CODES

ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2012 (IFC 2012)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Fire Code

Legislation

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 12 Through 19 Reserved

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 32 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 36 Marinas

Chapter 37 Through 49 Reserved

Chapter 50 Hazardous Materials—General Provisions

Chapter 51 Aerosols

Chapter 52 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids

Chapter 60 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 67 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 68 Through 79 Reserved

Chapter 80 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G CRYOGENIC FLUIDS—WEIGHT AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (Hmmp) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (Hmis) Instructions

Appendix I FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS—NONCOMPLIANT CONDITIONS

Appendix J Building Information Sign

The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems.
The fire code official shall have the authority to require construction documents and calculations for all fire protection systems and to require permits be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.
Before requesting final approval of the installation, where required by the fire code official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protection system has been installed in accordance with approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the appropriate installation standard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall be attached to the written statement.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.
Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or augmented as necessary to maintain and continue protection whenever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with applicable standards.
Fire protection systems required by this code or the International Building Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and maintained in accordance with this code.
Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code or the International Building Code shall be allowed to be furnished for partial or complete protection provided such installed system meets the applicable requirements of this code and the International Building Code.
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the International Building Code.
In occupancies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where the fire code official determines that access for fire apparatus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required under this section shall be installed in accordance with this code and the applicable referenced standards.
Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function shall be prohibited.
Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working space around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and an unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.
Fire detection and alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant systems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code official. The fire code official shall be notified before any required acceptance testing.
It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved.
Fire detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust systems, and smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed.
Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.

TABLE 901.6.1
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

SYSTEMSTANDARD
Portable fire extinguishersNFPA 10
Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systemNFPA 12
Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systemsNFPA 12A
Dry-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17
Wet-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17A
Water-based fire protection systemsNFPA 25
Fire alarm systemsNFPA 72
Mechanical smoke exhaust systemsNFPA 204
Smoke and heat ventsNFPA 204
Water-mist systemsNFPA 750
Clean-agent extinguishing systemsNFPA 2001
Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years and shall be copied to the fire code official upon request.
Initial records shall include the name of the installation contractor, type of components installed, manufacturer of the components, location and number of components installed per floor. Records shall also include the manufacturers’ operation and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained on the premises.
Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall either be evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.

The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.
A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service.
The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The fire code official shall specify where the tag is to be placed.
Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:
1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
3. Recommendations have been submitted to management or building owner/manager.
4. The fire department has been notified.
5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building owner/manager, and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.
6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
7. A tag impairment system has been implemented.
8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.
When unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4.
When impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:
1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.
2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
3. The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.
5. The impairment tag has been removed.
It shall be unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when approved by the fire code official.
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direction of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner.
For fire alarm systems required to be monitored by this code, notice shall be made to the fire code official whenever alarm monitoring services are terminated. Notice shall be made in writing, to the fire code official by the monitoring service provider being terminated.
Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2 :
ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
ALARM SIGNAL.
ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.
ANNUNCIATOR.
AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
AUTOMATIC.
AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.
AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.
CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
CLEAN AGENT.
CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.
DELUGE SYSTEM.
DETECTOR, HEAT.
DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.
ELEVATOR GROUP.
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.
EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.
FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.
FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.
FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.
[B] FIRE AREA.
FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.
FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.
FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).
FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR.
INITIATING DEVICE.
MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.
MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.
MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.
NOTIFICATION ZONE.
NUISANCE ALARM.
RECORD DRAWINGS.
SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.
SLEEPING UNIT.
SMOKE ALARM.
SMOKE DETECTOR.
STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.
Class I system.
Class II system.
Class III system.
STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.
Automatic dry.
Automatic wet.
Manual dry.
Manual wet.
Semiautomatic dry.
SUPERVISING STATION.
SUPERVISORY SERVICE.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.
TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.
TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.
TROUBLE SIGNAL.
VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.
WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.
ZONE.
ZONE, NOTIFICATION.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.
Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area where the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and in all floors from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the nearest level of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more.
3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.
3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:
1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.
2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.
In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:
1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.
2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has at least one exterior exit door at ground level.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m2) which generate finely divided combustible waste or which use finely divided combustible materials.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that required under the International Building Code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

TABLE 903.2.5.2
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATIONOCCUPANCY HAZARD
CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areasOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensingOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensingExtra Hazard Group 2
CorridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

Exceptions:

1. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group I-1 facilities.
2. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be allowed in Group I-1 facilities when in compliance with all of the following:
2.1. A hydraulic design information sign is located on the system riser;
2.2. Exception 1 of Section 903.4 is not applied; and
2.3. Systems shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of Section 903.3.1.2.
3. An automatic sprinkler system is not required where day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has at least one exterior exit door.
4. In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided and all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge, all floors below the level of exit discharge, other than areas classified as an open parking garage.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as required in Chapter 32 in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 or R-4 congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer residents.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in care facilities with 5 or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406.8 of the International Building Code, as shown:
1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
2. Buildings no more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.
4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.6 of the International Building Code as follows:
1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); or
2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6. Deleted
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided at least one of the following types of exterior wall openings:
1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

1. Airport control towers.
2. Open parking structures.
3. Occupancies in Group F-2.
Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust, flammable or combustible materials.

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.
In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 also require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

TABLE 903.2.11.6
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTIONSUBJECT
914.2.1Covered and open mall buildings
914.3.1 High rise buildings
914.4.1 Atriums
914.5.1 Underground structures
914.6.1 Stages
914.7.1 Special amusement buildings
914.8.2, 914.8.5 Aircraft hangars
914.9 Flammable finishes
914.10 Drying rooms
914.11.1 Ambulatory care facilities
1028.6.2.3 Smoke-protected assembly seating
1103.5.1 Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings
1103.5.2 Existing Group I-2 occupancies
2108.2 Dry cleaning plants
2108.3 Dry cleaning machines
2309.3.2.6.2Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies
2404.2 Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R
2404.4 Spray booths and spray rooms
2405.2 Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R
2405.4.1 Dip tanks
2405.9.4 Hardening and tempering tanks

(continued)

TABLE 903.2.11.6—continued
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTIONSUBJECT
2703.10 HPM facilities
2703.10.1.1 HPM work station exhaust
2703.10.2 HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures
2703.10.3 HPM exit access corridor
2703.10.4 HPM exhaust ducts
2703.10.4.1 HPM noncombustible ducts
2703.10.4.2 HPM combustible ducts
2807.3 Lumber production conveyor enclosures
2808.7 Recycling facility conveyor enclosures
3006.1 Class A and B ovens
3006.2 Class C and D ovens
Table 3206.2 Storage fire protection
3206.4 Storage
5003.8.4.1 Gas rooms
5003.8.5.3 Exhausted enclosures
5004.5 Indoor storage of hazardous materials
5005.1.8 Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials
5104.4.1 Aerosol warehouses
5106.3.2 Aerosol display and merchandising areas
5204.5 Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose combustible fibers
5306.2.1Exterior medical gas storage room
5306.2.2Interior medical gas storage room
5306.2.3Medical gas storage cabinet
5606.5.2.1 Storage of smokeless propellant
5606.5.2.3 Storage of small arms primers
5704.3.7.5.1 Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms
5704.3.8.4 Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses
5705.3.7.3 Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas
6004.1.2 Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.1.3 Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.2.2.6 Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.3.3 Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas
6504.1.1 Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets
6504.1.3 Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults
6504.2 Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m3.
Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.7.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1.
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from any room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.
1. Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
2. Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, when approved by the fire code official.
3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.
5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
6. Machine rooms and machinery spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.
Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one and two-family dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 congregate living facilities and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:
1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the International Building Code.
2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.
3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.
4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to be connected to the domestic service where a wet automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprinkler systems connected to domestic water supplies shall comply with each of the following requirements:
1. Valves shall not be installed between the domestic water riser control valve and the sprinklers.

Exception: An approved indicating control valve supervised in the open position in accordance with Section 903.4.

2. The domestic service shall be capable of supplying the simultaneous domestic demand and the sprinkler demand required to be hydraulically calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13D or NFPA 13R.
A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by the International Building Code. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13.

Exception: Existing buildings.

Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.
The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the fire code official.
All valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.
Exceptions:
1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.
3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.
Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Exceptions:

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11. Deleted
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of system and work performed.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.

Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.

Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.
Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be inspected:
1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
5. Identification of devices with proper designations.
6. Operating instructions.
Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 25.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.
The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at five-year intervals.
The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:
1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.
2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.
3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.
4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.
5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code.

A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.

The actuation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
When carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. When the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher in accordance with Section 904.11.5.1 or 904.11.5.2, as applicable.
All solid fuel cooking appliances, whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less in volume shall have a minimum 2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accordance with Section 904.11.5.
When hazard areas include deep fat fryers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:
1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon ( 6 L) capacity.
2. For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon (6 L) capacity shall be provided.
3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 m2) in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer’s recommendations.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 904.11.6.1 through 904.11.6.3.
Where changes in the cooking media, positioning of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equipment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be required to comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 904.11 through 904.11.4.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least every six months and after activation of the system. Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code official upon completion.
Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.

Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 32.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14.
Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.
Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.
Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:
5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less, and
5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.
Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.
Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:
1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly on the mall.
3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building
4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.
5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.
Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2 inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.

The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:
1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.
2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with stair access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1009.16.
6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.
Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.

In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony, and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.
Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
2. Approved locking arrangements.
3. Group I-3 occupancies.
Dry standpipes shall not be installed.
Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.
Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to the control unit.
Exceptions:
1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.
Where required in Chapter 11, existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in the following locations.
1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.

2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1.
5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.
6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.

TABLE 906.1
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SECTIONSUBJECT
303.5 Asphalt kettles
307.5 Open burning
308.1.3 Open flames—torches
309.4 Powered industrial trucks
2005.2 Aircraft towing vehicles
2005.3 Aircraft welding apparatus
2005.4 Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
2005.5 Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
2005.6 Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations

(continued)

TABLE 906.1—continued
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

IFC SECTIONSUBJECT
2007.7 Heliports and helistops
2108.4 Dry cleaning plants
2305.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2310.6.4 Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2311.6 Repair garages
2404.4.1 Spray-finishing operations
2405.4.2 Dip-tank operations
2406.4.2 Powder-coating areas
2804.3 Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
2808.8 Recycling facilities
2809.5 Exterior lumber storage
2903.5 Organic-coating areas
3006.3 Industrial ovens
3104.12 Tents and membrane structures
3206.10 High-piled storage
3315.1 Buildings under construction or demolition
3317.3 Roofing operations
3408.2 Tire rebuilding/storage
3504.2.6 Welding and other hot work
3604.4 Marinas
5203.6 Combustible fibers
5703.2.1 Flammable and combustible liquids, general
5704.3.3.1 Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
5704.3.7.5.2 Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
5705.4.9 Solvent distillation units
5706.2.7 Farms and construction sites—flammable and
combustible liquids storage
5706.4.10.1 Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and
combustible liquids
5706.5.4.5 Commercial, industrial, governmental or
manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing
5706.6.4 Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
5906.5.7 Flammable solids
6108.2 LP-gas
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.
Exceptions:
1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.
2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.
2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.
2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.
2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.
3. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.
Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on portable fire extinguishers shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of work performed.
The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1).

TABLE 906.3(1)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

LIGHT
(Low)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
ORDINARY
(Moderate)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
Minimum rated
single extinguisher
2-Ac2-A4-Aa
Maximum floor area
per unit of A
3,000
square feet
1,500
square feet
1,000
square feet
Maximum floor area
for extinguisherb
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
Maximum travel
distance to extinguisher
75 feet75 feet75 feet
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

TABLE 906.3(2)
FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH
DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCHa

TYPE OF HAZARDBASIC MINIMUM
EXTINGUISHER
RATING
MAXIMUM TRAVEL
DISTANCE TO
EXTINGUISHERS
(feet)
Light (Low)5-B
10-B
30
50
Ordinary (Moderate)10-B
20-B
30
50
Extra (High)40-B
80-B
30
50
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.11.5.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.
Exceptions:
1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.
The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components in new and existing buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.9 are applicable to existing buildings and structures.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Building Code, and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.
Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:
1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.
2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.
3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.
4. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.
5. Annunciators.
6. Power connection.
7. Battery calculations.
8. Conductor type and sizes.
9. Voltage drop calculations.
10. Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.
11. Details of ceiling height and construction.
12. The interface of fire safety control functions.
13. Classification of the supervising station.
Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.
An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

A minimum of one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or water-flow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.

Exceptions:
1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.
2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 300 or more. Group A occupancies not separated from one another in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the International Building Code shall be considered as a single occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.

Stadiums, arenas and grandstands required to caption audible public announcements shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.
2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
3. The fire area contains an ambulatory care facility.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

A manual fire alarm system that initiates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emergency voice/alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 30 or less.
2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:
2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.
2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:
1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height; and
2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respectively.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.

Exceptions:

1. Manual fire alarm boxes in sleeping units of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all care providers’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5.

Exceptions:

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors in nursing homes, long-term care facilities, detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 of the International Building Code. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.4. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407 of the International Building Code.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the care provider station attending each unit.
2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.
Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal which automatically notifies staff.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.
Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.

Exceptions:

1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.
2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308 of the International Building Code.
3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.
2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402 of the International Building Code.
2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:
2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;
2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow; and
2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 and 907.2.9.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where:
1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge;
2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit; or
3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.

Exceptions:

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow.
3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1026.6, Exception 4.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 college and university buildings in the following locations:
1. Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units.
2. Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms, and storage rooms.
3. All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.

Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 college and university buildings shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a means of egress door opening directly to an exit.

Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:
2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;
2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow; and
2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.
3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens.

Exceptions:

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
2. An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.4 and NFPA 72.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:
1. In sleeping areas.
2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.
3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Single or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:
1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.
2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms in Group I-1 shall not be required where smoke detectors are provided in the sleeping rooms as part of an automatic smoke detection system.

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or I-1 occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.
In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery back-up shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusement buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 through 907.2.12.3.
Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.
The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically:
1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;
2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions;
3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency; and
4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exceptions:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the International Building Code.
2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.
3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1 of the International Building Code.
4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 of the International Building Code.
5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the International Building Code.
6. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2.
Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located as follows:
1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection.
2. In each elevator machine room and in elevator lobbies.
Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows:
1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 508, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the enclosed exit stairway.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection installed throughout the atrium. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 3206.5.
Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by this code.
Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.
Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with the International Building Code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.
A minimum of one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in the following areas:
1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.
2. Elevator lobbies.
3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.
Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.
Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
A minimum of one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2 of the International Building Code and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in airport control towers in all occupiable and equipment spaces.

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L). Deleted
Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit where a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72.
Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the International Mechanical Code. Duct smoke detectors shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

Exceptions:

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building’s alarm notification appliances.
2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.
Where delayed egress locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.9.7, an automatic smoke or heat detection system shall be installed as required by that section.
Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME A17.1 and NFPA 72.
The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.
Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.3.1.
In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders and supervising station transmitting equipment.

Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted.

Deleted
Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.6.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.
Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.

The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times.
Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.
For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.
A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:
1. Automatic fire detectors.
2. Automatic sprinkler system waterflow devices.
3. Manual fire alarm boxes.
4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location.

A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department, in order that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.
Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.
Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm.

Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appliances in critical care areas of Group I-2 occupancies.
2. Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.10.1 of the International Building Code shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.
The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building.
The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.
Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building’s fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404. In high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on a minimum of the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:
1. Elevator groups.
2. Exit stairways.
3. Each floor.
4. Areas of refuge as defined in Chapter 2.

Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.

A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall also have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.
The emergency voice/ alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.
Where stadiums, arenas and grandstands are required to caption audible public announcements in accordance with Section 1108.2.7.3 of the International Building Code, the emergency/voice alarm communication system shall also be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency captions shall be from an approved location constantly attended by personnel trained to respond to an emergency.
Emergency voice/ alarm communications systems shall be provided with an approved emergency power source.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.4.

Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.
2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Chapter 2.
3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public areas and common areas.
Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with a minimum of 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing impaired employee(s).
Group I-1 and R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.3 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

TABLE 907.5.2.3.3
VISIBLE ALARMS

NUMBER OF SLEEPING UNITSSLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS
WITH VISIBLE ALARMS
6 to 252
26 to 504
51 to 757
76 to 1009
101 to 15012
151 to 20014
201 to 30017
301 to 40020
401 to 50022
501 to 1,0005% of total
1,001 and over50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000
In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with Chapter 10 of ICC A117.1. Such capability shall be permitted to include the potential for future interconnection of the building fire alarm system with the unit smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances with combination audible/visible appliances, or future extension of the existing wiring from the unit smoke alarm locations to required locations for visible appliances.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.5.2 and NFPA 72.
Wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.
The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Backup power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.4.

Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.

A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible alarm-silencing switch.
In high-rise buildings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:
1. Smoke detectors.
2. Sprinkler water-flow devices.
3. Manual fire alarm boxes.
4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection-devices or suppression systems.
Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.
Fire alarm systems required by this chapter or by the International Building Code shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for:

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.
2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.
Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief.
Termination of fire alarm monitoring services shall be in accordance with Section 901.9.
Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.
When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72.
A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.
Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings (“as builts”) and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.
The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 907.8.1 through 907.8.5 and NFPA 72.
Whenever required for compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, equipment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of protection or other features shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by the fire code official.
Testing shall be performed in accordance with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where required by the fire code official.

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but not less than every 18 months.

Smoke detector sensitivity shall be checked within one year after installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to a maximum of five years. Where the frequency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed.
To verify that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using one of the following methods:
1. A calibrated test method;
2. The manufacturer’s calibrated sensitivity test instrument;
3. Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose;
4. A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector’s sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range; or
5. Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official.
Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.

Exceptions:

1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.
2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.
Smoke detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the detector.
The building owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life safety systems in an operable condition at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and testing such systems. A written record shall be maintained and shall be made available to the fire code official.
An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 50.
Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 2703.12. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 2703.13.
Where required by Section 6004.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases.
A gas detection system shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance with Section 6005.3.2.
A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 2311.7.2.
Refrigeration system machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in accordance with Section 606.8.
Group I or R occupancies located in a building containing a fuel-burning appliance or in a building which has an attached garage shall be equipped with single-station carbon monoxide alarms. The carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 720 and the manufacturer’s instructions. An open parking garage, as defined in Chapter 2 of the International Building Code, or an enclosed parking garage ventilated in accordance with Section 404 of the International Mechanical Code shall not be considered an attached garage.
Exception: Sleeping units or dwelling units which do not themselves contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an attached garage, but which are located in a building with a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, need not be equipped with single-station carbon monoxide alarms provided that:
1. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story above or below any story which contains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage;
2. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to any room containing a fuel-burning appliance or to an attached garage; and
3. The building is equipped with a common area carbon monoxide alarm system.
Carbon monoxide detection systems, which include carbon monoxide detectors and audible notification appliances, installed and maintained in accordance with this section for carbon monoxide alarms and NFPA 720 shall be permitted. The carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed as complying with UL 2075.
This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems when they are required for new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the International Building Code or this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations, or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code.
Buildings, structures, or parts thereof required by the International Building Code or this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to describe adequately the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements which buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 of the International Building Code.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of the International Building Code.
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
All portions of active or passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is less.
Smoke barriers shall comply with the International Building Code. Smoke barriers shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:
1. Walls: A/Aw= 0.00100
2. Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035
3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050

where:

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).

AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).

Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.

Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive smoke control systems tested using other approved means, such as door fan testing, shall be as approved by the fire code official.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5.3 of the International Building Code.

Exceptions:

1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3 .
2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
3. In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 of the International Building Code. Positive-latching devices are not required.
4. Group I-3.
5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 717 of the International Building Code.
The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin.
The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.
In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1008.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:
F = Fdc + K(WAΔP)/2(W d)(Equation 9-1)
where:
A=Door area, square feet (m2).
d=Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
F=Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc=Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).
K=Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W=Door width, feet (m).
ΔP=Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).
When approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects.
The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than:
ν= 217.2 [h(TfTo)/(Tf + 460)]1/2(Equation 9-2)
For SI: ν= 119.9 [h(Tf - To)/Tf]1/2
where:
h=Height of opening, feet (m).
Tf=Temperature of smoke, °F (K).
To=Temperature of ambient air, °F (K).
ν=Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).
This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflows to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
When approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire, and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.
The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as approved by the fire code official.
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:
Ts = (Qc/mc) + (Ta)(Equation 9-3)
where:
c=Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature,
Btu/lb°F • (kJ/kg • K).
m=Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc=Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta=Ambient temperature, °F (K).
Ts=Smoke temperature, °F (K).

Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.

Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of vibration isolation) complying with the International Mechanical Code and which are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.

Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved recognized standards.
In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the structural design requirements of Chapter 16 of the International Building Code.
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
The smoke control system shall be supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be from the normal building power systems. Secondary power shall be from an approved standby source complying with Section 604 and NFPA 70. The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both. The transfer to full standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of failure of the primary power.
Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.

In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department, and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analysis.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.
Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3 of the International Mechanical Code.
2. Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No.22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed adapter.
3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or moveable device shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.
The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.
Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief.
A fire-fighter’s smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command center complying with Section 508 in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3.
Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire-fighter’s control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:
1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.
2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.
3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.
4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.
The fire-fighter’s control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows:
1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.
3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire-fighter’s control panel.

Exceptions:

1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.
2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.
The fire-fighter’s control panel actions shall be as follows:
1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter’s control panel, no automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter’s control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire-fighter’s control panel switch position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire-fighter’s control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described above. When directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter’s control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.
Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.
Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.
Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.
Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.
Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.
Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute and belt tension shall be made.
Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.
Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire-fighter’s control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.