufactured home which does not qualify as a manufactured home as defined herein.
BUILDING SERVICE EQUIPMENT. Refers to the plumbing, mechanical and electrical equipment, including piping, wiring, fixtures and other accessories which provide sanitation, lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, fire protection and facilities essential for the habitable occupancy of a manufactured home or accessory building or structure for its designated use and occupancy.
MANUFACTURED HOME. A structure transportable in one or more sections which, in the traveling mode, is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length or, when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet (30 m2), and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include any structure which meets all the requirements of this paragraph, except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and complies with the standards established under this title.

For mobile homes built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compliance with the Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, ANSI 119.1, in effect at the time of manufacture, is required. For the purpose of these provisions, a mobile home shall be considered a manufactured home.

MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION. Construction which is required for the installation of a manufactured home, including the construction of the foundation system, required structural connections thereto and the installation of on-site water, gas, electrical and sewer systems and connections thereto which are necessary for the normal operation of the manufactured home.
MANUFACTURED HOME STANDARDS. The Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards as promulgated by the HUD.
PRIVATELY OWNED (NONRENTAL) LOT. A parcel of real estate outside of a manufactured home rental community (park) where the land and the manufactured home to be installed thereon are held in common ownership.
A manufactured home shall not be installed on a foundation system, reinstalled or altered without first obtaining a permit from the building official. A separate permit shall be required for each manufactured home installation. When approved by the building official, such permit may include accessory buildings and structures, and their building service equipment, when the accessory buildings or structures will be constructed in conjunction with the manufactured home installation.
A permit shall be obtained to alter, remodel, repair or add accessory buildings or structures to a manufactured home subsequent to its initial installation. Permit issuance and fees therefor shall be in conformance to the codes applicable to the type of work involved.

An addition made to a manufactured home, as defined in these provisions, shall comply with these provisions.

Except as provided in Section AE301.1, permits shall be required for all accessory buildings and structures, and their building service equipment. Permit issuance and fees therefor shall be in conformance the codes applicable to the types of work involved.
A permit shall not be required for the types of work specifically exempted by the applicable codes. Exemption from the permit requirements of any of said codes shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in violation of the provisions of said codes or any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction.
To obtain a manufactured home installation permit, the applicant shall first file an application, in writing, on a form furnished by the building official for that purpose. At the option of the building official, every such application shall:
1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which application is made.
2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street address or similar description that will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed building or work.
3. Indicate the use or occupancy for which the proposed work is intended.
4. Be accompanied by plans, diagrams, computations and specifications, and other data as required in Section AE302.2.
5. Be accompanied by a soil investigation when required by Section AE502.2.
6. State the valuation of any new building or structure; or any addition, remodeling or alteration to an existing building.
7. Be signed by permittee, or permittee’s authorized agent, who may be required to submit evidence to indicate such authority.
8. Give such other data and information as may be required by the building official.
Plans, engineering calculations, diagrams and other data as required by the building official shall be submitted in not less than two sets with each application for a permit. The building official may require plans, computations and specifications to be prepared and designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such.

Where no unusual site conditions exist, the building official may accept approved standard foundation plans and details in conjunction with the manufacturer’s approved installation instructions without requiring the submittal of engineering calculations.

Plans and specifications shall be drawn to scale on substantial paper or cloth, and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and shown in detail that it will conform to the provisions of these provisions and all relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations. The building official shall determine what information is required on plans and specifications to ensure compliance.
The application, plans and specifications, and other data filed by an applicant for permit shall be reviewed by the building official. Such plans may be reviewed by other departments of this jurisdiction to verify compliance with any applicable laws under their jurisdiction. If the building official finds that the work described in an application for a permit, and the plans, specifications and other data filed therewith, conform to the requirements of these provisions, and other data filed therewith conform to the requirements of these provisions and other pertinent codes, laws and ordinances, and that the fees specified in Section AE304 have been paid, the building official shall issue a permit therefor to the applicant.

When the building official issues the permit where plans are required, the building official shall endorse in writing or stamp the plans and specifications APPROVED. Such approved plans and specifications shall not be changed, modified or altered without authorization from the building official, and all work shall be done in accordance with the approved plans.

One set of approved plans and specifications shall be returned to the applicant and shall be kept on the site of the building or work at all times during which the work authorized thereby is in progress. One set of approved plans, specifications and computations shall be retained by the building official until final approval of the work.
The issuance of a permit or approval of plans and specifications shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of these provisions or other pertinent codes of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. No permit presuming to give authority to violate or cancel these provisions shall be valid.

The issuance of a permit based on plans, specifications and other data shall not prevent the building official from thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said plans, specifications and other data, or from preventing building operations being carried on thereunder when in violation of these provisions or of any other ordinances of this jurisdiction.

Every permit issued by the building official under these provisions shall expire by limitation and become null and void if the work authorized by such permit is not commenced within 180 days from the date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned at any time after the work is commenced for a period of 180 days. Before such work can be recommenced, a new permit shall be first obtained, and the fee therefor shall be one-half the amount required for a new permit for such work, provided no changes have been made or will be made in the original plans and specifications for such work, and provided further that such suspension or abandonment has not exceeded one year. In order to renew action on a permit after expiration, the permittee shall pay a new full permit fee.

Any permittee holding an unexpired permit may apply for an extension of the time within which work may commence under that permit when the permittee is unable to commence work within the time required by this section for good and satisfactory reasons. The building official may extend the time for action by the permittee for a period not exceeding 180 days upon written request by the permittee showing that circumstances beyond the control of the permittee have prevented action from being taken. No permit shall be extended more than once.

The building official may, in writing, suspend or revoke a permit issued under these provisions whenever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of these provisions.
The fee for each manufactured home installation permit shall be established by the building official.

When permit fees are to be based on the value or valuation of the work to be performed, the determination of value or valuation under these provisions shall be made by the building official. The value to be used shall be the total value of all work required for the manufactured home installation plus the total value of all work required for the construction of accessory buildings and structures for which the permit is issued, as well as all finish work, painting, roofing, electrical, plumbing, heating, air conditioning, elevators, fire-extinguishing systems and any other permanent equipment which is a part of the accessory building or structure. The value of the manufactured home itself shall not be included.

When a plan or other data are required to be submitted by Section AE302.2, a plan review fee shall be paid at the time of submitting plans and specifications for review. Said plan review fee shall be as established by the building official. Where plans are incomplete or changed so as to require additional plan review, an additional plan review fee shall be charged at a rate as established by the building official.
Applications for which no permit is issued within 180 days following the date of application shall expire by limitation, and plans and other data submitted for review may thereafter be returned to the applicant or destroyed by the building official. The building official may extend the time for action by the applicant for a period not exceeding 180 days upon request by the applicant showing that circumstances beyond the control of the applicant have prevented action from being taken. No application shall be extended more than once. In order to renew action on an application after expiration, the applicant shall resubmit plans and pay a new plan review fee.
Whenever any work for which a permit is required by these provisions has been commenced without first obtaining said permit, a special investigation shall be made before a permit may be issued for such work.
An investigation fee, in addition to the permit fee, shall be collected whether or not a permit is then or subsequently issued. The investigation fee shall be equal to the amount of the permit fee required. The minimum investigation fee shall be the same as the minimum fee established by the building official. The payment of such investigation fee shall not exempt any person from compliance with all other provisions of either these provisions or other pertinent codes or from any penalty prescribed by law.
The building official may authorize the refunding of any fee paid hereunder which was erroneously paid or collected.
The building official may authorize the refunding of not more than 80 percent of the permit fee paid when no work has been done under a permit issued in accordance with these provisions.
The building official may authorize the refunding of not more than 80 percent of the plan review fee paid when an application for a permit for which a plan review fee has been paid is withdrawn or canceled before any plan reviewing is done.

The building official shall not authorize the refunding of any fee paid, except upon written application by the original permittee not later than 180 days after the date of the fee payment.

All construction or work for which a manufactured home installation permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official, and certain types of construction shall have continuous inspection by special inspectors as specified in Section AE306. A survey of the lot may be required by the building official to verify that the structure is located in accordance with the approved plans.

It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to be accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the building official nor this jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.

It shall be the duty of the person doing the work authorized by a manufactured home installation permit to notify the building official that such work is ready for inspection. The building official may require that every request for inspection be filed at least one working day before such inspection is desired. Such request may be in writing or by telephone at the option of the building official.

It shall be the duty of the person requesting any inspections required, either by these provisions or other applicable codes, to provide access to and means for proper inspection of such work.

Work requiring a manufactured home installation permit shall not be commenced until the permit holder or the permit holder’s agent shall have posted an inspection record card in a conspicuous place on the premises and in such position as to allow the building official conveniently to make the required entries thereon regarding inspection of the work. This card shall be maintained in such position by the permit holder until final approval has been issued by the building official.
Work shall not be done on any part of the manufactured home installation beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official. Such approval shall be given only after an inspection has been made of each successive step in the construction as indicated by each of the inspections required in Section AE305.5. There shall be a final inspection and approval of the manufactured home installation, including connections to its building service equipment, when completed and ready for occupancy or use.
Reinforcing steel or structural framework of any part of any manufactured home foundation system shall not be covered or concealed without first obtaining the approval of the building official. The building official, upon notification from the permit holder or the permit holder’s agent, shall make the following inspections and shall either approve that portion of the construction as completed or shall notify the permit holder or the permit holder’s agent wherein the same fails to comply with these provisions or other applicable codes:
1. Foundation inspection: To be made after excavations for footings are completed and any required reinforcing steel is in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall be in place prior to inspection. All materials for the foundation shall be on the job, except where concrete from a central mixing plant (commonly termed “transit mixed”) is to be used, the concrete materials need not be on the job. Where the foundation is to be constructed of approved treated wood, additional framing inspections as required by the building official may be required.
2. Concrete slab or under-floor inspection: To be made after all in-slab or under-floor building service equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary equipment items are in place but before any concrete is poured or the manufactured home is installed.
3. Anchorage inspection: To be made after the manufactured home has been installed and permanently anchored.
Inspections for accessory buildings and structures shall be made as set forth in this code.
All building service equipment which is required as a part of a manufactured home installation, including accessory buildings and structures authorized by the same permit, shall be inspected by the building official. Building service equipment shall be inspected and tested as required by the applicable codes. Such inspections and testing shall be limited to site construction and shall not include building service equipment which is a part of the manufactured home itself. No portion of any building service equipment intended to be concealed by any permanent portion of the construction shall be concealed until inspected and approved. Building service equipment shall not be connected to a water, fuel or power supply, or sewer system, until authorized by the building official.
When finish grading and the manufactured home installation, including the installation of all required building service equipment, is completed and the manufactured home is ready for occupancy, a final inspection shall be made.
In addition to the called inspections specified in Section AE305.5.4, the building official may make or require other inspections of any construction work to ascertain compliance with these provisions or other codes and laws which are enforced by the code enforcement agency.
In addition to the inspections required by Section AE305, the building official may require the owner to employ a special inspector during construction of specific types of work as described in this code.
Utility service shall not be provided to any building service equipment which is regulated by these provisions or other applicable codes, and for which a manufactured home installation permit is required by these provisions, until approved by the building official.
A manufactured home shall be limited in use to a single dwelling unit.
Accessory buildings shall be classified as to occupancy by the building official as set forth in this code.
Manufactured homes and accessory buildings shall be located on the property in accordance with applicable codes and ordinances of this jurisdiction.
A manufactured home shall be installed on a foundation system which is designed and constructed to sustain within the stress limitations specified in this code and all loads specified in this code.
Exception: When specifically authorized by the building official, foundation and anchorage systems which are constructed in accordance with the methods specified in Section AE600 of these provisions, or in the HUD, Permanent Foundations for Manufactured Housing, 1984 Edition, Draft, shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this appendix.
The installation instructions as provided by the manufacturer of the manufactured home shall be used to determine permissible points of support for vertical loads and points of attachment for anchorage systems used to resist horizontal and uplift forces.
Any system or method of construction to be used shall submit to a rational analysis in accordance with well-established principles of mechanics.
Foundation systems designed and constructed in accordance with this section may be considered a permanent installation.
The classification of the soil at each manufactured home site shall be determined when required by the building official. The building official may require that the determination be made by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to conduct soil investigations.

The classification shall be based on observation and any necessary tests of the materials disclosed by borings or excavations made in appropriate locations. Additional studies may be necessary to evaluate soil strength, the effect of moisture variation on soil-bearing capacity, compressibility and expansiveness.

When required by the building official, the soil classification design-bearing capacity and lateral pressure shall be shown on the plans.

Footings and foundations, unless otherwise specifically provided, shall be constructed of materials specified by this code for the intended use and in all cases shall extend below the frost line. Footings of concrete and masonry shall be of solid material. Foundations supporting untreated wood shall extend at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the adjacent finish grade. Footings shall have a minimum depth below finished grade of 12 inches (305 mm) unless a greater depth is recommended by a foundation investigation.

Piers and bearing walls shall be supported on masonry or concrete foundations or piles, or other approved foundation systems which shall be of sufficient capacity to support all loads.

When a design is provided, the foundation system shall be designed in accordance with the applicable structural provisions of this code and shall be designed to minimize differential settlement. Where a design is not provided, the minimum foundation requirements shall be as set forth in this code.
Provisions shall be made for the control and drainage of surface water away from the manufactured home.
A minimum clearance of 12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained beneath the lowest member of the floor support framing system. Clearances from the bottom of wood floor joists or perimeter joists shall be as specified in this code.

Under-floor spaces shall be ventilated with openings as specified in this code. If combustion air for one or more heat-producing appliance is taken from within the under-floor spaces, ventilation shall be adequate for proper appliance operation.

Under-floor access openings shall be provided. Such openings shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in any dimension and not less than 3 square feet (0.279 m2) in area, and shall be located so that any water supply and sewer drain connections located under the manufactured home are accessible.

Skirting and permanent perimeter enclosures shall be installed only where specifically required by other laws or ordinances. Skirting, when installed, shall be of material suitable for exterior exposure and contact with the ground. Permanent perimeter enclosures shall be constructed of materials as required by this code for regular foundation construction.

Skirting shall be installed in accordance with the skirting manufacturer’s installation instructions. Skirting shall be adequately secured to ensure stability, minimize vibration and susceptibility to wind damage, and compensate for possible frost heave.

Where retaining walls are used as a permanent perimeter enclosure, they shall resist the lateral displacements of soil or other materials and shall conform to this code as specified for foundation walls. Retaining walls and foundation walls shall be constructed of approved treated wood, concrete, masonry or other approved materials or combination of materials as for foundations as specified in this code. Siding materials shall extend below the top of the exterior of the retaining or foundation wall, or the joint between the siding and enclosure wall shall be flashed in accordance with this code.
Accessory buildings shall not be structurally supported by or attached to a manufactured home unless engineering calculations are submitted to substantiate any proposed structural connection.
Exception: The building official may waive the submission of engineering calculations if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that engineering calculations are not necessary to show conformance to these provisions.
The installation, alteration, repair, replacement, addition to or maintenance of the building service equipment within the manufactured home shall conform to regulations set forth in the Manufactured Home Standards. Such work which is located outside the manufactured home shall comply with the applicable codes adopted by this jurisdiction.
Exterior stairways and ramps which provide egress to the public way shall comply with the applicable provisions of this code.
Every accessory building or portion thereof shall be provided with exits as required by this code.
Alterations made to a manufactured home subsequent to its initial installation shall conform to the occupancy, fire safety and energy conservation requirements set forth in the Manufactured Home Standards.
This section is applicable only where specifically authorized by the building official.
The capacity of individual load-bearing piers and their footings shall be sufficient to sustain all loads specified in this code within the stress limitations specified in this code. Footings, unless otherwise approved by the building official, shall be placed level on firm, undisturbed soil or an engineered fill which is free of organic material, such as weeds and grasses. Where used, an engineered fill shall provide a minimum load-bearing capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds per square foot (48 kN/m2). Continuous footings shall conform to the requirements of this code. Section AE502 of these provisions shall apply to footings and foundations constructed under the provisions of this section.
Piers shall be designed and constructed to distribute loads evenly. Multiple-section homes may have concentrated roof loads which will require special consideration. Load-bearing piers may be constructed utilizing one of the following methods listed. Such piers shall be considered to resist only vertical forces acting in a downward direction. They shall not be considered as providing any resistance to horizontal loads induced by wind or earthquake forces.
1. A prefabricated load-bearing device that is listed and labeled for the intended use.
2. Mortar shall comply with ASTM C 270, Type M, S or N; this may consist of one part Portland cement, one-half part hydrated lime and four parts sand by volume. Lime shall not be used with plastic or waterproof cement.
3. A cast-in-place concrete pier with concrete having specified compressive strength at 28 days of 2,500 pounds per square inch (17 225 kPa).

Alternative materials and methods of construction may be used for piers which have been designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such.

Caps and leveling spacers may be used for leveling of the manufactured home. Spacing of piers shall be as specified in the manufacturer’s installation instructions, if available, or by an approved designer.

Piers constructed as indicated in Section AE602 may have heights as follows:
1. Except for corner piers, piers 36 inches (914 mm) or less in height may be constructed of masonry units, placed with cores or cells vertically. Piers shall be installed with their long dimension at right angles to the main frame member they support and shall have a minimum cross-sectional area of 128 square inches (82 560 mm2). Piers shall be capped with minimum 4-inch (102 mm) solid masonry units or equivalent.
2. Piers between 36 and 80 inches (914 and 2032 mm) in height and all corner piers greater than 24 inches (610 mm) in height shall be at least 16 inches by 16 inches (406 mm by 406 mm) consisting of interlocking masonry units and shall be fully capped with minimum 4-inch (102 mm) solid masonry units or equivalent.
3. Piers greater than 80 inches (2032 mm) in height may be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Item 2, provided the piers shall be filled solid with grout and reinforced with four continuous No. 5 bars. One bar shall be placed in each corner cell of hollow masonry unit piers or in each corner of the grouted space of piers constructed of solid masonry units.
4. Cast-in-place concrete piers meeting the same size and height limitations of Items 1, 2 and 3 may be substituted for piers constructed of masonry units.
Ground anchors shall be designed and installed to transfer the anchoring loads to the ground. The load-carrying portion of the ground anchors shall be installed to the full depth called for by the manufacturer’s installation instructions and shall extend below the established frost line into undisturbed soil.

Manufactured ground anchors shall be listed and installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the anchor manufacturer’s instructions, and shall include the means of attachment of ties meeting the requirements of Section AE605. Ground anchor manufacturer’s installation instructions shall include the amount of preload required and load capacity in various types of soil. These instructions shall include tensioning adjustments which may be needed to prevent damage to the manufactured home, particularly damage that can be caused by frost heave. Each ground anchor shall be marked with the manufacturer’s identification and listed model identification number which shall be visible after installation. Instructions shall accompany each listed ground anchor specifying the types of soil for which the anchor is suitable under the requirements of this section.

Each approved ground anchor, when installed, shall be capable of resisting an allowable working load at least equal to 3,150 pounds (14 kN) in the direction of the tie plus a 50-percent overload [4,725 pounds (21 kN) total] without failure. Failure shall be considered to have occurred when the anchor moves more than 2 inches (51 mm) at a load of 4,725 pounds (21 kN) in the direction of the tie installation. Those ground anchors which are designed to be installed so that loads on the anchor are other than direct withdrawal shall be designed and installed to resist an applied design load of 3,150 pounds (14 kN) at 40 to 50 degrees from vertical or within the angle limitations specified by the home manufacturer without displacing the tie end of the anchor more than 4 inches (102 mm) horizontally. Anchors designed for the connection of multiple ties shall be capable of resisting the combined working load and overload consistent with the intent expressed herein.

When it is proposed to use ground anchors and the building official has reason to believe that the soil characteristics at a given site are such as to render the use of ground anchors advisable, or when there is doubt regarding the ability of the ground anchors to obtain their listed capacity, the building official may require that a representative field installation be made at the site in question and tested to demonstrate ground-anchor capacity. The building official shall approve the test procedures.

Anchoring equipment, when installed as a permanent installation, shall be capable of resisting all loads as specified within these provisions. When the stabilizing system is designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such, alternative designs may be used, providing the anchoring equipment to be used is capable of withstanding a load equal to 1.5 times the calculated load. All anchoring equipment shall be listed and labeled as being capable of meeting the requirements of these provisions. Anchors as specified in this code may be attached to the main frame of the manufactured home by an approved 3/16-inch-thick (4.76 mm) slotted steel plate anchoring device. Other anchoring devices or methods meeting the requirements of these provisions may be permitted when approved by the building official.

Anchoring systems shall be so installed as to be permanent. Anchoring equipment shall be so designed to prevent self-disconnection with no hook ends used.

All anchoring equipment, tension devices and ties shall have a resistance to deterioration as required by this code.
Tensioning devices, such as turnbuckles or yoke-type fasteners, shall be ended with clevis or welded eyes.
Steel strapping, cable, chain or other approved materials shall be used for ties. All ties shall be fastened to ground anchors and drawn tight with turnbuckles or other adjustable tensioning devices or devices supplied with the ground anchor. Tie materials shall be capable of resisting an allowable working load of 3,150 pounds (14 kN) with no more than 2 percent elongation and shall withstand a 50-percent overload [4,750 pounds (21 kN)]. Ties shall comply with the weathering requirements of Section AE604.3. Ties shall connect the ground anchor and the main structural frame. Ties shall not connect to steel outrigger beams which fasten to and intersect the main structural frame unless specifically stated in the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Connection of cable ties to main frame members shall be 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) closed-eye bolts affixed to the frame member in an approved manner. Cable ends shall be secured with at least two U-bolt cable clamps with the “U” portion of the clamp installed on the short (dead) end of the cable to ensure strength equal to that required by this section.

Wood floor support systems shall be fixed to perimeter foundation walls in accordance with provisions of this code. The minimum number of ties required per side shall be sufficient to resist the wind load stated in this code. Ties shall be as evenly spaced as practicable along the length of the manufactured home with the distance from each end of the home and the tie nearest that end not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). When continuous straps are provided as vertical ties, such ties shall be positioned at rafters and studs. Where a vertical tie and diagonal tie are located at the same place, both ties may be connected to a single anchor, provided the anchor used is capable of carrying both loads. Multiple-section manufactured homes require diagonal ties only. Diagonal ties shall be installed on the exterior main frame and slope to the exterior at an angle of 40 to 50 degrees from the vertical or within the angle limitations specified by the home manufacturer. Vertical ties which are not continuous over the top of the manufactured home shall be attached to the main frame.

ASTM C 270—04Specification for Mortar for Unit
Masonry
AE602
NFPA 501—03Standard on Manufactured
Housing
AE201
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