ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2015 (IRC 2015)

Part I Administrative

Part II Definitions

Part III Building Planning and Construction

Part IV Energy Conservation

Part V Mechanical

Part VI Fuel Gas

Part VII Plumbing

Part VIII Electrical

Part IX Referenced Standards

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

This chapter regulates the energy efficiency for the design and construction of buildings regulated by this code.

Note: The text of the following Sections N1101.2 through N1105 is extracted from the 2012 edition of the International Energy Conservation Code—Residential Provisions and has been editorially revised to conform to the scope and application of this code. The section numbers appearing in parenthesis after each section number are the section numbers of the corresponding text in the International Energy Conservation Code—Residential Provisions.

Compliance shall be demonstrated by one of the following:

  1. Meeting the requirements of the Rhode Island Energy Conservation Code SBC-8-2019.
  2. Meeting the requirements of this chapter using the criteria for Climate Zone 5 from Figure N 1102A or Table 1102.1.2.
  3. Compliance submission of Res-Check for Zone 5 and Chapter 11.
The building official shall be permitted to approve specific computer software, worksheets, compliance manuals and other similar materials that meet the intent of this code.
The building official or other authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to deem a national, state or local energy-efficiency program to exceed the energy efficiency required by this code. Buildings approved in writing by such an energy-efficiency program shall be considered in compliance with this code. The requirements identified as "mandatory" in this chapter, as applicable, shall be met.

Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approved by the building official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed, and show in sufficient detail pertinent data and features of the building, systems and equipment as herein governed. Details shall include, but are not limited to, as applicable:

  1. Insulation materials and their R-values.
  2. Fenestration U-factors and SHGCs.
  3. Area-weighted U-factor and SHGC calculations.
  4. Mechanical system design criteria.
  5. Mechanical and service water heating system and equipment types, sizes and efficiencies.
  6. Equipment and system controls.
  7. Duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location.
  8. Air sealing details.
The building's thermal envelope shall be represented on the construction drawings.

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein.

ABOVE-GRADE WALL. A wall more than 50 percent above grade and enclosing conditioned space. This includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and skylight shafts.

ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see "Readily accessible").

ADDITION. An extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area or height of a building or structure.

AIR BARRIER. Material(s) assembled and joined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier may be a single material or a combination of materials.

ALTERATION. Any construction, retrofit or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a building, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.

AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see "Manual").

BASEMENT WALL. A wall 50 percent or more below grade and enclosing conditioned space.

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy, including any mechanical systems, service water heating systems and electric power and lighting systems located on the building site and supporting the building.

BUILDING SITE. A continguous area of land that is under the ownership or control of one entity.

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building elements that enclose conditioned space or provide a boundary between conditioned space and exempt or unconditioned space.

C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)].

CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to fixtures and back to the water-heating equipment.

CLIMATE ZONE. A geographical region based on climatic criteria as specified in this code.

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the conditioned space.

CONDITIONED SPACE. An area, room or space that is enclosed within the building thermal envelope and that is directly heated or cooled or indirectly heated or cooled. Spaces are indirectly heated or cooled where they communicate through openings with conditioned spaces, where they are separated from conditioned spaces by uninsulated walls, floors or ceilings, or where they contain uninsulated ducts, piping or other sources of heating or cooling.

CONTINUOUS AIR BARRIER. A combination of materials and assemblies that restrict or prevent the passage of air through the building thermal envelope.

CONTINUOUS INSULATION (ci). Insulating material that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior, or is integral to any opaque surface, of the building envelope.

CRAWL SPACE WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses a crawl space and is partially or totally below grade.

CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments.

DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. A water distribution system where pump(s) prime the service hot water piping with heated water upon demand for hot water.

DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air. The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts.

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances.

ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and standard reference design based on estimates of energy use.

ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for purchased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges.

ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building.

ERI REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the rated design that meets the minimum requirements of the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code.


EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both above-grade walls and basement walls.

FENESTRATION. Products classified as either vertical fenestration or skylights.

FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT. A fenestration designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assembled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory-formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls, and atrium roof systems.

FENESTRATION, VERTICAL. Windows (fixed or moveable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque/glazed doors composed of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing materials and installed at a slope of a least 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal.

HEATED SLAB. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution system is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab.

HIGH-EFFICACY LAMPS. Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:

  1. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts;
  2. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts; and
  3. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

HISTORIC BUILDING. Any building or structure that is one or more of the following:

  1. Listed, or certified as eligible for listing by the State Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, in the National Register of Historic Places.
  2. Designated as historic under an applicable state or local law.
  3. Certified as a contributing resource within a National Register-listed, state-designated or locally designated historic district.

INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both.

INSULATED SIDING. A type of continuous insulation with manufacturer-installed insulating material as an integral part of the cladding product having a minimum R-value of R-2.

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board with a core material having a minimum R-value of R-2.

LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING. Lighting equipment powered through a transformer such as a cable conductor, a rail conductor and track lighting.

MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see "Automatic").

PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance.

RATED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to determine the energy rating index.

READILY ACCESSIBLE. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders or access equipment (see "Accessible").

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance or to correct damage. For definitions applicable in Chapter 11, see Section N1101.9.

REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an existing roof covering. See "Roof recover" and "Roof replacement."

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For this chapter, includes detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) as well as Group R-2, R-3 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade plane.

ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering.

ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance.

ROOF REPLACEMENT. The process of removing the existing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and installing a new roof covering.

R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h • ft2 • °F/Btu) [(m2 • K)/W].

SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for purposes other than comfort heating.

SKYLIGHT. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal. Glazing material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls is included in this definition.

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation that is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the proposed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building performance.

SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwelling with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure's exterior walls and roof.

THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned space(s). The conditioned space(s) shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or conditioned by separate equipment.

THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable set point.

U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)].

VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE [VT]. The ratio of visible light entering the space through the fenestration product assembly to the incident visible light, Visible Transmittance, includes the effects of glazing material and frame and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1.

WHOLE HOUSE MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM. An exhaust system, supply system, or combination thereof that is designed to mechanically exchange indoor air with outdoor air when operating continuously or through a programmed intermittent schedule to satisfy the whole house ventilation rates.

ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.

Rhode Island Shall Be Considered as Climate Zone 5A With the Following Design Conditions

TABLE N1101.7

EXTERIOR DESIGN CONDITIONS

See Figure 1102 Value Value
Climate zone Providence County All others
Winter, design dry-bulb (°F) 0 5
Summer, design dry-bulb 87 89
Summer design wet-bulb 71 73
Degree days heating 6831 5950
Degree days cooling 371 811

FIGURE 1101.7

ENERGY ZONES

Section deleted in Rhode Island.
The interior design temperatures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72°F (22°C) for heating and minimum of 75°F (24°C) for cooling.
Materials, systems and equipment shall be identified in a manner that will allow a determination of compliance with the applicable provisions of this code.
An R-value identification mark shall be applied by the manufacturer to each piece of building thermal envelope insulation 12 inches (305 mm) or greater in width. Alternately, the insulation installers shall provide a certification listing the type, manufacturer and R-value of insulation installed in each element of the building thermal envelope. For blown or sprayed insulation (fiberglass and cellulose), the initial installed thickness, settled thickness, settled R-value, installed density, coverage area and number of bags installed shall be listed on the certification. For insulated siding, the R-value shall be labeled on the product's package and shall be listed on the certification. The insulation installer shall sign, date and post the certification in a conspicuous location on the job site.
The thickness of blown-in or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation (fiberglass or cellulose) shall be written in inches (mm) on markers that are installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) throughout the attic space. The markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness with numbers not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access opening. Spray polyurethane foam thickness and installed R-value shall be listed on certification provided by the insulation installer.
Insulating materials shall be installed such that the manufacturer's R-value mark is readily observable upon inspection.

U-factors of fenestration products (windows, doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100.

Exception: Where required, garage door U-factors shall be determined in accordance with either NFRC 100 or ANSI/DASMA 105.

U-factors shall be determined by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer.

Products lacking such a labeled U-factor shall be assigned a default U-factor from Table N1101.10.3(1) or N1101.10.3(2). The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and visible transmittance (VT) of glazed fenestration products (windows, glazed doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled SHGC or VT shall be assigned a default SHGC or VT from Table N1101.10.3(3).

TABLE N1101.10.3(1) [R303.1.3(1)]

DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION U-FACTORS

FRAME TYPE SINGLE
PANE
DOUBLE
PANE
SKYLIGHT
Single Double
Metal 1.20 0.80 2.00 1.30
Metal with Thermal Break 1.10 0.65 1.90 1.10
Nonmetal or Metal Clad 0.95 0.55 1.75 1.05
Glazed Block 0.60

TABLE N1101.10.3(2) [R303.1.3(2)]

DEFAULT DOOR U-FACTORS

DOOR TYPE U-FACTOR
Uninsulated Metal 1.20
Insulated Metal 0.60
Wood 0.50
Insulated, nonmetal edge, max 45% glazing,
any glazing double pane
0.35

TABLE N1101.10.3(3) [R303.1.3(3)]

DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGC AND VT

SINGLE GLAZED DOUBLE GLAZED GLAZED
BLOCK
Clear Tinted Clear Tinted
SHGC 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6
VT 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.6
The thermal resistance (R-value) of insulation shall be determined in accordance with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission R-value rule (CFR Title 16, Part 460) in units of h × ft2 × °F/Btu at a mean temperature of 75°F (24°C).
The thermal resistance (R-value) of insulated siding shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1363. Installation for testing shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
All materials, systems and equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and this code.
Insulation applied to the exterior of basement walls, crawlspace walls and the perimeter of slab-on-grade floors shall have a rigid, opaque and weather-resistant protective covering to prevent the degradation of the insulation's thermal performance. The protective covering shall cover the exposed exterior insulation and extend not less than 6 inches (153 mm) below grade.
Maintenance instructions shall be furnished for equipment and systems that require preventive maintenance. Required regular maintenance actions shall be clearly stated and incorporated on a readily accessible label. The label shall include the title or publication number for the operation and maintenance manual for that particular model and type of product.

Projects shall comply with one of the following:

  1. Sections N1101.14 through N1104.
  2. Section N1105 and the provisions of Sections N1101.14 through N1104 labeled "Mandatory."
  3. An energy rating index (ERI) approach in Section N1106.

Residential buildings in the tropical zone at elevations below 2,400 feet (731.5 m) above sea level shall be deemed to comply with this chapter where the following conditions are met:

  1. Not more than one-half of the occupied space is air conditioned.
  2. The occupied space is not heated.
  3. Solar, wind or other renewable energy source supplies not less than 80 percent of the energy for service water heating.
  4. Glazing in conditioned space has a solar heat gain coefficient of less than or equal to 0.40, or has an overhang with a projection factor equal to or greater than 0.30.
  5. Permanently installed lighting is in accordance with Section N1104.
  6. The exterior roof surface complies with one of the options in Table C402.2.1.1 of the International Energy Conservation Code, or the roof/ceiling has insulation with an R-value of R-15 or greater. If present, attics above the insulation are vented and attics below the insulation are unvented.
  7. Roof surfaces have a minimum slope of 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) per foot of run. The finished roof does not have water accumulation areas.
  8. Operable fenestration provides ventilation area equal to not less than 14 percent of the floor area in each room. Alternatively, equivalent ventilation is provided by a ventilation fan.
  9. Bedrooms with exterior walls facing two different directions have operable fenestration on exterior walls facing two directions.
  10. Interior doors to bedrooms are capable of being secured in the open position.
  11. A ceiling fan or ceiling fan rough-in is provided for bedrooms and the largest space that is not used as a bedroom.

A permanent certificate shall be completed by the builder or registered design professional and posted on a wall in the space where the furnace is located, a utility room or an approved location inside the building. Where located on an electrical panel, the certificate shall not cover or obstruct the visibility of the circuit directory label, service disconnect label or other required labels. The certificate shall list the predominant R-values of insulation installed in or on ceiling/roof, walls, foundation (slab, basement wall, crawl space wall and/or floor) and ducts outside conditioned spaces; U-factors for fenestration and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of fenestration, and the results from any required duct system and building envelope air leakage testing done on the building. Where there is more than one value for each component, the certificate shall list the value covering the largest area. The certificate shall list the types and efficiencies of heating, cooling and service water heating equipment. Where a gas-fired unvented room heater, electric furnace, or baseboard electric heater is installed in the residence, the certificate shall list "gas-fired unvented room heater," "electric furnace" or "baseboard electric heater," as appropriate. An efficiency shall not be listed for gas-fired unvented room heaters, electric furnaces or electric baseboard heaters.

FIGURE N1101.14

SAMPLE CERTIFICATEa

  1. A certificate similar to this shall be attached to or near the electrical panel board.

The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Sections N1102.1.1 through N1102.1.5.

Exception: The following low energy buildings, or portions thereof, separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal envelope assemblies complying with this section shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of Section N1102.

  1. Those with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h • ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or 1.0 watt/ft2 of floor area for space conditioning purposes.
  2. Those that do not contain conditioned space.
Wall assemblies in the building thermal envelope shall comply with the vapor retarder requirements of Section R702.7.

The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Table N1102.1.2 based on the climate zone specified in Section N1101.7.

TABLE N1102.1.2

INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENTa

CLIMATE FENESTRATION
U-FACTORb
SKYLIGHTb
U-FACTOR
GLAZED SHGCb CEILING
R-VALUEi
WOOD
FRAME WALL
R-VALUEg
MASS
WALL
R-VALUE
FLOOR
R-VALUE
BASEMENTc
WALL
R-VALUE
SLABd
R-VALUE
& DEPTH
CRAWL
SPACEc
WALL
R-VALUE
5 0.35 0.60 NR 38 20 or 13+5f 13/17 30e 10/13 R-10 for 2 ft 10/13

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

  1. R-values are minimums. U-factors and SHGC are maximums. R-19 batts compressed into a nominal 2 × 6 framing cavity such that the R-value is reduced by R-1 or more shall be marked with the compressed batt R-value in addition to the full thickness R-value.
  2. The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration.
  3. "10/13" means R-10 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior of the home or R-13 cavity insulation at the interior of the basement wall.
  4. R-5 shall be added to the entire slab and the required slab edge R-values for heated slabs
  5. Or insulation sufficient to fill the framing cavity, R-19 minimum.
  6. "13+5" means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 insulated sheathing. If structural sheathing covers 25 percent or less of the exterior, insulating sheathing is not required where structural sheathing is used. If structural sheathing covers more than 25 percent of exterior, structural sheathing shall be supplemented with insulated sheathing of at least R-2.
  7. The second R-value applies where more than half the insulation is on the interior of the mass wall.
Insulation material used in layers, such as framing cavity insulation, or continuous insulation shall be summed to compute the corresponding component R-value. The manufacturer's settled R-value shall be used for blown insulation. Computed R-values shall not include an R-value for other building materials or air films. Where insulated siding is used for the purpose of complying with the continuous insulation requirements of Table N1102.1.2, the manufacturer's labeled R-value for insulated siding shall be reduced by R-0.6.

An assembly with a U-factor equal to or less than that specified in Table N1102.1.4 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-value in Table N1102.1.2.

TABLE N1102.1.4

EQUIVALENT U-FACTORSa

CLIMATE FENESTRATION
U-FACTOR
SKYLIGHT
U-FACTOR
CEILING
U-FACTOR
FRAME
WALL
U-FACTOR
MASS WALL
U-FACTORb
FLOOR
U-FACTOR
BASEMENT
WALL
U-FACTOR
CRAWL
SPACE WALL
U-FACTOR
5 0.32 0.55 0.026 0.057 0.082 0.033 0.050 0.055
  1. Nonfenestration U-factors shall be obtained from measurement, calculation or an approved source.
  2. When more than half the insulation is on the interior, the mass wall U-factors shall be a maximum of 0.17 in Climate Zone 1, 0.14 in Climate Zone 2, 0.12 in Climate Zone 3, 0.087 in Climate Zone 4 except Marine, 0.065 in Climate Zone 5 and Marine 4, and 0.057 in Climate Zones 6 through 8.
If the total building thermal envelope UA (sum of U-factor times assembly area) is less than or equal to the total UA resulting from using the U-factors in Table N1102.1.4 (multiplied by the same assembly area as in the proposed building), the building shall be considered in compliance with Table N1102.1.2. The UA calculation shall be done using a method consistent with the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals and shall include the thermal bridging effects of framing materials. The SHGC requirements shall be met in addition to UA compliance.
In addition to the requirements of Section N1102.1, insulation shall meet the specific requirements of Sections N1102.2.1 through N1102.2.13.
Where Section R1102.1.2 would require R-38 insulation in the ceiling, installing R-30 over 100 percent of the ceiling area requiring insulation shall be deemed to satisfy the requirement for R-38 wherever the full height of uncompressed R-30 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. Similarly, where Section R1102.1.2 would require R-49 insulation in the ceiling, installing R-38 over 100 percent of the ceiling area requiring insulation shall be deemed to satisfy the requirement for R-49 insulation wherever the full height of uncompressed R-38 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section R1102.1.4 and the total UA alternative in Section R1102.1.5.
Where Section N1102.1.2 would require insulation levels above R-30 and the design of the roof/ceiling assembly does not allow sufficient space for the required insulation, the minimum required insulation for such roof/ceiling assemblies shall be R-30. This reduction of insulation from the requirements of Section N1102.1.2 shall be limited to 500 square feet (46 m2) or 20 percent of the total insulated ceiling area, whichever is less. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section N1102.1.4 and the total UA alternative in Section N1102.1.5.
For air-permeable insulations in vented attics, a baffle shall be installed adjacent to soffit and eave vents. Baffles shall maintain an opening equal or greater than the size of the vent. The baffle shall extend over the top of the attic insulation. The baffle shall be permitted to be any solid material.

Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood-framed or equivalent baffle or retainer is required to be provided when loose-fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose-fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose-fill insulation.

Exception: Vertical doors that provide access from conditioned to unconditioned spaces shall be permitted to meet the fenestration requirements of Table R1102.1.2 based on the applicable climate zone specified in Chapter 3.

Mass walls for the purposes of this chapter shall be considered above-grade walls of concrete block, concrete, insulated concrete form (ICF), masonry cavity, brick (other than brick veneer), earth (adobe, compressed earth block, rammed earth) and solid timber/logs, or any other walls having a heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft2 × °F (123 kJ/m2 × K).

Steel-frame ceilings, walls, and floors shall meet the insulation requirements of Table N1102.2.6 or shall meet the U-factor requirements of Table N1102.1.4. The calculation of the U-factor for a steel-frame envelope assembly shall use a series-parallel path calculation method.

TABLE N1102.2.6 (R402.2.6)

STEEL-FRAME CEILING, WALL AND FLOOR INSULATION (R-VALUE)

WOOD FRAME
R-VALUE
REQUIREMENT
COLD-FORMED STEEL
EQUIVALENT R-VALUEa
Steel Truss Ceilingsb
R-30 R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5
R-38 R-49 or R-38 + 3
R-49 R-38 + 5
Steel Joist Ceilingsb
R-30 R-38 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 R-49 in any framing
R-38 R-49 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
Steel-Framed Wall, 16" on center
R-13 R-13 + 4.2 or R-19 + 2.1 or R-21 + 2.8 or R-0 + 9.3 or R-15 + 3.8 or R-21 + 3.1
R-13 + 3 R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 + 6.1 or R-15 + 5.7 or R-19 + 5.0 or R-21 + 4.7
R-20 R-0 + 14.0 or R-13 + 8.9 or R-15 + 8.5 or R-19 + 7.8 or R-19 + 6.2 or R-21 + 7.5
R-20 + 5 R-13 + 12.7 or R-15 + 12.3 or R-19 + 11.6 or R-21 + 11.3 or R-25 + 10.9
R-21 R-0 + 14.6 or R-13 + 9.5 or R-15 + 9.1 or R-19 + 8.4 or R-21 + 8.1 or R-25 + 7.7
Steel-Framed Wall, 24" on center
R-13 R-0 + 9.3 or R-13 + 3.0 or R-15 + 2.4
R-13 + 3 R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 + 4.9 or R-15 + 4.3 or R-19 + 3.5 or R-21 + 3.1
R-20 R-0 + 14.0 or R-13 + 7.7 or R-15 + 7.1 or R-19 + 6.3 or R-21 + 5.9
R-20 + 5 R-13 + 11.5 or R-15 + 10.9 or R-19 + 10.1 or R-21 + 9.7 or R-25 + 9.1
R-21 R-0 + 14.6 or R-13 + 8.3 or R-15 + 7.7 or R-19 + 6.9 or R-21 + 6.5 or R-25 + 5.9
Steel Joist Floor
R-13 R-19 in 2 × 6, or R-19 + 6 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
R-19 R-19 + 6 in 2 × 6, or R-19 + 12 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
  1. Cavity insulation R-value is listed first, followed by continuous insulation R-value.
  2. Insulation exceeding the height of the framing shall cover the framing.
Where Section R1102.1.2 would require continuous insulation on exterior walls and structural sheathing covers 40 percent or less of the gross area of all exterior walls, the continuous insulation R-value shall be permitted to be reduced by an amount necessary to result in a consistent total sheathing thickness, but not more than R-3, on areas of the walls covered by structural sheathing. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section R1102.1.4 and the total UA alternative in Section R1102.1.5.

Floor framing-cavity insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking.

Exception: The floor framing-cavity insulation shall be permitted to be in contact with the topside of sheathing or continuous insulation installed on the bottom side of floor framing where combined with insulation that meets or exceeds the minimum wood frame wall R-value in Table 1102.1.2 and that extends from the bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing members.

Walls associated with conditioned basements shall be insulated from the top of the basement wall down to 10 feet (3048 mm) below grade or to the basement floor, whichever is less. Walls associated with unconditioned basements shall meet this requirement unless the floor overhead is insulated in accordance with Sections N1102.1.2 and N1102.2.8.
Slab-on-grade floors with a floor surface less than 12 inches (305 mm) below grade shall be insulated in accordance with Table N1102.1.2. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab on the outside or inside of the foundation wall. Insulation located below grade shall be extended the distance provided in Table N1102.1.2 by any combination of vertical insulation, insulation extending under the slab or insulation extending out from the building. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by not less than 10 inches (254 mm) of soil. The top edge of the insulation installed between the exterior wall and the edge of the interior slab shall be permitted to be cut at a 45-degree (0.79 rad) angle away from the exterior wall. Slab-edge insulation is not required in jurisdictions designated by the building official as having a very heavy termite infestation.
As an alternative to insulating floors over crawl spaces, crawl space walls shall be permitted to be insulated when the crawl space is not vented to the outside. Crawl space wall insulation shall be permanently fastened to the wall and extend downward from the floor to the finished grade level and then vertically and/or horizontally for at least an additional 24 inches (610 mm). Exposed earth in unvented crawl space foundations shall be covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder in accordance with this code. All joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 inches (153 mm) and be sealed or taped. The edges of the vapor retarder shall extend not less than 6 inches (153 mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached to the stem wall.
Insulation shall not be required on the horizontal portion of the foundation that supports a masonry veneer.

Sunrooms enclosing conditioned spaces shall meet the insulation requirements of this code.

Exception: For sunrooms with thermal isolation, and enclosing conditioned spaces, the following exceptions to the insulation requirements of this code shall apply:

  1. The minimum ceiling insulation R-values shall be R-19 in Zones 1 through 4 and R-24 in Zones 5 through 8.
  2. The minimum wall R-value shall be R-13 in all climate zones. Walls separating a sunroom with a thermal isolation from conditioned space shall meet the building thermal envelope requirements of this code.
In addition to the requirements of Section N1102, fenestration shall comply with Sections N1102.3.1 through N1102.3.5.
An area-weighted average of fenestration products shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements.

An area-weighted average of fenestration products more than 50-percent glazed shall be permitted to satisfy the SHGC requirements.

Dynamic glazing shall be permitted to satisfy the SHGC requirements of Table R1102.1.2 provided the ratio of the higher to lower labeled SHGC is greater than or equal to 2.4, and the dynamic glazing is automatically controlled to modulate the amount of solar gain into the space in multiple steps. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.

Exception: Dynamic glazing is not required to comply with this section when both the lower and higher labeled SHGC already comply with the requirements of Table N1102.1.2.

Up to 15 square feet (1.4 m2) of glazed fenestration per dwelling unit shall be permitted to be exempt from U-factor and SHGC requirements in Section N1102.1.2. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section N1102.1.4 and the total UA alternative in Section N1102.1.5.
One side-hinged opaque door assembly up to 24 square feet (2.22 m2) in area is exempted from the U-factor requirement in Section N1102.1.2. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section N1102.1.4 and the total UA alternative in Section N1102.1.5.

Sunrooms enclosing conditioned space shall meet the fenestration requirements of this code.

Exception: For sunrooms with thermal isolation and enclosing conditioned space in Climate Zones 2 through 8, the maximum fenestration U-factor shall be 0.45 and the maximum skylight U-factor shall be 0.70.

New fenestration separating the sunroom with thermal isolation from conditioned space shall meet the building thermal envelope requirements of this code.

The building thermal envelope shall be constructed to limit air leakage in accordance with the requirements of Sections N1102.4.1 through N1102.4.5.
The building thermal envelope shall comply with Sections N1102.4.1.1 and N1102.4.1.2. The sealing methods between dissimilar materials shall allow for differential expansion and contraction.

The components of the building thermal envelope as listed in Table N1102.4.1.1 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the criteria listed in Table N1102.4.1.1, as applicable to the method of construction. Where required by the building official, an approved third party shall inspect all components and verify compliance.

TABLE N1102.4.1.1 (402.4.1.1)

AIR BARRIER AND INSULATION INSTALLATION

COMPONENT AIR BARRIER CRITERIA INSULATION INSTALLATION CRITERIA
General requirements A continuous air barrier shall be installed in the building envelope.
The exterior thermal envelope contains a continuous air barrier.
Breaks or joints in the air barrier shall be sealed.
Air-permeable insulation shall not be used as a
sealing material.
Ceiling/attic The air barrier in any dropped ceiling/soffit shall be
aligned with the insulation and any gaps in the air barrier sealed.
Access openings, drop down stairs or knee wall doors
to unconditioned attic spaces shall be sealed.
The insulation in any dropped ceiling/soffit shall
be aligned with the air barrier.
Walls The junction of the foundation and sill plate shall be sealed.
The junction of the top plate and the top of exterior walls shall be sealed.
Knee walls shall be sealed.
Cavities within corners and headers of frame
walls shall be insulated by completely filling the
cavity with a material having a thermal
resistance of R-3 per inch minimum.
Exterior thermal envelope insulation for framed
walls shall be installed in substantial contact
and continuous alignment with the air barrier.
Windows, skylights and doors The space between window/door jambs and framing,
and skylights and framing shall be sealed.
Rim joists Rim joists shall include the air barrier. Rim joists shall be insulated.
Floors (including above garage and cantilevered floors) The air barrier shall be installed at any exposed edge of insulation. Floor framing cavity insulation shall be installed
to maintain permanent contact with the underside
of subfloor decking, or floor framing cavity
insulation shall be permitted to be in contact with the top side of
sheathing, or continuous insulation installed on the
underside of floor framing; and extends from the
bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing
members.
Crawl space walls Exposed earth in unvented crawl spaces shall be
covered with a Class I vapor retarder with
overlapping joints taped.
Where provided instead of floor insulation,
insulation shall be permanently attached to the crawl
space walls.
Shafts, penetrations Duct shafts, utility penetrations, and flue shafts
opening to exterior or unconditioned space shall be
sealed.
Narrow cavities Batts in narrow cavities shall be cut to fit, or
narrow cavities shall be filled by insulation that
on installation readily conforms to the available
cavity space.
Garage separation Air sealing shall be provided between the garage
Recessed lighting Recessed light fixtures installed in the building thermal
envelope shall be sealed to the drywall.
Recessed light fixtures installed in the building thermal
envelope shall be air tight and IC rated.
Plumbing and wiring Batt insulation shall be cut neatly to fit
around wiring and plumbing in exterior walls, or insulation that on
installation, readily conforms to available space, shall
extend behind piping and wiring.
Shower/tub on exterior wall The air barrier installed at exterior walls adjacent to
showers and tubs shall separate them from the showers and tubs.
Exterior walls adjacent to showers and tubs shall be
insulated.
Electrical/phone box on The air barrier shall be installed behind electrical or
communication boxes. or air-sealed boxes shall
be installed.
HVAC register boots HVAC register boots that penetrate building thermal
envelope shall be sealed to the subfloor or drywall.
Concealed sprinklers When required to be sealed, concealed fire sprinklers
shall only be sealed in a manner that is recommended
by the manufacturer. Caulking or other adhesive
sealants shall not be used to fill voids between fire
sprinkler cover plates and walls or ceilings.
  1. In addition, inspection of log walls shall be in accordance with the provisions of ICC 400.

The building or dwelling unit shall be tested and testing shall be conducted with a blower door at a pressure of 0.2 inches w.g. (50 Pascals). Maximum air change rates per hour in 2019 = 8, 2020 = 7, 2021 = 6, and 2022 and subsequent years = 5. Testing shall be conducted by an approved third party, where required by the building official. A written report of the results of the test shall be signed by the third party conducting the test and provided to the building official. Testing shall be performed at any time after creation of all penetrations of the building thermal envelope.

During testing:

  1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed, beyond the intended weatherstripping or other infiltration control measures;
  2. Dampers including exhaust, intake, makeup air, backdraft and flue dampers shall be closed, but not sealed beyond intended infiltration control measures;
  3. Interior doors, if installed at the time of the test, shall be open.
  4. Exterior doors for continuous ventilation systems and heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed;
  5. Heating and cooling systems, if installed at the time of the test, shall be turned off; and
  6. Supply and return registers, if installed at the time of the test, shall be fully open.
New wood-burning fireplaces shall have tight-fitting flue dampers or doors, and outdoor combustion air. Where using tight-fitting doors on factory-built fireplaces listed and labeled in accordance with UL 127, the doors shall be tested and listed for the fireplace. Where using tight-fitting doors on masonry fireplaces, the doors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 907.

Windows, skylights and sliding glass doors shall have an air infiltration rate of no more than 0.3 cfm per square foot (1.5 L/s/m2), and swinging doors no more than 0.5 cfm per square foot (2.6 L/s/m2), when tested according to NFRC 400 or AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 by an accredited, independent laboratory and listed and labeled by the manufacturer.

Exception: Site-built windows, skylights and doors.

In Climate Zones 3 through 8, where open combustion air ducts provide combustion air to open combustion fuel-burning appliances, the appliances and combustion air opening shall be located outside the building thermal envelope or enclosed in a room, isolated from inside the thermal envelope. Such rooms shall be sealed and insulated in accordance with the envelope requirements of Table N1102.1.2, where the walls, floors and ceilings shall meet a minimum of the basement wall R-value requirement. The door into the room shall be fully gasketed and any water lines and ducts in the room insulated in accordance with Section N1103. The combustion air duct shall be insulated where it passes through conditioned space to a minimum of R-8.

Exceptions:

  1. Direct vent appliances with both intake and exhaust pipes installed continuous to the outside.
  2. Fireplaces and stoves complying with Sections N1102.4.2 and R1006.
Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. All recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as having an air leakage rate not more than 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 283 at a 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential. All recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and the interior wall or ceiling covering.
The area-weighted average maximum fenestration U-factor permitted using tradeoffs from Section N1102.1.5 or N1105 shall be 0.48 in Climate Zones 4 and 5 and 0.40 in Climate Zones 6 through 8 for vertical fenestration, and 0.75 in Climate Zones 4 through 8 for skylights. The area-weighted average maximum fenestration SHGC permitted using tradeoffs from Section N1105 in Climate Zones 1 through 3 shall be 0.50.
At least one thermostat shall be provided for each separate heating and cooling system.
The thermostat controlling the primary heating or cooling system of the dwelling unit shall be capable of controlling the heating and cooling system on a daily schedule to maintain different temperature set points at different times of the day. This thermostat shall include the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C). The thermostat shall initially be programmed by the manufacturer with a heating temperature set point no higher than 70°F (21°C) and a cooling temperature set point no lower than 78°F (26°C).
Heat pumps having supplementary electric-resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplemental heat operation when the heat pump compressor can meet the heating load.
Hot water boilers that supply heat to the building through one- or two-pipe heating systems shall have an outdoor setback control that lowers the boiler water temperature based on the outdoor temperature.
Ducts and air handlers shall be in accordance with Sections N1103.3.1 through N1103.3.5.

Supply and return ducts in attics shall be insulated to a minimum of R-8 where 3 inches (76.2 mm) in diameter and greater and R-6 where less than 3 inches (76.2 mm) in diameter. Supply and return ducts in other portions of the building shall be insulated to a minimum of R-6 where 3 inches (76.2 mm) in diameter or greater and R-4.2 where less than 3 inches (76.2 mm) in diameter.

Exception: Ducts or portions thereof located completely inside the building thermal envelope.

Ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with either the International Mechanical Code or Section M1601.4.1 of this code, as applicable.

Duct tightness shall be verified by either of the following:

  1. Postconstruction test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 8 cfm (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area.
  2. Rough-in test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 6 cfm (113.3 L/min) per 100 ft2 (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All registers shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test. If the air handler is not installed at the time of the test. Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cfm (85 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area.

Exception: The total leakage test is not required for ducts and air handlers located entirely within the building envelope.

Air handlers shall have a manufacturer's designation for an air leakage of no more than 2 percent of the design air flow rate when tested in accordance with ASHRAE 193.

Ducts shall be pressure tested to determine air leakage by one of the following methods:

  1. Rough-in test: Total leakage shall be measured with a pressure differential of 0.1 inch w.g. (25 Pa) across the system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure if installed at the time of the test. All registers shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.
  2. Postconstruction test: Total leakage shall be measured with a pressure differential of 0.1 inch w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. Registers shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.

Exception: A duct air leakage test shall not be required where the ducts and air handlers are located entirely within the building thermal envelope.

A written report of the results of the test shall be signed by the party conducting the test and provided to the code official.

The total leakage of the ducts, where measured in accordance with Section R403.3.3, shall be as follows:

  1. Rough-in test: The total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cubic feet per minute (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area where the air handler is installed at the time of the test. Where the air handler is not installed at the time of the test, the total leakage shall be less than or equal to 3 cubic feet per minute (85 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area.
  2. Postconstruction test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cubic feet per minute (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area.
Interior building framing cavities shall be permitted to be used as return ducts or plenums.
Mechanical system piping capable of carrying fluids above 105°F (41°C) or below 55°F (13°C) shall be insulated to a minimum of R-3.
Piping insulation exposed to weather shall be protected from damage, including that caused by sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, and shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesive tape shall not be permitted.
Energy conservation measures for service hot water systems shall be in accordance with Sections N1103.5.1 through N1103.5.4.
Heated water circulation systems shall be in accordance with Section R1103.5.1.1. Heat trace temperature maintenance systems shall be in accordance with Section R1103.5.1.2. Automatic controls, temperature sensors and pumps shall be accessible. Manual controls shall be readily accessible.
Heated water circulation systems shall be provided with a circulation pump. The system return pipe shall be a dedicated return pipe or a cold water supply pipe. Gravity and thermo-syphon circulation systems shall be prohibited. Controls for circulating hot water system pumps shall start the pump based on the identification of a demand for hot water within the occupancy. The controls shall automatically turn off the pump when the water in the circulation loop is at the desired temperature and when there is no demand for hot water.
Electric heat trace systems shall comply with IEEE 515.1 or UL 515. Controls for such systems shall automatically adjust the energy input to the heat tracing to maintain the desired water temperature in the piping in accordance with the times when heated water is used in the occupancy.

A water distribution system having one or more recirculation pumps that pump water from a heated water supply pipe back to the heated water source through a cold water supply pipe shall be a demand recirculation water system. Pumps shall have controls that comply with both of the following:

  1. The control shall start the pump upon receiving a signal from the action of a user of a fixture or appliance, sensing the presence of a user of a fixture or sensing the flow of hot or tempered water to a fixture fitting or appliance.
  2. The control shall limit the temperature of the water entering the cold water piping to 104°F (40°C).

Insulation for hot water pipe with a minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of R-3 shall be applied to the following:

  1. Piping 3/4 inch (19 mm) and larger in nominal diameter.
  2. Piping serving more than one dwelling unit.
  3. Piping located outside the conditioned space.
  4. Piping from the water heater to a distribution manifold.
  5. Piping located under a floor slab.
  6. Buried piping.
  7. Supply and return piping in recirculation systems other than demand recirculation systems.
Drain water heat recovery units shall comply with CSA 55.2. Drain water heat recovery units shall be tested in accordance with CSA 55.1. Potable water-side pressure loss of drain water heat recovery units shall be less than 3 psi (20.7 kPa) for individual units connected to one or two showers. Potable water-side pressure loss of drain water heat recovery units shall be less than 2 psi (13.8 kPa) for individual units connected to three or more showers.
The building shall be provided with ventilation that meets the requirements of Section M1507 of this code or the International Mechanical Code, as applicable, or with other approved means of ventilation. Outdoor air intakes and exhausts shall have automatic or gravity dampers that close when the ventilation system is not operating.

Mechanical ventilation system fans shall meet the efficacy requirements of Table N1103.6.1.

Exception: Where mechanical ventilation fans are integral to tested and listed HVAC equipment, they shall be powered by an electronically commutated motor.

Table N1103.6.1 (R403.6.1)

Mechanical Ventilation System Fan Efficacy.

Deleted in Rhode Island.

Heating and cooling equipment shall be sized in accordance with ACCA Manual S based on building loads calculated in accordance with ACCA Manual J or other approved heating and cooling calculation methodologies. New or replacement heating and cooling equipment shall have an efficiency rating equal to or greater than the minimum required by federal law for the geographic location where the equipment is installed.
Systems serving multiple dwelling units shall comply with Sections C403 and C404 of the IECC—Commercial Provisions in lieu of Section N1103.
Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F (10°C), and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F (4.8°C).

The Energy Consumption of Pools and Permanent Spas Shall Be in Accordance With Sections N1103.10.1 Through N1103.10.3

The electric power to heaters shall be controlled by a readily accessible on-off switch that is an integral part of the heater mounted on the exterior of the heater, or external to and within 3 feet (914 mm) of the heater. Operation of such switch shall not change the setting of the heater thermostat. Such switches shall be in addition to a circuit breaker for the power to the heater. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with continuously burning ignition pilots.

Outdoor heated pools and outdoor permanent spas shall be provided with a vapor-retardant cover or other approved vapor-retardant means.

Exception: Where more than 70 percent of the energy for heating, computed over an operation season, is from site-recovered energy, such as from a heat pump or solar energy source, covers or other vapor-retardant means shall not be required.

The energy consumption of electric-powered portable spas shall be controlled by the requirements of APSP-14.
Residential swimming pools and permanent residential spas that are accessory to detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses 3 stories or less in height above grade plane and that are available only to the household and its guests shall be in accordance with APSP-15.

Not less than 75 percent of the lamps in permanently installed lighting fixtures shall be high-efficacy lamps or not less than 75 percent of the permanently installed lighting fixtures shall contain only high-efficacy lamps.

Exception: Low-voltage lighting.

Fuel gas lighting systems shall not have continuously burning pilot lights.
This section establishes criteria for compliance using simulated energy performance analysis. Such analysis shall include heating, cooling and service water heating energy only.
Compliance with this section requires that the mandatory provisions identified in Section N1101.13 be met. All supply and return ducts not completely inside the building thermal envelope shall be insulated to a minimum of R-6.

Compliance based on simulated energy performance requires that a proposed residence (proposed design) be shown to have an annual energy cost that is less than or equal to the annual energy cost of the standard reference design. Energy prices shall be taken from a source approved by the building official, such as the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration's State Energy Price and Expenditure Report. Building officials shall be permitted to require time-of-use pricing in energy cost calculations.

Exception: The energy use based on source energy expressed in Btu (J) or Btu per square foot (J/m2) of conditioned floor area shall be permitted to be substituted for the energy cost. The source energy multiplier for electricity shall be 3.16. The source energy multiplier for fuels other than electricity shall be 1.1.

Documentation of the software used for the performance design and the parameters for the building shall be in accordance with Sections N1105.4.1 through N1105.4.3.
Documentation verifying that the methods and accuracy of the compliance software tools conform to the provisions of this section shall be provided to the building official.

Compliance software tools shall generate a report that documents that the proposed design complies with Section N1105.3. A compliance report on the proposed design shall be submitted with the application for the building permit. Upon completion of the building, a compliance report based on the as-built condition of the building shall be submitted to the code official before a certificate of occupancy is issued. Batch sampling of buildings to determine energy code compliance for all buildings in the batch shall be prohibited.

Compliance reports shall include information in accordance with Sections N1105.4.2.1 and N1105.4.2.2. Where the proposed design of a building could be built on different sites where the cardinal orientation of the building on each site is different, compliance of the proposed design for the purposes of the application for the building permit shall be based on the worst-case orientation, worst-case configuration, worst-case building air leakage and worst-case duct leakage. Such worst-case parameters shall be used as inputs to the compliance software for energy analysis.

A compliance report submitted with the application for building permit shall include the following:

  1. Building street address, or other building site identification.
  2. A statement indicating that the proposed design complies with Section N1105.3.
  3. An inspection checklist documenting the building component characteristics of the proposed design as indicated in Table N1105.5.2(1). The inspection checklist shall show results for both the standard reference design and the proposed design with user inputs to the compliance software to generate the results.
  4. A site-specific energy analysis report that is in compliance with Section N1105.3.
  5. The name of the individual performing the analysis and generating the report.
  6. The name and version of the compliance software tool.

A compliance report submitted for obtaining the certificate of occupancy shall include the following:

  1. Building street address, or other building site identification.
  2. A statement indicating that the as-built building complies with Section N1105.3.
  3. A certificate indicating that the building passes the performance matrix for code compliance and listing the energy saving features of the buildings.
  4. A site-specific energy analysis report that is in compliance with Section N1105.3.
  5. The name of the individual performing the analysis and generating the report.
  6. The name and version of the compliance software tool.

The building official shall be permitted to require the following documents:

  1. Documentation of the building component characteristics of the standard reference design.
  2. A certification signed by the builder providing the building component characteristics of the proposed design as given in Table N1105.5.2(1).
  3. Documentation of the actual values used in the software calculations for the proposed design.
Calculations of the performance design shall be in accordance with Sections N1105.5.1 and N1105.5.2.
Except as specified by this section, the standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed using identical methods and techniques.

The standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed as specified by Table N1105.5.2(1). Table N1105.5.2(1) shall include, by reference, all notes contained in Table N1102.1.2.

TABLE N1105.5.2(1) [R405.5.2(1)]

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE AND PROPOSED DESIGNS

BUILDING COMPONENT STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN PROPOSED DESIGN
Above-grade walls Type: mass wall if proposed wall is mass; otherwise wood frame. As proposed
Gross area: same as proposed As proposed
U-factor: as specified in Table N1102.1.4 As proposed
Solar absorptance = 0.75 As proposed
Emittance = 0.90 As proposed
Basement and crawl space walls Type: same as proposed As proposed
Gross area: same as proposed. As proposed
U-factor: from Table N1102.1.4, with insulation layer on interior side of walls As proposed
Above-grade floors Type: wood frame. As proposed
Gross area: same as proposed As proposed
U-factor: as specified in Table N1102.1.4 As proposed
Ceilings Type: wood frame As proposed
Gross area: same as proposed As proposed
U-factor: as specified in Table N1102.1.4 As proposed
Roofs Type: composition shingle on wood sheathing. As proposed
Gross area: same as proposed. As proposed
Solar absorptance = 0.75. As proposed
Emittance = 0.90. As proposed
Attics Type: vented with aperture = 1 ft2 per 300 ft2 ceiling area As proposed
Foundations Type: same as proposed. As proposed
Foundation wall area above and below grade and soil characteristics: same as
proposed.
As proposed
Opaque doors Area: 40 ft2 . As proposed
Orientation: North. As proposed
U-factor: same as fenestration from Table N1102.1.4 As proposed
Vertical fenestration other than opaque doors Total areah =
(a) The proposed glazing area, where the proposed glazing area is less than 15 percent of the conditioned floor area
(b) 15 percent of the conditioned floor area, where the proposed glazing area is 15 percent or more of the conditioned floor area
As proposed
Orientation: equally distributed to four cardinal compass orientations
(N, E, S & W).
As proposed
U-factor: as specified in Table N1102.1.4 As proposed
SHGC: as specified in Table N1102.1.2 except that for climates with no
requirement (NR) SHGC = 0.40 shall be used.
As proposed
Interior shade fraction: 0.92-(0.21 × SHGC for the standard reference design). 0.92-(0.21 × SHGC as proposed)
External shading: none As proposed
Skylights None As proposed
Thermally isolated None As proposed
Air exchange rate Air leakage rate of 5 air changes per hour in Climate Zones 1 and 2,
and 3 air changes per hour in Climate Zones 3 through 8 at a pressure
of 0.2 inches w.g (50 Pa). The mechanical ventilation rate shall be in
addition to the air leakage rate and the same as in the proposed design,
but no greater than 0.01 × CFA + 7.5 × (Nbr + 1)
For residences that are not tested, the same air leakage rate as the standard reference design.
where: For tested residences, the measured air exchange ratea.
Nbr = number of bedrooms
Energy recovery shall not be assumed for mechanical ventilation.
The mechanical ventilation rateb shall be in addition to the air leakage rate and shall be as proposed.
Mechanical ventilation None, except where mechanical ventilation is specified by the proposed design, in which case:
Annual vent fan energy use:
kWh/yr = 0.03942 × CFA + 29.565 × (Nbr +1)
where:
Nbr = number of bedrooms
As proposed
Internal gains IGain = 17,900 + 23.8 × CFA + 4104 × Nbr (Btu/day per dwelling unit) Same as standard reference design.
Internal mass An internal mass for furniture and contents of 8 pounds per square foot of floor area. Same as standard reference design, plus any additional mass specifically designed as a thermal storage elementc but not integral to the building envelope or structure.
Structural mass For masonry floor slabs, 80 percent of floor area covered by R-2 carpet
and pad, and 20 percent of floor directly exposed to room air.
As proposed
For masonry basement walls, as proposed, but with insulation required
by Table R402.1.4 located on the interior side of the walls
As proposed
For other walls, for ceilings, floors, and interior walls, wood frame construction As proposed
Heating systemsd, e As proposed for other than electric heating without a heat pump, where the proposed design
utilizes electric heating without a heat pump the standard reference design shall be an air
source heat pump meeting the requirements of Section C403 of the IECC-Commercial Provisions.
Capacity: sized in accordance with Section N1103.7
As proposed
Cooling systemsd, f As proposed
Capacity: sized in accordance with Section N1103.7.
As proposed
Service water heatingd, e, f As proposed
Use: same as proposed design
As proposed
gal/day = 30 + (10 × Nbr)
Thermal distribution
systems
Duct insulation: From Section N1103.2.1
A thermal distribution system efficiency (DSE) of 0.88 shall be applied
to both the heating and cooling system efficiencies for all systems other
than tested duct systems. For tested duct systems, the leakage rate shall
be 4 cfm (113.3 L/min) per 100 ft2 (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area
at a pressure of differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa).
As tested or as specified in Table R405.5.2(2) if not tested. Duct insulation shall be as proposed.
Thermostat Type: Manual, cooling temperature setpoint = 75°F;
Heating temperature setpoint = 72°F
Same as standard reference

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.93 m2, 1 British thermal unit = 1055 J, 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kg/m2, 1 gallon (US) = 3.785 L, °C = (°F-32)/1.8, 1 degree = 0.79 rad.


  1. Where required by the code official, testing shall be conducted by an approved party. Hourly calculations as specified in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, or the equivalent shall be used to determine the energy loads resulting from infiltration.
  2. The combined air exchange rate for infiltration and mechanical ventilation shall be determined in accordance with Equation 43 of 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, page 26.24 and the "Whole-house Ventilation" provisions of 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, page 26.19 for intermittent mechanical ventilation.
  3. Thermal storage element shall mean a component not part of the floors, walls or ceilings that is part of a passive solar system, and that provides thermal storage such as enclosed water columns, rock beds, or phase-change containers. A thermal storage element must be in the same room as fenestration that faces within 15 degrees (0.26 rad) of true south, or must be connected to such a room with pipes or ducts that allow the element to be actively charged.
  4. For a proposed design with multiple heating, cooling or water heating systems using different fuel types, the applicable standard reference design system capacities and fuel types shall be weighted in accordance with their respective loads as calculated by accepted engineering practice for each equipment and fuel type present.
  5. For a proposed design without a proposed heating system, a heating system with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency shall be assumed for both the standard reference design and proposed design.
  6. For a proposed design home without a proposed cooling system, an electric air conditioner with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency shall be assumed for both the standard reference design and the proposed design.
  7. For a proposed design with a nonstorage-type water heater, a 40-gallon storage-type water heater with the prevailing federal minimum energy factor for the same fuel as the predominant heating fuel type shall be assumed. For the case of a proposed design without a proposed water heater, a 40-gallon storage-type water heater with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency for the same fuel as the predominant heating fuel type shall be assumed for both the proposed design and standard reference design.
  8. For residences with conditioned basements, R-2 and R-4 residences, and for townhouses, the following formula shall be used to determine glazing area:

    where:

    AF = Total glazing area.

    As = Standard reference design total glazing area.

    FA = (Above-grade thermal boundary gross wall area)/(above-grade boundary wall area + 0.5 × below-grade boundary wall area).

    F = (above-grade thermal boundary wall area)/(above-grade thermal boundary wall area + common wall area) or 0.56, whichever is greater.

    and where:

    Thermal boundary wall is any wall that separates conditioned space from unconditioned space or ambient conditions.

    Above-grade thermal boundary wall is any thermal boundary wall component not in contact with soil.

    Below-grade boundary wall is any thermal boundary wall in soil contact.

    Common wall area is the area of walls shared with an adjoining dwelling unit.

    L and CFA are in the same units.

TABLE N1105.5.2(2) [R405.5.2(2)]

DEFAULT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EFFICIENCIES FOR PROPOSED DESIGNSa

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND CONDITION FORCED AIR SYSTEMS HYDRONIC SYSTEMSb
Distribution system components located in unconditioned space 0.95
Untested distribution systems entirely located in conditioned spacec 0.88 1
"Ductless" systemsd 1

For SI: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 L/s, 1 square foot = 0.093m2, 1 pound per square inch = 6895 Pa, 1 inch water gauge = 1250 Pa.

  1. Default values given by this table are for untested distribution systems, which must still meet minimum requirements for duct system insulation.
  2. Hydronic systems shall mean those systems that distribute heating and cooling energy directly to individual spaces using liquids pumped through closed-loop piping and that do not depend on ducted, forced airflow to maintain space temperatures.
  3. Entire system in conditioned space shall mean that no component of the distribution system, including the air handler unit, is located outside of the conditioned space.
  4. Ductless systems shall be allowed to have forced airflow across a coil but shall not have any ducted airflow external to the manufacturer's air handler enclosure.
Calculation software, where used, shall be in accordance with Sections N1105.6.1 through N1105.6.3.

Calculation procedures used to comply with this section shall be software tools capable of calculating the annual energy consumption of all building elements that differ between the standard reference design and the proposed design and shall include the following capabilities:

  1. Computer generation of the standard reference design using only the input for the proposed design. The calculation procedure shall not allow the user to directly modify the building component characteristics of the standard reference design.
  2. Calculation of whole-building (as a single zone) sizing for the heating and cooling equipment in the standard reference design residence in accordance with Section N1103.6.
  3. Calculations that account for the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures and part-load ratios on the performance of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning equipment based on climate and equipment sizing.
  4. Printed building official inspection checklist listing each of the proposed design component characteristics from Table N1105.5.2(1) determined by the analysis to provide compliance, along with their respective performance ratings (R-value, U-factor, SHGC, HSPF, AFUE, SEER, EF are some examples).
Performance analysis tools meeting the applicable provisions of Section N1105 shall be permitted to be approved. Tools are permitted to be approved based on meeting a specified threshold for a jurisdiction. The building official shall be permitted to approve tools for a specified application or limited scope.
When calculations require input values not specified by Sections N1102, N1103, N1104 and N1105, those input values shall be taken from an approved source.
This section establishes criteria for compliance using an Energy Rating Index (ERI) analysis.

Compliance with this section requires that the mandatory provisions identified in Sections N1101.13 through N1104 identified as "mandatory" and Section N1103.5.3 be met. The building thermal envelope shall be greater than or equal to levels of efficiency and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient in Table 402.1.1 or 402.1.3 of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code.

Exception: Supply and return ducts not completely inside the building thermal envelope shall be insulated to a minimum of R-6.

The Energy Rating Index (ERI) shall be a numerical integer value that is based on a linear scale constructed such that the ERI reference design has an Index value of 100 and a residential building that uses no net purchased energy has an Index value of 0. Each integer value on the scale shall represent a 1 percent change in the total energy use of the rated design relative to the total energy use of the ERI reference design. The ERI shall consider all energy used in the residential building.

The ERI reference design shall be configured such that it meets the minimum requirements of the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code prescriptive requirements.

The proposed residential building shall be shown to have an annual total normalized modified load less than or equal to the annual total loads of the ERI reference design.

Compliance based on an ERI analysis requires that the rated design be shown to have an ERI less than or equal to the appropriate value listed in Table N1106.4 when compared to the ERI reference design.

TABLE N1106.4 (R406.4)

MAXIMUM ENERGY RATING INDEX

CLIMATE ZONE ENERGY RATING INDEX
1 52
2 52
3 51
4 54
5 55
6 54
7 53
8 53
Verification of compliance with Section N1106 shall be completed by an approved third party.
Documentation of the software used to determine the ERI and the parameters for the residential building shall be in accordance with Sections N1106.6.1 through N1106.6.3.
Documentation verifying that the methods and accuracy of the compliance software tools conform to the provisions of this section shall be provided to the code official.

Compliance software tools shall generate a report that documents that the ERI of the rated design complies with Sections N1106.3 and N1106.4. The compliance documentation shall include the following information:

  1. Address or other identification of the residential building.
  2. An inspection checklist documenting the building component characteristics of the rated design. The inspection checklist shall show results for both the ERI reference design and the rated design, and shall document all inputs entered by the user necessary to reproduce the results.
  3. Name of individual completing the compliance report.
  4. Name and version of the compliance software tool.

Exception: Multiple orientations. Where an otherwise identical building model is offered in multiple orientations, compliance for any orientation shall be permitted by documenting that the building meets the performance requirements in each of the four (north, east, south and west) cardinal orientations.

The code official shall be permitted to require the following documents:

  1. Documentation of the building component characteristics of the ERI reference design.
  2. A certification signed by the builder providing the building component characteristics of the rated design.
  3. Documentation of the actual values used in the software calculations for the rated design.
Calculation software, where used, shall be in accordance with Sections N1106.7.1 through N1106.7.3.

Calculation procedures used to comply with this section shall be software tools capable of calculating the ERI as described in Section N1106.3, and shall include the following capabilities:

  1. Computer generation of the ERI reference design using only the input for the rated design.

    The calculation procedure shall not allow the user to directly modify the building component characteristics of the ERI reference design.

  2. Calculation of whole-building, as a single zone, sizing for the heating and cooling equipment in the ERI reference design residence in accordance with Section N1103.7.
  3. Calculations that account for the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures and part-load ratios on the performance of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning equipment based on climate and equipment sizing.
  4. Printed code official inspection checklist listing each of the rated design component characteristics determined by the analysis to provide compliance, along with their respective performance ratings.
Performance analysis tools meeting the applicable sections of Section N1106 shall be approved. Tools are permitted to be approved based on meeting a specified threshold for a jurisdiction. The code official shall approve tools for a specified application or limited scope.
When calculations require input values not specified by Sections N1102, N1103, N1104 and N1105, those input values shall be taken from an approved source.
The provisions of Sections N1107 through N1111 shall control the alteration, repair, addition and change of occupancy of existing buildings and structures.
Additions, alterations, or repairs to an existing building, building system or portion thereof shall comply with Section N1108, N1109 or N1110. Unaltered portions of the existing building or building supply system shall not be required to comply with this chapter.
Except as specified in this chapter, this code shall not be used to require the removal, alteration or abandonment of, nor prevent the continued use and maintenance of, an existing building or building system lawfully in existence at the time of adoption of this code.
Buildings and structures, and parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. Devices and systems that are required by this code shall be maintained in conformance with the code edition under which installed. The owner or the owner's authorized agent shall be responsible for the maintenance of buildings and structures. The requirements of this chapter shall not provide the basis for removal or abrogation of energy conservation, fire protection and safety systems and devices in existing structures.
Alterations, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy to, or relocation of, existing buildings and structures shall comply with the provisions for alterations, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy or relocation, respectively, in this code and the International Building Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, International Plumbing Code, International Property Maintenance Code, International Private Sewage Disposal Code and NFPA 70.
Except as otherwise required or permitted by this code, materials permitted by the applicable code for new construction shall be used. Like materials shall be permitted for repairs, provided no hazard to life, health or property is created. Hazardous materials shall not be used where the code for new construction would not permit their use in buildings of similar occupancy, purpose and location.
No provision of this chapter relating to the construction, repair, alteration, restoration and movement of structures, and change of occupancy shall be mandatory for historic buildings provided a report has been submitted to the code official and signed by the owner, a registered design professional, or a representative of the State Historic Preservation Office or the historic preservation authority having jurisdiction, demonstrating that compliance with that provision would threaten, degrade or destroy the historic form, fabric or function of the building.
Additions to an existing building, building system or portion thereof shall conform to the provisions of this chapter as they relate to new construction without requiring the unaltered portion of the existing building or building system to comply with this chapter. Additions shall not create an unsafe or hazardous condition or overload existing building systems. An addition shall be deemed to comply with this chapter where the addition alone complies, where the existing building and addition comply with this chapter as a single building, or where the building with the addition uses no more energy than the existing building. Additions shall be in accordance with Section N1108.1.1 or N1108.1.2.

New building envelope assemblies that are part of the addition shall comply with Sections N1102.1, N1102.2, N1102.3.1 through N1102.3.5, and N1102.4.

Exception: Where nonconditioned space is changed to conditioned space, the building envelope of the addition shall comply where the UA, as determined in Section N1102.1.5, of the existing building and the addition, and any alterations that are part of the project, is less than or equal to UA generated for the existing building.

New heating, cooling and duct systems that are part of the addition shall comply with Sections N1103.1, N1103.2, N1103.3, N1103.5 and N1103.6.

Exception: Where ducts from an existing heating and cooling system are extended to an addition, duct systems with less than 40 linear feet (12.19 m) in unconditioned spaces shall not be required to be tested in accordance with Section N1103.2.2.

New service hot water systems that are part of the addition shall comply with Section N1103.4.
New lighting systems that are part of the addition shall comply with Section N1104.1.
Where nonconditioned space is changed to conditioned space, the addition shall comply where the annual energy cost or energy use of the addition and the existing building, and any alterations that are part of the project, is less than or equal to the annual energy cost of the existing building when modeled in accordance with Section N1105. The addition and any alterations that are part of the project shall comply with Section N1105 in its entirety.

Alterations to any building or structure shall comply with the requirements of the code for new construction. Alterations shall be such that the existing building or structure is no less conforming with the provisions of this chapter than the existing building or structure was prior to the alteration.

Alterations to an existing building, building system or portion thereof shall conform to the provisions of this chapter as they relate to new construction without requiring the unaltered portions of the existing building or building system to comply with this chapter. Alterations shall not create an unsafe or hazardous condition or overload existing building systems. Alterations shall be such that the existing building or structure uses no more energy than the existing building or structure prior to the alteration. Alterations to existing buildings shall comply with Sections N1109.1.1 through N1109.2.

Building envelope assemblies that are part of the alteration shall comply with Section N1102.1.2 or N1102.1.4, Sections N1102.2.1 through N1102.2.12, N1102.3.1, N1102.3.2, N1102.4.3 and N1102.4.5.

Exception: The following alterations need not comply with the requirements for new construction provided the energy use of the building is not increased:

  1. Storm windows installed over existing fenestration.
  2. Existing ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction provided that these cavities are filled with insulation.
  3. Construction where the existing roof, wall or floor cavity is not exposed.
  4. Roof recover.
  5. Roofs without insulation in the cavity and where the sheathing or insulation is exposed during reroofing shall be insulated either above or below the sheathing.
  6. Surface applied window film installed on existing single pane fenestration assemblies to reduce solar heat gain provided the code does not require the glazing or fenestration assembly to be replaced.
Where some or all of an existing fenestration unit is replaced with a new fenestration product, including sash and glazing, the replacement fenestration unit shall meet the applicable requirements for U-factor and SHGC as provided in Table N1102.1.2.

New heating, cooling and duct systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Sections N1103.1, N1103.2, N1103.3 and N1103.6.

Exception: Where ducts from an existing heating and cooling system are extended, duct systems with less than 40 linear feet (12.19 m) in unconditioned spaces shall not be required to be tested in accordance with Section N1103.3.3.

New service hot water systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Section N1103.5.

New lighting systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Section N1104.1.

Exception: Alterations that replace less than 50 percent of the luminaires in a space, provided that such alterations do not increase the installed interior lighting power.

Any nonconditioned or low energy space that is altered to become conditioned space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this chapter.

Exception: Where the simulated performance option in Section N1105 is used to comply with this section, the annual energy cost of the proposed design is permitted to be 110 percent of the annual energy cost otherwise allowed by Section N1105.3.

Buildings, structures and parts thereof shall be repaired in compliance with Section N1107.3 and this section. Work on nondamaged components necessary for the required repair of damaged components shall be considered part of the repair and shall not be subject to the requirements for alterations in this chapter. Routine maintenance required by Section N1107.3, ordinary repairs exempt from permit, and abatement of wear due to normal service conditions shall not be subject to the requirements for repairs in this section.

For the purposes of this code, the following shall be considered repairs:

  1. Glass-only replacements in an existing sash and frame.
  2. Roof repairs.
  3. Repairs where only the bulb and/or ballast within the existing luminaires in a space are replaced provided that the replacement does not increase the installed interior lighting power.
Spaces undergoing a change in occupancy that would result in an increase in demand for either fossil fuel or electrical energy shall comply with this code.

Any space that is converted to a dwelling unit or portion thereof from another use or occupancy shall comply with this code.

Exception: Where the simulated performance option in Section N1105 is used to comply with this section, the annual energy cost of the proposed design is permitted to be 110 percent of the annual energy cost otherwise allowed by Section N1105.3.

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