Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

Part I General

This article covers general requirements, applications, and construction specifications for flexible cords and flexible cables.

Informational Note: UL 817, Cord Sets and Power-Supply Cords, allows the use of flexible cords manufactured in accordance with UL 62, Flexible Cords and Cables. See 400.10 and 400.12 for flexible cords that are part of a listed cord set or power-supply cord.

Flexible cords and flexible cables shall comply with this article and with the applicable provisions of other articles of this Code.
Flexible cords and flexible cables and their associated fittings shall be suitable for the conditions of use and location.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall conform to the description in Table 400.4. The use of flexible cords and flexible cables other than those in Table 400.4 shall require permission by the authority having jurisdiction. smoke, sunlight resistance, and so forth.
Table 400.4
Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables
Trade Name Type Letter Voltage AWG or kcmil Number of Conductors Insulation AWG or kcmil Nominal Insulation Thickness Braid on Each Conductor Outer Covering Use
mm mils
Lamp cord C 300 18—16 2 or more Thermoset or thermoplastic 18—16 0.76 30 Cotton None Pendant or portable Dry locations Not hard usage
600 15—10 15—10 1.14 45
Elevator cable E1,2,3,4 300 or 600 20—2 2 or more Thermoset 20—16 0.51 20 Cotton Three cotton; outer one flame-retardant and moisture- resistant Elevator lighting and control Unclassified locations
15—12 0.76 30
12—10 1.14 45
8—2 1.52 60
20—16 0.51 20 Flexible nylon jacket
15—12 0.76 30
12—10 1.14 45
8—2 1.52 60
Elevator cable EO1,2,4 300 or 600 20—2 2 or more Thermoset 20—16 0.51 20 Cotton Three cotton; outer one flame-retardant and moisture- resistant Elevator lighting and control Unclassified locations
15—12 0.76 30
12—10 1.14 45
8—2 1.52 60
      One cotton and a neoprene jacket Hazardous (classified) locations
Elevator cable ETP2,4 300 or 600             Rayon Thermoplastic Hazardous (classified) locations
ETT2,4 300 or 600 None One cotton or equivalent and a thermoplastic jacket
Electric vehicle cable EV5,6 600 18—500 2 or more plus grounding conductor(s), plus optional hybrid data, signal communications, and optical fiber cables Thermoset with optional nylon 18—15 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Optional Oil-resistant thermoset Electric vehicle charging Wet locations Extra- hard usage
14—10 1.14
(0.76)
45
(30)
8—2 1.52
(1.14)
60
(45)
1—4/0 2.03
(1.52)
80
(60)
250—500 2.41
(1.90)
95
(75)
EVJ5,6 300 18—12 18—12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard usage
EVE5,6 600 18—500 2 or more plus grounding conductor(s), plus optional hybrid data, signal communications, and optical fiber cables Thermoplastic elastomer with optional nylon 18—15 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer Extra-hard usage
14—10 1.14
(0.76)
45
(30)
8—2 1.52
(1.14)
60
(45)
1—4/0 2.03
(1.52)
80
(60)
250—500 2.41
(1.90)
95
(75)
EVJE5,6 300 18—12 18—12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard usage
EVT5,6 600 18—500 2 or more plus grounding conductor(s), plus optional hybrid data, signal communications, and optical fiber cables Thermoplastic with optional nylon 18—15 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Oil-resistant thermoplastic Extra-hard usage
14—10 1.14
(0.76)
45
(30)
8—2 1.52
(1.14)
60
(45)
1—4/0 2.03
(1.52)
80
(60)
250—500 2.41
(1.90)
95
(75)
EVJT5,6 300 18—12 18—12 0.76
(0.51)
30
(20)
Hard usage
Portable power cable G 2000 12—500 2—6 plus grounding conductor(s) Thermoset 12—2
1—4/0
250—500
1.52
2.03
2.41
60
80
95
  Oil-resistant thermoset Portable and extra-hard usage
G-GC7 2000 12—500 3—6 plus grounding conductors and 1 ground check conductor Thermoset 12—2
1—4/0
250—500
1.52
2.03
2.41
60
80
95
  Oil-resistant thermoset
Heater cord HPD 300 18—12 2, 3, or 4 Thermoset 18—16
15—12
0.38
0.76
15
30
None Cotton or rayon Portable heaters Dry locations Not hard usage
Parallel heater cord HPN8 300 18—12 2 or 3 Oil-resistant thermoset 18—16
15
14
12
1.14
1.52
2.41
45
60
95
None Oil-resistant thermoset Portable Damp locations Not hard usage
Thermoset jacketed heater cords HSJ 300 18—12 2, 3, or 4 Thermoset 18—16
15—12
0.76
0.14
30
45
None Cotton and thermoset Portable or portable heater Damp locations Hard usage
HSJO 300 18—12   Cotton and oil-resistant thermoset Damp and wet Locations
HSJOW9 300 18—12 Damp locations
HSJOO 300 18—12 Oil-resistant thermoset
HSJOOW9 300 18—12 Damp and wet Locations
Non-integral parallel cords NISP-1 300 20—18 2 or 3 Thermoset 20—18 0.38 15 None Thermoset Pendant or portable Damp locations Not hard usage
NISP-2 300 18—16 18—16 0.76 30
NISPE-18 300 20—18 Thermoplastic elastomer 20—18 0.38 15 Thermoplastic elastomer
NISPE-28 300 18—16 18—16 0.76 30
NISPT-18 300 20—18 Thermoplastic 20—18 0.38 15 Thermoplastic
NISPT-28 300 18—16 18—16 0.76 30
Twisted portable cord PD 300 18—16 2 or more Thermoset or thermoplastic 18—16 0.76 30 Cotton Cotton or rayon Pendant or portable Dry locations Not hard usage
600 14—10 15—10 1.14 45
Portable power cable PPE7 2000 12—500 1—6 plus optional grounding conductor(s) Thermoplastic elastomer 12—2 1.52 60   Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer Portable, extra-hard usage
1—4/0 2.03 80
250—500 2.41 95
Hard service cord S7 600 18—2 2 or more Thermoset 18—15 0.76 30 None Thermoset Pendant or portable Damp locations Extra-hard usage
14—10 1.14 45
8—2 1.52 60
Flexible stage and lighting power cable SC7,10 600 8—250 1 or more Thermoset 8—2
1—4/0
250
1.52
2.03
2.41
60
80
95
  Thermoset Portable, extra-hard usage
SCE7,10 600 Thermoplastic elastomer       Thermoplastic elastomer
SCT7,10 600 Thermoplastic       Thermoplastic
Hard service cord SE7 600 18—2 2 or more Thermoplastic elastomer 18—15
14—9
8—2
0.76
1.14
1.52
30
45
60
None Thermoplastic elastomer Pendant or portable Damp locations Extra-hard usage
SEW7,9 600 Damp and wet Locations
SEO7 600 Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer Damp locations
SEOW7,9 600 Damp and wet Locations
SEOO7 600 Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer Damp locations
SEOOW7,9 600 Damp and wet Locations
Junior hard service cord SJ 300 18—10 2—6 Thermoset 18—11
10
0.76
1.14
30
45
None Thermoset Pendant or portable Damp locations Hard usage
SJE 300 Thermoplastic elastomer Thermoplastic elastomer
SJEW9 300 Damp and wet Locations
SJEO 300 Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer Damp locations
SJEOW9 300 Damp and wet Locations
SJEOO 300 Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer Damp locations
SJEOOW9 300 Damp and wet Locations
SJO 300 Thermoset Oil-resistant thermoset Damp locations
SJOW9 300 Damp and wet Locations
SJOO 300 Oil-resistant thermoset Damp locations
SJOOW9 300 Damp and wet Locations
SJT 300 Thermoplastic       Thermoplastic Damp locations
SJTW9 300 Damp and wet locations
SJTO 300 18—12
10
0.76
1.14
30
45
Oil-resistant thermo-lastic Damp locations
SJTOW9 300 Damp and wet locations
SJTOO 300 Oil-resistant thermoplastic Damp locations
SJTOOW9 300 Damp and wet locations
Hard service cord SO7 600 18—2 2 or more Thermoset 18—15 0.76 30 None Oil-resistant thermoset Pendant or portable Damp locations Extra- hard usage
SOW7,9 600 Damp and wet locations
SOO7 600 Oil-resistant thermoset 14—9
8—2
1.14
1.52
45
60
Damp locations
SOOW7,9 600 Damp and wet locations
All thermoset parallel cord SP-1 300 20—18 2 or 3 Thermoset 20—18 0.76 30 None None Pendant or portable Damp locations Not hard usage
SP-2 300 18—16 18—16 1.14 45
SP-3 300 18—10 18—16
15
14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators, room air conditioners, and as permitted in 422.16(B)
All elastomer (thermoplastic) parallel cord SPE-18 300 20—18 2 or 3 Thermoplastic elastomer 20—18 0.76 30 None None Pendant or portable Damp locations Not hard usage
SPE-28 300 18—16 18—16 1.14 45
SPE-38 300 18—10 18—16
15
14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators, room air conditioners, and as permitted in 422.16(B)
All thermoplastic parallel cord SPT-1 300 20—18 2 or 3 Thermoplastic 20—18 0.76 30 None None Pendant or portable Damp locations Not hard usage
SPT-1W9 300 2 Damp and wet locations
SPT-2 300 18—16 2 or 3 18—16 1.14 45 Damp locations
SPT-2W9 300 2 Damp and wet locations
SPT-3 300 18—10 2 or 3 18—16
15
14
12
10
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
Refrigerators, room air conditioners, and as permitted in 422.16(B) Damp locations Not hard usage
Range, dryer cable SRD 300 10—4 3 or 4 Thermoset 10—4 1.14 45 None Thermoset Portable Damp locations Ranges, dryers
SRDE 300 10—4 3 or 4 Thermoplastic elastomer None Thermoplastic elastomer
SRDT 300 10—4 3 or 4 Thermoplastic None Thermoplastic
Hard service cord ST7 600 18—2 2 or more Thermoplastic 18—15
14—9
8—2
0.76
1.14
1.52
30
45
60
None Thermoplastic Pendant or portable Damp locations Extra- hard usage
STW7,9 600 Damp and wet locations
STO7 600 Oil-resistant thermo- lastic Damp locations
STOW7, 9 600 Damp and wet locations
STOO7 600 Oil-resistant thermoplastic Damp locations
STOOW7 600 Damp and wet locations
Vacuum cleaner cord SV 300 18—16 2 or 3 Thermoset 18—16 0.38 15 None Thermoset Pendant or portable Damp locations Not hard usage
SVE 300 Thermoplastic elastomer Thermoplastic elastomer
SVEO 300 Oil-resistant Thermoplastic elastomer
SVEOO 300 Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer
SVO 300 Thermoset Oil-resistant thermoset
SVOO 300 Oil-resistant thermoset Oil-resistant thermoset
SVT 300 Thermoplastic Thermoplastic
SVTO 300 Thermoplastic Oil-resistant Thermoplastic
SVTOO 300 Oil-resistant thermoplastic
Parallel tinsel cord TPT11 300 27 2 Thermoplastic 27 0.76 30 None Thermoplastic Attached to an appliance Damp locations Not hard usage
Jacketed tinsel cord TST11 300 27 2 Thermoplastic 27 0.38 15 None Thermoplastic Attached to an appliance Damp locations Not hard usage
Portable power cable W7 2000 12—500
501—1000
1—6
1
Thermoset 12—2
1—4/0
250—500
501—1000
1.52
2.03
2.41
2.80
60
80
95
110
  Oil-resistant thermoset Portable, extra-hard usage
Notes:
All types listed in Table 400.4 shall have individual conductors twisted together, except for Types HPN, SP-1, SP-2, SP-3, SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-2, SPT-3, SPT-1W, SPT-2W, TPT, NISP-1, NISP-2, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, NISPE-1, NISPE-2, and three-conductor parallel versions of SRD, SRDE, and SRDT.
The individual conductors of all cords, except those of heat-resistant cords, shall have a thermoset or thermoplastic insulation, except that the equipment grounding conductor, where used, shall be in accordance with 400.23(B).
1Rubber-filled or varnished cambric tapes shall be permitted as a substitute for the inner braids.
2Elevator traveling cables for operating control and signal circuits shall contain nonmetallic fillers as necessary to maintain concentricity. Cables shall have steel supporting members as required for suspension by 620.41. In locations subject to excessive moisture or corrosive vapors or gases, supporting members of other materials shall be permitted. Where steel supporting members are used, they shall run straight through the center of the cable assembly and shall not be cabled with the copper strands of any conductor.

In addition to conductors used for control and signaling circuits, Types E, EO, ETP, and ETT elevator cables shall be permitted to incorporate in the construction one or more 20 AWG telephone conductor pairs, one or more coaxial cables, or one or more optical fibers. The 20 AWG conductor pairs shall be permitted to be covered with suitable shielding for telephone, audio, or higher frequency communications circuits; the coaxial cables shall consist of a center conductor, insulation, and a shield for use in video or other radio frequency communications circuits. The optical fiber shall be suitably covered with flame-retardant thermoplastic. The insulation of the conductors shall be rubber or thermoplastic of a thickness not less than specified for the other conductors of the particular type of cable. Metallic shields shall have their own protective covering. Where used, these components shall be permitted to be incorporated in any layer of the cable assembly but shall not run straight through the center.

3Insulations and outer coverings that meet the requirements as flame retardant, limited smoke, and are so listed, shall be permitted to be marked for limited smoke after the Code type designation.
4Elevator cables in sizes 20 AWG through 14 AWG are rated 300 volts, and sizes 10 AWG through 2 AWG are rated 600 volts. 12 AWG is rated 300 volts with a 0.76 mm (30 mil) insulation thickness and 600 volts with a 1.14 mm (45 mil) insulation thickness.
5Conductor size for Types EV, EVJ, EVE, EVJE, EVT, and EVJT cables apply to nonpower-limited circuits only. Conductors of power-limited (data, signal, or communications) circuits may extend beyond the stated AWG size range. All conductors shall be insulated for the same cable voltage rating.
6Insulation thickness for Types EV, EVJ, EVEJE, EVT, and EVJT cables of nylon construction is indicated in parentheses.
7Types G, G-GC, S, SC, SCE, SCT, SE, SEO, SEOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SO, SOO, SOW, SOOW, ST, STO, STOO, STW, STOW, STOOW, PPE, and W shall be permitted for use on theater stages, in garages, and elsewhere where flexible cords are permitted by this Code.
8The third conductor in Type HPN shall be used as an equipment grounding conductor only. The insulation of the equipment grounding conductor for Types SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-2, SPT-3, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, NISPE-1, and NISPE-2 shall be permitted to be thermoset polymer.
9Cords that comply with the requirements for outdoor cords and are so listed shall be permitted to be designated as weather and water resistant with the suffix "W" after the Code type designation. Cords with the "W" suffix are suitable for use in wet locations and are sunlight resistant.
10The required outer covering on some single-conductor cables may be integral with the insulation.
11Types TPT and TST shall be permitted in lengths not exceeding 2.5 m (8 ft) where attached directly, or by means of a special type of plug, to a portable appliance rated at 50 watts or less and of such nature that extreme flexibility of the cord is essential.
Table 400.5(A)(1) provides the allowable ampacities, and Table 400.5(A)(2) provides the ampacities for flexible cords and flexible cables with not more than three current-carrying conductors. These tables shall be used in conjunction with applicable end-use product standards to ensure selection of the proper size and type. Where cords and cables are used in ambient temperatures other than 30°C (86°F), the temperature correction factors from Table 310.15(B)(2)(a) that correspond to the temperature rating of the cord or cable shall be applied to the ampacity in Table 400.5(A)(1) and Table 400.5(A)(2). Cords and cables rated 105°C shall use correction factors in the 90°C column of Table 310.15(B)(2)(a) for temperature correction. Where the number of current-carrying conductors exceeds three, the allowable ampacity or the ampacity of each conductor shall be reduced from the three-conductor rating as shown in Table 400.5(A)(3).

Informational Note: See Informative Annex B, Table B.310.15(B)(2)(11), for adjustment factors for more than three current-carrying conductors in a raceway or cable with load diversity.

A neutral conductor that carries only the unbalanced current from other conductors of the same circuit shall not be required to meet the requirements of a current-carrying conductor.

In a 3-wire circuit consisting of two phase conductors and the neutral conductor of a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye-connected system, a common conductor carries approximately the same current as the line-to-neutral currents of the other conductors and shall be considered to be a current-carrying conductor.

On a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye circuit where more than 50 percent of the load consists of nonlinear loads, there are harmonic currents present in the neutral conductor and the neutral conductor shall be considered to be a current-carrying conductor.

An equipment grounding conductor shall not be considered a current-carrying conductor.

Where a single conductor is used for both equipment grounding and to carry unbalanced current from other conductors, as provided for in 250.140 for electric ranges and electric clothes dryers, it shall not be considered as a current-carrying conductor.

Table 400.5(A)(1) Allowable Ampacity for Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables [Based on Ambient Temperature of 30°C (86°F). See 400.13 and Table 400.4.]

Copper Conductor Size (AWG) Thermoplastic Types TPT, TST Thermoset Types C, E, EO, PD, S, SJ, SJO, SJOW, SJOO, SJOOW, SO, SOW, SOO, SOOW, SP-1, SP-2, SP-3, SRD, SV, SVO, SVOO, NISP-1, NISP-2 Types HPD, HPN, HSJ, HSJO, HSJOW, HSJOO, HSJOOW
Thermoplastic Types ETP, ETT, NISPE-1, NISPE-2, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, SE, SEW, SEO, SEOO, SEOW, SEOOW, SJE, SJEW, SJEO, SJEOO, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJT, SJTW, SJTO, SJTOW, SJTOO, SJTOOW, SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-1W, SPT-2, SPT-2W, SPT-3, ST, STW, SRDE, SRDT, STO, STOW, STOO, STOOW, SVE, SVEO, SVEOO, SVT, SVTO, SVTOO
    Column Aa Column Bb  
27c 0.5
20 5d e
18 7 10 10
17 9 12 13
16 10 13 15
15 12 16 17
14 15 18 20
13 17 21
12 20 25 30
11 23 27
10 25 30 35
9 29 34
8 35 40
7 40 47
6 45 55
5 52 62
4 60 70
3 70 82
2 80 95
aThe allowable currents under Column A apply to three-conductor cords and other multiconductor cords connected to utilization equipment so that only three-conductors are current-carrying.
bThe allowable currents under Column B apply to two-conductor cords and other multiconductor cords connected to utilization equipment so that only two conductors are current-carrying.
cTinsel cord.
dElevator cables only.
e7 amperes for elevator cables only; 2 amperes for other types.

Table 400.5(A)(2) Ampacity of Cable Types SC, SCE, SCT, PPE, G, G-GC, and W [Based on Ambient Temperature of 30°C (86°F). See Table 400.4.]

Copper Conductor Size (AWG or kcmil) Temperature Rating of Cable
60°C (140°F)   75°C (167°F)   90°C (194°F)
D1 E2 F3   D1 E2 F3   D1 E2 F3
12 31 26   37 31   42 35
10 44 37   52 43   59 49
8 60 55 48   70 65 57   80 74 65
6 80 72 63   95 88 77   105 99 87
4 105 96 84   125 115 101   140 130 114
3 120 113 99   145 135 118   165 152 133
2 140 128 112   170 152 133   190 174 152
1 165 150 131   195 178 156   220 202 177
1/0 195 173 151   230 207 181   260 234 205
2/0 225 199 174   265 238 208   300 271 237
3/0 260 230 201   310 275 241   350 313 274
4/0 300 265 232   360 317 277   405 361 316
250 340 296 259   405 354 310   455 402 352
300 375 330 289   445 395 346   505 449 393
350 420 363 318   505 435 381   570 495 433
400 455 392 343   545 469 410   615 535 468
500 515 448 392   620 537 470   700 613 536
600 575   690   780
700 630   755   855
750 655   785   885
800 680   815   920
900 730   870   985
1000 780   935   1055
1The ampacities under subheading D shall be permitted for single-conductor Types SC, SCE, SCT, PPE, and W cable only where the individual conductors are not installed in raceways and are not in physical contact with each other except in lengths not to exceed 600 mm (24 in.) where passing through the wall of an enclosure.
2The ampacities under subheading E apply to two-conductor cables and other multiconductor cables connected to utilization equipment so that only two conductors are current-carrying.
3The ampacities under subheading F apply to three-conductor cables and other multiconductor cables connected to utilization equipment so that only three conductors are current-carrying.

Table 400.5(A)(3) Adjustment Factors for More Than Three Current-Carrying Conductors in a Flexible Cord or Flexible Cable

Number of Conductors Percent of Value in Table 400.5(A)(1) and Table 400.5(A)(2)
4—6 80
7—9 70
10—20 50
21—30 45
31—40 40
41 and above 35
In no case shall conductors be associated together in such a way with respect to the kind of circuit, the wiring method used, or the number of conductors such that the limiting temperature of the conductors is exceeded.
Under engineering supervision, conductor ampacities shall be permitted to be calculated in accordance with 310.15(C).
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be marked by means of a printed tag attached to the coil reel or carton. The tag shall contain the information required in 310.120(A). Types S, SC, SCE, SCT, SE, SEO, SEOO, SJ, SJE, SJEO, SJEOO, SJO, SJT, SJTO, SJTOO, SO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SJEW, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJOW, SJTW, SJTOW, SJTOOW, SOW, SOOW, STW, STOW, and STOOW flexible cords and G, G-GC, PPE, and W flexible cables shall be durably marked on the surface at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.) with the type designation, size, and number of conductors. Required markings on tags, cords, and cables shall also include the maximum operating temperature of the flexible cord or flexible cable.
Flexible cords and cable types listed in Table 400.4 shall be permitted to be surface marked to indicate special characteristics of the cable materials. These markings include, but are not limited to, markings for limited
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be used only for the following:
  1. Pendants.
  2. Wiring of luminaires.
  3. Connection of portable luminaires, portable and mobile signs, or appliances.
  4. Elevator cables.
  5. Wiring of cranes and hoists.
  6. Connection of utilization equipment to facilitate frequent interchange.
  7. Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration.
  8. Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are specifically designed to permit ready removal for maintenance and repair, and the appliance is intended or identified for flexible cord connection.
  9. Connection of moving parts.
  10. Where specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code.
  11. Between an existing receptacle outlet and an inlet, where the inlet provides power to an additional single receptacle outlet. The wiring interconnecting the inlet to the single receptacle outlet shall be a Chapter 3 wiring method. The inlet, receptacle outlet, and Chapter 3 wiring method, including the flexible cord and fittings, shall be a listed assembly specific for this application.
Where used as permitted in 400.10(A)(3), (A)(6), and (A)(8), each flexible cord shall be equipped with an attachment plug and shall be energized from a receptacle outlet or cord connector body.

Exception: As permitted in 368.56.

Unless specifically permitted in 400.10, flexible cables, flexible cord sets, and power supply cords shall not be used for the following:
  1. As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure
  2. Where run through holes in walls, structural ceilings, suspended ceilings, dropped ceilings, or floors
  3. Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings
  4. Where attached to building surfaces

    Exception to (4): Flexible cord and flexible cable shall be permitted to be attached to building surfaces in accordance with 368.56(B).

  5. Where concealed by walls, floors, or ceilings or located above suspended or dropped ceilings

    Exception to (5): Flexible cord and flexible cable shall be permitted if contained within an enclosure for use in Other Spaces Used for Environmental Air as permitted by 300.22(C)(3).

  6. Where installed in raceways, except as otherwise permitted in this Code
  7. Where subject to physical damage
Flexible cord shall be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap where initially installed in applications permitted by 400.10(A). The repair of hard-service cord and junior hard-service cord (see Trade Name column in Table 400.4) 14 AWG and larger shall be permitted if conductors are spliced in accordance with 110.14(B) and the completed splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be connected to devices and to fittings so that tension is not transmitted to joints or terminals.

Exception: Listed portable single-pole devices that are intended to accommodate such tension at their terminals shall be permitted to be used with single-conductor flexible cable.

Informational Note: Some methods of preventing pull on a cord from being transmitted to joints or terminals include knotting the cord, winding with tape, and using support or strain-relief fittings.

Flexible cords used in show windows and showcases shall be Types S, SE, SEO, SEOO, SJ, SJE, SJEO, SJEOO, SJO, SJOO, SJT, SJTO, SJTOO, SO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SJEW, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJOW, SJOOW, SJTW, SJTOW, SJTOOW, SOW, SOOW, STW, STOW, or STOOW.

Exception No. 1: For the wiring of chain-supported luminaires.

Exception No. 2: As supply cords for portable luminaires and other merchandise being displayed or exhibited.

Flexible cords not smaller than 18 AWG, and tinsel cords or cords having equivalent characteristics of smaller size approved for use with specific appliances, shall be considered as protected against overcurrent in accordance with 240.5.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be protected by bushings or fittings where passing through holes in covers, outlet boxes, or similar enclosures.

In industrial establishments where the conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the installation, flexible cords and flexible cables shall be permitted to be installed in aboveground raceways that are no longer than 15 m (50 ft) to protect the flexible cord or flexible cable from physical damage. Where more than three current-carrying conductors are installed within the raceway, the allowable ampacity shall be reduced in accordance with Table 400.5(A)(3).

Part II Construction Specifications

Flexible cords shall be examined and tested at the factory and labeled before shipment.
The individual conductors of a flexible cord or flexible cable shall have copper flexible stranding and shall not be smaller than the sizes specified in Table 400.4.
The nominal thickness of insulation for conductors of flexible cords and flexible cables shall not be less than specified in Table 400.4.
One conductor of flexible cords that is intended to be used as a grounded circuit conductor shall have a continuous marker that readily distinguishes it from the other conductor or conductors. The identification shall consist of one of the methods indicated in 400.22(A) through (F).
A braid finished to show a white or gray color and the braid on the other conductor or conductors finished to show a readily distinguishable solid color or colors.
A tracer in a braid of any color contrasting with that of the braid and no tracer in the braid of the other conductor or conductors. No tracer shall be used in the braid of any conductor of a flexible cord that contains a conductor having a braid finished to show white or gray.

Exception: In the case of Types C and PD and cords having the braids on the individual conductors finished to show white or gray. In such cords, the identifying marker shall be permitted to consist of the solid white or gray finish on one conductor, provided there is a colored tracer in the braid of each other conductor.

A white or gray insulation on one conductor and insulation of a readily distinguishable color or colors on the other conductor or conductors for cords having no braids on the individual conductors.

For jacketed cords furnished with appliances, one conductor having its insulation colored light blue, with the other conductors having their insulation of a readily distinguishable color other than white or gray.

Exception: Cords that have insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.

The insulation shall be permitted to be covered with an outer finish to provide the desired color.

A white or gray separator on one conductor and a separator of a readily distinguishable solid color on the other conductor or conductors of cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
One conductor having the individual strands tinned and the other conductor or conductors having the individual strands untinned for cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
One or more ridges, grooves, or white stripes located on the exterior of the cord so as to identify one conductor for cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
A conductor intended to be used as an equipment grounding conductor shall have a continuous identifying marker readily distinguishing it from the other conductor or conductors. Conductors having a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes shall not be used for other than equipment grounding conductors. Cords or cables consisting of integral insulation and a jacket without a nonintegral grounding conductor shall be permitted to be green. The identifying marker shall consist of one of the methods in 400.23(A) or (B).
A braid finished to show a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
For cords having no braids on the individual conductors, an insulation of a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
Where a flexible cord is provided with an equipment grounding conductor and equipped with an attachment plug, the attachment plug shall comply with 250.138(A) and (B).

Part III Portable Cables Over 600 Volts, Nominal

Part III applies to single and multiconductor portable cables used to connect mobile equipment and machinery.
The conductors shall be 12 AWG copper or larger and shall employ flexible stranding.
An equipment grounding conductor(s) shall be provided in cables with three or more conductors. The total area shall not be less than that of the size of the equipment grounding conductor required in 250.122.
All shields shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Equipment grounding conductors shall be connected in accordance with Parts VI and VII of Article 250.
The minimum bending radii for portable cables during installation and handling in service shall be adequate to prevent damage to the cable.
Connectors used to connect lengths of cable in a run shall be of a type that locks firmly together. Provisions shall be made to prevent opening or closing these connectors while energized. Suitable means shall be used to eliminate tension at connectors and terminations.
Portable cables shall not contain splices unless the splices are of the permanent molded, vulcanized types in accordance with 110.14(B). Terminations on portable cables rated over 600 volts, nominal, shall be accessible only to authorized and qualified personnel.
This article covers general requirements and construction specifications for fixture wires.
Fixture wires shall comply with this article and also with the applicable provisions of other articles of this Code.

Informational Note: For application in luminaires, see Article 410.

Fixture wires shall be of a type listed in Table 402.3, and they shall comply with all requirements of that table. The fixture wires listed in Table 402.3 are all suitable for service at 600 volts, nominal, unless otherwise specified.

Informational Note: Thermoplastic insulation may stiffen at temperatures lower than —10°C (+14°F). Thermoplastic insulation may also be deformed at normal temperatures where subjected to pressure, such as at points of support.

Table 402.3 Fixture Wires

Name Type Letter Insulation AWG Thickness of Insulation Outer Covering Maximum Operating Temperature Application Provisions
mm mils
Heat-resistant rubber-covered fixture wire — flexible stranding FFH-2 Heat-resistant rubber 18—16 0.76 30 Nonmetallic covering 75°C Fixture wiring
Cross-linked synthetic polymer 18—16 0.76 30 (167°F)
ECTFE — solid or 7-strand HF Ethylene chloro-trifluoroethylene 18—14 0.38 15 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
ECTFE — flexible stranding HFF Ethylene chlorotrifluo-roethylene 18—14 0.38 15 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Tape insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand KF-1 Aromatic polyimide tape 18—10 0.14 5.5 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
KF-2 Aromatic polyimide tape 18—10 0.21 8.4 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
Tape insulated fixture wire — flexible stranding KFF-1 Aromatic polyimide tape 18—10 0.14 5.5 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
KFF-2 Aromatic polyimide tape 18—10 0.21 8.4 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
Perfluoro-alkoxy — solid or 7-strand (nickel or nickel-coated copper) PAF Perfluoro-alkoxy 18—14 0.51 20 None 250°C
(482°F)
Fixture wiring (nickel or nickel-coated copper)
Perfluoro-alkoxy — flexible stranding PAFF Perfluoro-alkoxy 18—14 0.51 20 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — solid or 7-strand PF Fluorinated ethylene propylene 18—14 0.51 20 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — flexible stranding PFF Fluorinated ethylene propylene 18—14 0.51 20 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — solid or 7-strand PGF Fluorinated ethylene propylene 18—14 0.36 14 Glass braid 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — flexible stranding PGFF Fluorinated ethylene propylene 18—14 0.36 14 Glass braid 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene — solid or 7-strand (nickel or nickel-coated copper) PTF Extruded polytetrafluo-roethylene 18—14 0.51 20 None 250°C
(482°F)
Fixture wiring (nickel or nickel-coated copper)
Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene — flexible stranding 26—36 (AWG silver or nickel-coated copper) PTFF Extruded polytetrafluo-roethylene 18—14 0.51 20 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring (silver or nickel-coated copper)
Heat-resistant rubber-covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand RFH-1 Heat-resistant rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic covering 75°C
(167°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
RFH-2 Heat-resistant rubber Cross-linked synthetic polymer 18—16 0.76 30 None or non-metallic covering 75°C
(167°F)
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant cross-linked synthetic polymer-insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand RFHH-2* Cross-linked synthetic polymer 18—16 0.76 30 None or nonmetallic covering 90°C
(194°F)
Fixture wiring
RFHH-3* 18—16 1.14 45
Silicone insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand SF-1 Silicone rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic covering 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
SF-2 Silicone rubber 18—12 0.76 30 Nonmetallic covering 200°C Fixture wiring
10 1.14 45 (392°F)
Silicone insulated fixture wire — flexible stranding SFF-1 Silicone rubber 18 0.38 15 Nonmetallic covering 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
SFF-2 Silicone rubber 18—12 0.76 30 Nonmetallic covering 150°C Fixture wiring
10 1.14 45 (302°F)
Thermoplastic covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand TF* Thermoplastic 18—16 0.76 30 None 60°C
(140°F)
Fixture wiring
Thermoplastic covered fixture wire — flexible stranding TFF* Thermoplastic 18—16 0.76 30 None 60°C
(140°F)
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant thermoplastic covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand TFN* Thermoplastic 18—16 0.38 15 Nylon-jacketed or equivalent 90°C
(194°F)
Fixture wiring
Heat-resistant thermoplastic covered fixture wire — flexible stranded TFFN* Thermoplastic 18—16 0.38 15 Nylon-jacketed or equivalent 90°C
(194°F)
Fixture wiring
Cross-linked polyolefin insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand XF* Cross-linked polyolefin 18—14 0.76 30 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
12—10 1.14 45
Cross-linked polyolefin insulated fixture wire — flexible stranded XFF* Cross-linked polyolefin 18—14 0.76 30 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts
12—10 1.14 45
Modified ETFE — solid or 7-strand ZF Modified ethylene tetrafluoro-ethylene 18—14 0.38 15 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
Flexible stranding ZFF Modified ethylene tetrafluoro-ethylene 18—14 0.38 15 None 150°C
(302°F)
Fixture wiring
High temp. modified ETFE — solid or 7-strand ZHF Modified ethylene tetrafluoro-ethylene 18—14 0.38 15 None 200°C
(392°F)
Fixture wiring
*Insulations and outer coverings that meet the requirements of flame retardant, limited smoke, and are so listed, shall be permitted to be marked for limited smoke after the Code type designation.
The allowable ampacity of fixture wire shall be as specified in Table 402.5.

No conductor shall be used under such conditions that its operating temperature exceeds the temperature specified in Table 402.3 for the type of insulation involved.

Informational Note: See 310.15(A)(3) for temperature limitation of conductors.

Table 402.5 Allowable Ampacity for Fixture Wires

Size (AWG) Allowable Ampacity
18 6
16 8
14 17
12 23
10 28
Fixture wires shall not be smaller than 18 AWG.
The number of fixture wires permitted in a single conduit or tubing shall not exceed the percentage fill specified in Table 1, Chapter 9.
Fixture wires that are intended to be used as grounded conductors shall be identified by one or more continuous white stripes on other than green insulation or by the means described in 400.22(A) through (E).
Thermoplastic insulated fixture wire shall be durably marked on the surface at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.). All other fixture wire shall be marked by means of a printed tag attached to the coil, reel, or carton.
Fixture wire types listed in Table 402.3 shall be permitted to be surface marked to indicate special characteristics of the cable materials. These markings include, but are not limited to, markings for limited smoke, sunlight resistance, and so forth.
Fixture wires shall be permitted (1) for installation in luminaires and in similar equipment where enclosed or protected and not subject to bending or twisting in use, or (2) for connecting luminaires to the branch-circuit conductors supplying the luminaires.
Fixture wires shall not be used as branch-circuit conductors except as permitted elsewhere in this Code.
Overcurrent protection for fixture wires shall be as specified in 240.5.

Part I Installation

The provisions of this article apply to all switches, switching devices, and circuit breakers used as switches operating at 1000 volts and below, unless specifically referenced elsewhere in this Code for higher voltages.
Three-way and four-way switches shall be wired so that all switching is done only in the ungrounded circuit conductor. Where in metal raceways or metal-armored cables, wiring between switches and outlets shall be in accordance with 300.20(A).

Exception: Switch loops shall not require a grounded conductor.

Switches or circuit breakers shall not disconnect the grounded conductor of a circuit.

Exception: A switch or circuit breaker shall be permitted to disconnect a grounded circuit conductor where all circuit conductors are disconnected simultaneously, or where the device is arranged so that the grounded conductor cannot be disconnected until all the ungrounded conductors of the circuit have been disconnected.

The grounded circuit conductor for the controlled lighting circuit shall be installed at the location where switches control lighting loads that are supplied by a grounded general-purpose branch circuit serving bathrooms, hallways, stairways, or rooms suitable for human habitation or occupancy as defined in the applicable building code. Where multiple switch locations control the same lighting load such that the entire floor area of the room or space is visible from the single or combined switch locations, the grounded circuit conductor shall only be required at one location. A grounded conductor shall not be required to be installed at lighting switch locations under any of the following conditions:
  1. Where conductors enter the box enclosing the switch through a raceway, provided that the raceway is large enough for all contained conductors, including a grounded conductor
  2. Where the box enclosing the switch is accessible for the installation of an additional or replacement cable without removing finish materials
  3. Where snap switches with integral enclosures comply with 300.15(E)
  4. Where lighting in the area is controlled by automatic means
  5. Where a switch controls a receptacle load

The grounded conductor shall be extended to any switch location as necessary and shall be connected to switching devices that require line-to-neutral voltage to operate the electronics of the switch in the standby mode and shall meet the requirements of 404.22.

Exception: The connection requirement shall become effective on January 1, 2020. It shall not apply to replacement or retrofit switches installed in locations prior to local adoption of 404.2(C) and where the grounded conductor cannot be extended without removing finish materials. The number of electronic lighting control switches on a branch circuit shall not exceed five, and the number connected to any feeder on the load side of a system or main bonding jumper shall not exceed 25. For the purpose of this exception, a neutral busbar, in compliance with 200.2(B) and to which a main or system bonding jumper is connected shall not be limited as to the number of electronic lighting control switches connected.

Informational Note: The provision for a (future) grounded conductor is to complete a circuit path for electronic lighting control devices.

Switches and circuit breakers shall be of the externally operable type mounted in an enclosure listed for the intended use. The minimum wire-bending space at terminals and minimum gutter space provided in switch enclosures shall be as required in 312.6.

Exception No. 1: Pendant- and surface-type snap switches and knife switches mounted on an open-face switchboard or panelboard shall be permitted without enclosures.

Exception No. 2: Switches and circuit breakers installed in accordance with 110.27(A)(1), (A)(2), (A)(3), or (A)(4) shall be permitted without enclosures.

Enclosures shall not be used as junction boxes, auxiliary gutters, or raceways for conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches or overcurrent devices, unless the enclosure complies with 312.8.
A surface-mounted switch or circuit breaker shall be enclosed in a weatherproof enclosure or cabinet that complies with 312.2.

A flush-mounted switch or circuit breaker shall be equipped with a weatherproof cover.

Switches shall not be installed within tubs or shower spaces unless installed as part of a listed tub or shower assembly.
Time switches, flashers, and similar devices shall be of the enclosed type or shall be mounted in cabinets or boxes or equipment enclosures. Energized parts shall be barriered to prevent operator exposure when making manual adjustments or switching.

Exception: Devices mounted so they are accessible only to qualified persons shall be permitted without barriers, provided they are located within an enclosure such that any energized parts within 152 mm (6.0 in.) of the manual adjustment or switch are covered by suitable barriers.

Single-throw knife switches shall be placed so that gravity will not tend to close them. Single-throw knife switches, approved for use in the inverted position, shall be provided with an integral mechanical means that ensures that the blades remain in the open position when so set.
Double-throw knife switches shall be permitted to be mounted so that the throw is either vertical or horizontal. Where the throw is vertical, integral mechanical means shall be provided to hold the blades in the open position when so set.
Single-throw knife switches and switches with butt contacts shall be connected such that their blades are de-energized when the switch is in the open position. Bolted pressure contact switches shall have barriers that prevent inadvertent contact with energized blades. Single-throw knife switches, bolted pressure contact switches, molded case switches, switches with butt contacts, and circuit breakers used as switches shall be connected so that the terminals supplying the load are de-energized when the switch is in the open position.

Exception: The blades and terminals supplying the load of a switch shall be permitted to be energized when the switch is in the open position where the switch is connected to circuits or equipment inherently capable of providing a backfeed source of power. For such installations, a permanent sign shall be installed on the switch enclosure or immediately adjacent to open switches with the following words or equivalent: WARNING — LOAD SIDE TERMINALS MAY BE ENERGIZED BY BACKFEED. The warning sign or label shall comply with 110.21(B).

General-use and motor-circuit switches, circuit breakers, and molded case switches, where mounted in an enclosure as described in 404.3, shall clearly indicate whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position.

Where these switch or circuit breaker handles are operated vertically rather than rotationally or horizontally, the up position of the handle shall be the closed (on) position.

Exception No. 1: Vertically operated double-throw switches shall be permitted to be in the closed (on) position with the handle in either the up or down position.

Exception No. 2: On busway installations, tap switches employing a center-pivoting handle shall be permitted to be open or closed with either end of the handle in the up or down position. The switch position shall be clearly indicating and shall be visible from the floor or from the usual point of operation.

All switches and circuit breakers used as switches shall be located so that they may be operated from a readily accessible place. They shall be installed such that the center of the grip of the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker, when in its highest position, is not more than 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in.) above the floor or working platform.

Exception No. 1: On busway installations, fused switches and circuit breakers shall be permitted to be located at the same level as the busway. Suitable means shall be provided to operate the handle of the device from the floor.

Exception No. 2: Switches and circuit breakers installed adjacent to motors, appliances, or other equipment that they supply shall be permitted to be located higher than 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in.) and to be accessible by portable means.

Exception No. 3: Hookstick operable isolating switches shall be permitted at greater heights.

A snap switch shall not be grouped or ganged in enclosures with other snap switches, receptacles, or similar devices, unless they are arranged so that the voltage between adjacent devices does not exceed 300 volts, or unless they are installed in enclosures equipped with identified, securely installed barriers between adjacent devices.
A multipole, general-use snap switch shall not be permitted to be fed from more than a single circuit unless it is listed and marked as a two-circuit or three-circuit switch.

Informational Note: See 210.7 for disconnect requirements where more than one circuit supplies a switch.

Faceplates provided for snap switches mounted in boxes and other enclosures shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and, where the switch is flush mounted, seat against the finished surface.
Snap switches, including dimmer and similar control switches, shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor and shall provide a means to connect metal faceplates to the equipment grounding conductor, whether or not a metal faceplate is installed. Metal faceplates shall be grounded. Snap switches shall be considered to be part of an effective ground-fault current path if either of the following conditions is met:
  1. The switch is mounted with metal screws to a metal box or metal cover that is connected to an equipment grounding conductor or to a nonmetallic box with integral means for connecting to an equipment grounding conductor.
  2. An equipment grounding conductor or equipment bonding jumper is connected to an equipment grounding termination of the snap switch.

Exception No. 1 to (B): Where no means exists within the snap-switch enclosure for connecting to the equipment grounding conductor, or where the wiring method does not include or provide an equipment grounding conductor, a snap switch without a connection to an equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for replacement purposes only. A snap switch wired under the provisions of this exception and located within 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically, or 1.5 m (5 ft) horizontally, of ground or exposed grounded metal objects shall be provided with a faceplate of nonconducting noncombustible material with nonmetallic attachment screws, unless the switch mounting strap or yoke is nonmetallic or the circuit is protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.

Exception No. 2 to (B): Listed kits or listed assemblies shall not be required to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor if all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The device is provided with a nonmetallic faceplate that cannot be installed on any other type of device,
  2. The device does not have mounting means to accept other configurations of faceplates,
  3. The device is equipped with a nonmetallic yoke, and
  4. All parts of the device that are accessible after installation of the faceplate are manufactured of nonmetallic materials.

Exception No. 3 to (B): A snap switch with integral nonmetallic enclosure complying with 300.15(E) shall be permitted without a connection to an equipment grounding conductor.

Metal faceplates shall be of ferrous metal not less than 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) in thickness or of nonferrous metal not less than 1.02 mm (0.040 in.) in thickness. Faceplates of insulating material shall be noncombustible and not less than 2.54 mm (0.100 in.) in thickness, but they shall be permitted to be less than 2.54 mm (0.100 in.) in thickness if formed or reinforced to provide adequate mechanical strength.
Snap switches used with open wiring on insulators shall be mounted on insulating material that separates the conductors at least 13 mm (1/2 in.) from the surface wired over.
Flush-type snap switches mounted in boxes that are set back of the finished surface as permitted in 314.20 shall be installed so that the extension plaster ears are seated against the surface. Flush-type snap switches mounted in boxes that are flush with the finished surface or project from it shall be installed so that the mounting yoke or strap of the switch is seated against the box. Screws used for the purpose of attaching a snap switch to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed snap switch, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
A hand-operable circuit breaker equipped with a lever or handle, or a power-operated circuit breaker capable of being opened by hand in the event of a power failure, shall be permitted to serve as a switch if it has the required number of poles.

Informational Note: See the provisions contained in 240.81 and 240.83.

Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in Part IV of Article 250. Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used as service equipment shall comply with the provisions of Part V of Article 250. Where nonmetallic enclosures are used with metal raceways or metal-armored cables, provision shall be made for connecting the equipment grounding conductor(s).

Except as covered in 404.9(B), Exception No. 1, nonmetallic boxes for switches shall be installed with a wiring method that provides or includes an equipment grounding conductor.

Knife switches rated at over 1200 amperes at 250 volts or less, and at over 1000 amperes at 251 to 1000 volts, shall be used only as isolating switches and shall not be opened under load.
To interrupt currents over 1200 amperes at 250 volts, nominal, or less, or over 600 amperes at 251 to 1000 volts, nominal, a circuit breaker or a switch listed for such purpose shall be used.
Knife switches of ratings less than specified in 404.13(A) and (B) shall be considered general-use switches.

Informational Note: See the definition of General-Use Switch in Article 100.

Motor-circuit switches shall be permitted to be of the knife-switch type.

Informational Note: See the definition of a Motor-Circuit Switch in Article 100.

Switches shall be used within their ratings and as indicated in 404.14(A) through (F).

Informational Note No. 1: For switches on signs and outline lighting, see 600.6.

Informational Note No. 2: For switches controlling motors, see 430.83, 430.109, and 430.110.

A form of general-use snap switch suitable only for use on ac circuits for controlling the following:
  1. Resistive and inductive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied
  2. Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at 120 volts
  3. Motor loads not exceeding 80 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at its rated voltage
A form of general-use snap switch suitable for use on either ac or dc circuits for controlling the following:
  1. Resistive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied.
  2. Inductive loads not exceeding 50 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at the applied voltage. Switches rated in horsepower are suitable for controlling motor loads within their rating at the voltage applied.
  3. Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the applied voltage if T-rated.
Snap switches rated 20 amperes or less directly connected to aluminum conductors shall be listed and marked CO/ALR.
Snap switches rated 347 volts ac shall be listed and shall be used only for controlling the loads permitted by (D)(1) and (D)(2).
Noninductive loads other than tungsten-filament lamps not exceeding the ampere and voltage ratings of the switch.
Inductive loads not exceeding the ampere and voltage ratings of the switch. Where particular load characteristics or limitations are specified as a condition of the listing, those restrictions shall be observed regardless of the ampere rating of the load.

The ampere rating of the switch shall not be less than 15 amperes at a voltage rating of 347 volts ac. Flush-type snap switches rated 347 volts ac shall not be readily interchangeable in box mounting with switches identified in 404.14(A) and (B).

General-use dimmer switches shall be used only to control permanently installed incandescent luminaires unless listed for the control of other loads and installed accordingly.
Where a snap switch or control device is used to control cord- and plug-connected equipment on a general-purpose branch circuit, each snap switch or control device controlling receptacle outlets or cord connectors that are supplied by permanently connected cord pendants shall be rated at not less than the rating of the maximum permitted ampere rating or setting of the overcurrent device protecting the receptacles or cord connectors, as provided in 210.21(B).

Informational Note: See 210.50(A) and 400.10(A)(1) for equivalency to a receptacle outlet of a cord connector that is supplied by a permanently connected cord pendant.

Exception: Where a snap switch or control device is used to control not more than one receptacle on a branch circuit, the switch or control device shall be permitted to be rated at not less than the rating of the receptacle.

Part II Construction Specifications

Switches shall be marked with the current, voltage, and, if horsepower rated, the maximum rating for which they are designed.
Where in the off position, a switching device with a marked OFF position shall completely disconnect all ungrounded conductors to the load it controls.
Electronic lighting control switches shall be listed. Electronic lighting control switches shall not introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor during normal operation. The requirement to not introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall take effect on January 1, 2020.

Exception: Electronic lighting control switches that introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for applications covered by 404.2(C), Exception. Electronic lighting control switches that introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall be listed and marked for use in replacement or retrofit applications only.

Auxiliary contacts of a renewable or quick-break type or the equivalent shall be provided on all knife switches rated 600 to 1000 volts and designed for use in breaking current over 200 amperes.
A fused switch shall not have fuses in parallel except as permitted in 240.8.
The wire-bending space required by 404.3 shall meet Table 312.6(B) spacings to the enclosure wall opposite the line and load terminals.
This article covers the rating, type, and installation of receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs (cord caps).

Child Care Facility. A building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervisory, or personal care services for more than four children 7 years old or less.

Outlet Box Hood. A housing shield intended to fit over a faceplate for flush-mounted wiring devices, or an integral component of an outlet box or of a faceplate for flush-mounted wiring devices. The hood does not serve to complete the electrical enclosure; it reduces the risk of water coming in contact with electrical components within the hood, such as attachment plugs, current taps, surge protective devices, direct plug-in transformer units, or wiring devices.

Receptacles shall be listed and marked with the manufacturer's name or identification and voltage and ampere ratings.
Receptacles and cord connectors shall be rated not less than 15 amperes, 125 volts, or 15 amperes, 250 volts, and shall be of a type not suitable for use as lampholders.

Informational Note: See 210.21(B) for receptacle ratings where installed on branch circuits.

Receptacles rated 20 amperes or less and designed for the direct connection of aluminum conductors shall be marked CO/ALR.
Receptacles incorporating an isolated grounding conductor connection intended for the reduction of electrical noise (electromagnetic interference) as permitted in 250.146(D) shall be identified by an orange triangle located on the face of the receptacle.
Isolated ground receptacles installed in nonmetallic boxes shall be covered with a nonmetallic faceplate.

Exception: Where an isolated ground receptacle is installed in a nonmetallic box, a metal faceplate shall be permitted if the box contains a feature or accessory that permits the effective grounding of the faceplate.

All nonlocking-type, 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles that are controlled by an automatic control device, or that incorporate control features that remove power from the receptacle for the purpose of energy management or building automation, shall be permanently marked with the symbol shown in Figure 406.3(E) and the word "controlled."

FIGURE 406.3(E) Controlled Receptacle Marking Symbol.

For receptacles controlled by an automatic control device, the marking shall be located on the receptacle face and visible after installation.

In both cases where a multiple receptacle device is used, the required marking of the word "controlled" and symbol shall denote which contact device(s) are controlled.

Exception: The marking shall not be required for receptacles controlled by a wall switch that provide the required room lighting outlets as permitted by 210.70.

A 125-volt 15- or 20-ampere receptacle that additionally provides Class 2 power shall be listed and constructed such that the Class 2 circuitry is integral with the receptacle.
Receptacle outlets shall be located in branch circuits in accordance with Part III of Article 210. General installation requirements shall be in accordance with 406.4(A) through (F).
Except as provided in 406.4(D), receptacles installed on 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits shall be of the grounding type. Grounding-type receptacles shall be installed only on circuits of the voltage class and current for which they are rated, except as provided in Table 210.21(B)(2) and Table 210.21(B)(3).
Receptacles and cord connectors that have equipment grounding conductor contacts shall have those contacts connected to an equipment grounding conductor.

Exception No. 1: Receptacles mounted on portable and vehicle-mounted generator sets and generators in accordance with 250.34.

Exception No. 2: Replacement receptacles as permitted by 406.4(D).

The equipment grounding conductor contacts of receptacles and cord connectors shall be grounded by connection to the equipment grounding conductor of the circuit supplying the receptacle or cord connector.

Informational Note: For installation requirements for the reduction of electrical noise, see 250.146(D).

The branch-circuit wiring method shall include or provide an equipment grounding conductor to which the equipment grounding conductor contacts of the receptacle or cord connector are connected.

Informational Note No. 1: See 250.118 for acceptable grounding means.

Informational Note No. 2: For extensions of existing branch circuits, see 250.130.

Replacement of receptacles shall comply with 406.4(D)(1) through (D)(6), as applicable. Arc-fault circuit-interrupter type and ground-fault circuit-interrupter type receptacles shall be installed in a readily accessible location.
Where a grounding means exists in the receptacle enclosure or an equipment grounding conductor is installed in accordance with 250.130(C), grounding-type receptacles shall be used and shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor in accordance with 406.4(C) or 250.130(C).
Where attachment to an equipment grounding conductor does not exist in the receptacle enclosure, the installation shall comply with (D)(2)(a), (D)(2)(b), or (D)(2)(c).

(a) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with another non-grounding-type receptacle(s).

(b) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with a ground-fault circuit interrupter-type of receptacle(s). These receptacles or their cover plates shall be marked "No Equipment Ground." An equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter-type receptacle to any outlet supplied from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter receptacle.

(c) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with a grounding-type receptacle(s) where supplied through a ground-fault circuit interrupter. Where grounding-type receptacles are supplied t