About this chapter: Chapter 10 contains requirements for the construction, seismic reinforcing and anchorage of masonry chimneys and fireplaces; and establishes standards for the use and installation of factory-built chimneys, fireplaces and masonry heaters. Chimneys and fireplaces constructed of masonry rely on prescriptive requirements for the details of their construction; factory-built versions rely on the listing and labeling method of approval.
|Hearth slab thickness||A||4"|
(each side of opening)
|B||8" fireplace opening < 6 square feet.
12" fireplace opening ≥ 6 square feet.
(front of opening)
|C||16" fireplace opening < 6 square feet.
20" fireplace opening ≥ 6 square feet.
|Hearth slab reinforcing||D||Reinforced to carry its own weight and all imposed loads.|
|Thickness of wall of firebox||E||10" solid brick or 8" where a firebrick lining is used. Joints in firebrick 1/4" maximum.|
|Distance from top of opening to throat||F||8"|
|Smoke chamber wall thickness
|H||Four No. 4 full-length bars for chimney up to 40" wide. Add two No. 4 bars for each additional 40" or fraction of width or each additional flue.|
|Horizontal reinforcing||J||1/4" ties at 18" and two ties at each bend in vertical steel.|
|Bond beams||K||No specified requirements.|
|Fireplace lintel||L||Noncombustible material.|
|Chimney walls with flue lining||M||Solid masonry units or hollow masonry units grouted solid with not less than 4-inch nominal thickness.|
|Distances between adjacent flues||—||See Section R1003.13.|
|Effective flue area (based on area of fireplace opening)||P||See Section R1003.15.|
|See Sections R1001.11 and R1003.18.|
Mantel and trim
|See Section R1001.11, Exception 4.|
|3' at roofline and 2' at 10'.|
|3/16" × 1"|
Embedment into chimney
|12" hooked around outer bar with 6" extension.|
|Fasten to||4 joists|
|Bolts||Two 1/2" diameter.|
6" each side of fireplace wall.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
Note: This table provides a summary of major requirements for the construction of masonry chimneys and fireplaces. Letter references are to Figure R1001.1, which shows examples of typical construction. This table does not cover all requirements, nor does it cover all aspects of the indicated requirements. For the actual mandatory requirements of the code, see the indicated section of text.
- The letters refer to Figure R1001.1.
- Not required in Seismic Design Category A, B or C.
The firebox of a concrete or masonry fireplace shall have a depth of not less than 20 inches (508 mm). The throat shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the fireplace opening. The throat opening shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) deep. The cross-sectional area of the passageway above the firebox, including the throat, damper and smoke chamber, shall be not less than the cross-sectional area of the flue.
Exception: Rumford fireplaces shall be permitted provided that the depth of the fireplace is not less than 12 inches (305 mm) and not less than one-third of the width of the fireplace opening, that the throat is not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the lintel and is not less than one-twentieth the cross-sectional area of the fireplace opening.
The minimum thickness of hearth extensions shall be 2 inches (51 mm).
Exception: Where the bottom of the firebox opening is raised not less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the hearth extension, a hearth extension of not less than 3/8-inch-thick (10 mm) brick, concrete, stone, tile or other approved noncombustible material is permitted.
Wood beams, joists, studs and other combustible material shall have a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from the front faces and sides of masonry fireplaces and not less than 4 inches (102 mm) from the back faces of masonry fireplaces. The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fireblocking in accordance with Section R1001.12.
- Masonry fireplaces listed and labeled for use in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 127 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.
- Where masonry fireplaces are part of masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete walls less than 12 inches (306 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.
- Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing materials such as wood siding, flooring and gypsum board shall be permitted to abut the masonry fireplace sidewalls and hearth extension in accordance with Figure R1001.11, provided such combustible trim or sheathing is not less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.
- Exposed combustible mantels or trim is permitted to be placed directly on the masonry fireplace front surrounding the fireplace opening providing such combustible materials are not placed within 6 inches (152 mm) of a fireplace opening. Combustible material within 12 inches (306 mm) of the fireplace opening shall not project more than 1/8 inch (3 mm) for each 1-inch (25 mm) distance from such an opening.
Masonry heaters shall be installed in accordance with this section and comply with one of the following:
Combustible materials shall not be placed within 36 inches (914 mm) of the outside surface of a masonry heater in accordance with NFPA 211 Section 8-7 (clearances for solid-fuel-burning appliances), and the required space between the heater and combustible material shall be fully vented to permit the free flow of air around all heater surfaces.
- Where the masonry heater wall is not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick of solid masonry and the wall of the heat exchange channels is not less than 5 inches (127 mm) thick of solid masonry, combustible materials shall not be placed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the outside surface of a masonry heater. A clearance of not less than 8 inches (203 mm) shall be provided between the gas-tight capping slab of the heater and a combustible ceiling.
- Masonry heaters listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1482 or CEN 15250 shall be installed in accordance with the listing specifications and the manufacturer's written instructions.
Where a spark arrestor is installed on a masonry chimney, the spark arrestor shall meet all of the following requirements:
- The net free area of the arrestor shall be not less than four times the net free area of the outlet of the chimney flue it serves.
- The arrestor screen shall have heat and corrosion resistance equivalent to 19-gage galvanized steel or 24-gage stainless steel.
- Openings shall not permit the passage of spheres having a diameter greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) nor block the passage of spheres having a diameter less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
- The spark arrestor shall be located with access for cleaning and the screen or chimney cap shall be removable to allow for cleaning of the chimney flue.
Flue lining systems shall comply with one of the following:
- Clay flue lining complying with the requirements of ASTM C315.
- Listed and labeled chimney lining systems complying with UL 1777.
- Factory-built chimneys or chimney units listed for installation within masonry chimneys.
- Other approved materials that will resist corrosion, erosion, softening or cracking from flue gases and condensate at temperatures up to 1,800°F (982°C).
Where a flue is relined with a material not complying with Section R1003.11.1, the chimney shall be plainly and permanently identified by a label attached to a wall, ceiling or other conspicuous location adjacent to where the connector enters the chimney. The label shall include the following message or equivalent language:
Clay flue liners shall be installed in accordance with ASTM C1283 and extend from a point not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the lowest inlet or, in the case of fireplaces, from the top of the smoke chamber to a point above the enclosing walls. The lining shall be carried up vertically, with a slope not greater than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical.
Clay flue liners shall be laid in medium-duty water insoluble refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C199 with tight mortar joints left smooth on the inside and installed to maintain an airspace or insulation not to exceed the thickness of the flue liner separating the flue liners from the interior face of the chimney masonry walls. Flue liners shall be supported on all sides. Only enough mortar shall be placed to make the joint and hold the liners in position.
Where two or more flues are located in the same chimney, masonry wythes shall be built between adjacent flue linings. The masonry wythes shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) thick and bonded into the walls of the chimney.
Exception: Where venting only one appliance, two flues shall be permitted to adjoin each other in the same chimney with only the flue lining separation between them. The joints of the adjacent flue linings shall be staggered not less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Chimney flues shall not be smaller in area than that of the area of the connector from the appliance [see Tables R1003.14(1) and R1003.14(2)]. The sizing of a chimney flue to which multiple appliance venting systems are connected shall be in accordance with Section M1805.3.
NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF ROUND FLUE SIZESa
|FLUE SIZE, INSIDE DIAMETER (inches)||CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (square inches)|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.
- Flue sizes are based on ASTM C315.
NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR FLUE SIZES
|FLUE SIZE, OUTSIDE NOMINAL |
|CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA |
|4.5 × 8.5||23|
|4.5 × 13||34|
|8 × 8||42|
|8.5 × 8.5||49|
|8 × 12||67|
|8.5 × 13||76|
|12 × 12||102|
|8.5 × 18||101|
|13 × 13||127|
|12 × 16||131|
|13 × 18||173|
|16 × 16||181|
|16 × 20||222|
|18 × 18||233|
|20 × 20||298|
|20 × 24||335|
|24 × 24||431|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.
The minimum net cross-sectional area of the chimney flue shall be determined in accordance with Figure R1003.15.2. A flue size providing not less than the equivalent net cross-sectional area shall be used. Cross-sectional areas of clay flue linings are shown in Tables R1003.14(1) and R1003.14(2) or as provided by the manufacturer or as measured in the field. The height of the chimney shall be measured from the firebox floor to the top of the chimney flue.
Cleanout openings shall be provided within 6 inches (152 mm) of the base of each flue within every masonry chimney. The upper edge of the cleanout shall be located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) below the lowest chimney inlet opening. The height of the opening shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm). The cleanout shall be provided with a noncombustible cover.
Any portion of a masonry chimney located in the interior of the building or within the exterior wall of the building shall have a minimum airspace clearance to combustibles of 2 inches (51 mm). Chimneys located entirely outside the exterior walls of the building, including chimneys that pass through the soffit or cornice, shall have a minimum airspace clearance of 1 inch (25 mm). The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fire blocking in accordance with Section R1003.19.
- Masonry chimneys equipped with a chimney lining system listed and labeled for use in chimneys in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 1777 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.
- Where masonry chimneys are constructed as part of masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete wall less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining.
- Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing materials, such as wood siding and flooring, shall be permitted to abut the masonry chimney side walls, in accordance with Figure R1003.18, provided such combustible trim or sheathing is not less than 8 inches (203 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining.
Chimneys shall be provided with crickets where the dimension parallel to the ridgeline is greater than 30 inches (762 mm) and does not intersect the ridgeline. The intersection of the cricket and the chimney shall be flashed and counterflashed in the same manner as normal roof-chimney intersections. Crickets shall be constructed in compliance with Figure R1003.20 and Table R1003.20.
Factory-built chimneys installed in dwelling units with solid-fuel-burning appliances shall comply with the Type HT requirements of UL 103 and shall be marked "Type HT and "Residential Type and Building Heating Appliance Chimney."
Chimneys for use with open combustion chamber appliances installed in buildings other than dwelling units shall comply with the requirements of UL 103 and shall be marked "Building Heating Appliance Chimney" or "Residential Type and Building Heating Appliance Chimney."