NFPA 101, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

This annex is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document but is included for informational purposes only. This annex is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document but is included for informational purposes only.

NFPA 30, NFPA 45, NFPA 54, NFPA 55, NFPA 58, NFPA 400, and NFPA 495 represent a comprehensive set of requirements for protection against hazardous material emergencies appropriate to the level of safety afforded by the Life Safety Code.
Where a conflict exists between applicable requirements, an analysis should be made and the proper applicable requirement should be implemented or conformed to subject to the approval of the AHJ. [400:A.4.4]
The safe handling, collection, and disposal of hazardous waste can be accomplished only if the physical, chemical, and hazardous properties of its components are known and that information is properly applied. [400:A.4.5]
NFPA 30, NFPA 45, NFPA 55, and NFPA 400 include maximum allowable quantities (MAQs) and the control area concept and limit the MAQs within each control area. An established set of requirements apply to control areas with less than the MAQs. Control areas with hazardous materials quantities above the MAQs require additional controls or commensurate safeguards and features. NFPA 45 uses the term laboratory unit, which correlates to and is similar to control areas. From A.5.1 of NFPA 400, "The purpose is to permit limited amounts of hazardous contents in occupancies having minimum controls without triggering the more restrictive Protection Level 1 through Protection Level 4 building requirements."
The following scope and exclusions are provided from NFPA 30, NFPA 45, NFPA 54, NFPA 55, NFPA 58, NFPA 400, and NFPA 495 to clarify the applicability of each code. Refer to individual documents for additional definitions and requirements.
Subsection 1.1.1 of NFPA 30 states: "This code shall apply to the storage, handling, and use of flammable and combustible liquids, including waste liquids."
Subsection 1.1.2 of NFPA 30 states: "This code shall not apply to the following:
  1. Any liquid that has a melting point of 100°F (37.8°C) or greater
  2. Any liquid that does not meet the criteria for fluidity given in the definition of liquid in [NFPA 30] Chapter 3 and in the provisions of [NFPA 30] Chapter 4
  3. Any cryogenic fluid or liquefied gas, as defined in Chapter 3
  4. Any liquid that does not have a flash point, but which is capable of burning under certain conditions
  5. Any aerosol product
  6. Any mist, spray, or foam
  7. Transportation of flammable and combustible liquids as governed by the U.S. Department of Transportation
  8. Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected with oil-burning equipment
  9. Use and installation of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers"
Subsection 1.1.1 of NFPA 45 states: "This code shall apply to laboratory buildings, laboratory units, and laboratory work areas whether located above or below grade in which chemicals, as defined, are handled or stored."
Subsection 1.1.2 of NFPA 45 states: "This code shall not apply to the following:
  1. Laboratories for which the following conditions apply:
    1. Laboratory units that contain less than or equal to 4 L (1 gal) of flammable or combustible liquid
    2. Laboratory units that contain less than 2.2 standard m3 (75 scf) of flammable gas, not including piped-in low-pressure utility gas installed in accordance with NFPA 54
  2. Laboratories that are pilot plants
  3. Laboratories that handle only chemicals with a hazard rating of 0 or 1, as defined by NFPA 704, for all of the following: health, flammability, and instability
  4. Laboratories that are primarily manufacturing plants
  5. Incidental testing facilities
  6. Physical, electronic, instrument, laser, or similar laboratories that use chemicals only for incidental purposes, such as cleaning
  7. Hazards associated with radioactive materials, as covered by NFPA 801
  8. Laboratories that work only with explosive material, as covered by NFPA 495"
Paragraph of NFPA 54 states: "This code is a safety code that shall apply to the installation of fuel gas piping systems, appliances, equipment, and related accessories as shown in [NFPA 54] through

(A) Coverage of piping systems shall extend from the point of delivery to the appliance connections. For other than undiluted liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas) systems, the point of delivery shall be the outlet of the service meter assembly or the outlet of the service regulator or service shutoff valve where no meter is provided. For undiluted LP-Gas systems, the point of delivery shall be considered to be the outlet of the final pressure regulator, exclusive of line gas regulators where no meter is installed. Where a meter is installed, the point of delivery shall be the outlet of the meter.

(B) The maximum operating pressure shall be 125 psi (862 kPa).

Exception No. 1: Piping systems for gas-air mixtures within the flammable range are limited to a maximum pressure of 10 psi (69 kPa).

Exception No. 2: LP-Gas piping systems are limited to 20 psi (140 kPa), except as provided in 5.5.1(6).

(C) Requirements for piping systems shall include design, materials, components, fabrication, assembly, installation, testing, inspection, operation, and maintenance.

(D) Requirements for appliances, equipment, and related accessories shall include installation, combustion, and ventilation air and venting."

Subsection 1.1.2 of NFPA 55 states: "This code shall not apply to the following items (reference standards for some of which appear in Annex L):
  1. Portable LP-Gas appliances and equipment of all types that are not connected to a fixed fuel piping system
  2. Installation of appliances such as brooders, dehydrators, dryers, and irrigation equipment used for agricultural purposes
  3. Raw material (feedstock) applications except for piping to special atmosphere generators
  4. Oxygen-fuel gas cutting and welding systems
  5. Industrial gas applications using such gases as acetylene and acetylenic compounds, hydrogen, ammonia, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and nitrogen
  6. Petroleum refineries, pipeline compressor or pumping stations, loading terminals, compounding plants, refinery tank farms, and natural gas processing plants
  7. Large integrated chemical plants or portions of such plants where flammable or combustible liquids or gases are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemical reactions
  8. LP-Gas installations at utility gas plants
  9. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) installations
  10. Fuel gas piping in electric utility power plants
  11. Proprietary items of equipment, apparatus, or instruments such as gas generating sets, compressors, and calorimeters
  12. LP-Gas equipment for vaporization, gas mixing, and gas manufacturing
  13. LP-Gas piping for buildings under construction or renovations that is not to become part of the permanent building piping system — that is, temporary fixed piping for building heat
  14. Installation of LP-Gas systems for railroad switch heating
  15. Installation of LP-Gas and compressed natural gas (CNG) systems on vehicles
  16. Gas piping, meters, gas pressure regulators, and other appurtenances used by the serving gas supplier in distribution of gas, other than undiluted LP-Gas
  17. Building design and construction, except as specified herein
  18. Fuel gas systems on recreational vehicles manufactured in accordance with NFPA 1192
  19. Fuel gas systems using hydrogen as a fuel
  20. Construction of appliances"
Section 1.1 of NFPA 58 states: "This code shall apply to the storage, handling, transportation, and use of liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas)."
Subsection 1.3.2 of NFPA 58 states: "This code shall not apply to the following:
  1. Frozen ground containers and underground storage in caverns, including associated piping and appurtenances used for the storage of LP-Gas
  2. Natural gas processing plants, refineries, and petrochemical plants
  3. LP-Gas at utility gas plants (including refrigerated storage) (see NFPA 59)
  4. Chemical plants where specific approval of construction and installation plans is obtained from the authority having jurisdiction
  5. LP-Gas used with oxygen
  6. The portions of LP-Gas systems covered by NFPA 54 (ANSI Z223.1), where NFPA 54 (ANSI Z223.1) is adopted, used, or enforced
  7. Transportation by air (including use in hot air balloons), rail, or water under the jurisdiction of the DOT
  8. Marine fire protection
  9. Refrigeration cycle equipment and LP-Gas used as a refrigerant in a closed cycle
  10. The manufacturing requirements for recreational vehicle LP-Gas systems that are addressed by NFPA 1192
  11. Propane vehicle fuel dispensers located at multiple fuel refueling stations (see NFPA 30A)"
Subsection 1.1.2 of NFPA 400 states: "This code shall apply to the storage, use, and handling of the following hazardous materials in all occupancies and facilities:
  1. Ammonium nitrate solids and liquids
  2. Corrosive solids and liquids
  3. Flammable solids
  4. Organic peroxide formulations
  5. Oxidizer — solids and liquids
  6. Pyrophoric solids and liquids
  7. Toxic and highly toxic solids and liquids
  8. Unstable (reactive) solids and liquids
  9. Water-reactive solids and liquids
  10. Compressed gases and cryogenic fluids as included within the context of NFPA 55"
Paragraph of NFPA 400 states: "The quantity and arrangement limits in this code shall not apply to facilities that use ammonium perchlorate in the commercial manufacture of large-scale rocket motors."
Paragraph of NFPA 400 states: "This code shall not apply to the following:
  1. Storage or use of hazardous materials for individual use on the premises of one- and two-family dwellings
  2. Explosives or blasting agents, which are regulated by NFPA 495, and display fireworks, 1.3 G, which are regulated by NFPA 1124
  3. Refrigerants and refrigerant oil contained within closed cycle refrigeration systems complying with the fire code and the mechanical code adopted by the jurisdiction
  4. High hazard contents stored or used in farm buildings or similar occupancies and in remote locations for on-premises agricultural use
  5. Corrosive materials in stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power or uninterrupted power supply, or similar purposes, in accordance with NFPA 1
  6. Aerosols complying with NFPA 30B
  7. Consumer fireworks, 1.4G, complying with NFPA 1124
  8. Corrosive materials displayed in original packaging in mercantile occupancies and intended for personal or household use or as building materials
  9. Flammable and combustible liquids having no other physical or health hazard properties covered by this code
  10. Organic peroxide formulations that are capable of detonation as manufactured or when unpackaged or in authorized shipping containers under conditions of fire exposure, when stored, manufactured, or used in accordance with NFPA 495
  11. Combustible metals, as defined in NFPA 484
  12. LP-Gas complying with NFPA 58 or NFPA 59
  13. When approved, materials that have been satisfactorily demonstrated not to present a potential danger to public health, safety, or welfare, based upon the quantity or condition of storage
  14. The off-site transportation of hazardous materials when in accordance with Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations"
Section 1.1 of NFPA 495 states: "This code shall apply to the manufacture, transportation, storage, sale, and use of explosive materials."
Subsections 1.3.1 through 1.3.6 of NFPA 495 provide the following exemptions:

1.3.1: This code shall not apply to the transportation of explosive materials where under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). It shall apply, however, to state and municipal supervision of compliance with U.S. DOT 49 CFR 100-199.

1.3.2: This code shall not apply to the transportation and use of military explosives by federal or state military agencies, nor shall it apply to the transportation and use of explosive materials by federal, state, or municipal agencies while engaged in normal or emergency performance of duties.

1.3.3: This code shall not apply to the manufacture of explosive materials under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). This code also shall not apply to the distribution or storage of explosive materials by military agencies of the United States, nor shall it apply to arsenals, navy yards, depots, or other establishments owned or operated by, or on behalf of, the United States.

1.3.4: This code shall not apply to pyrotechnics such as flares, fuses, and railway torpedoes. It also shall not apply to fireworks and pyrotechnic special effects as defined in NFPA 1123, NFPA 1124, and NFPA 1126.

1.3.5: This code shall not applv to model and high-power rocketry as defined in NFPA 1122, NFPA 1125, and NFPA 1127.

1.3.6: This code shall not apply to the use of explosive materials in medicines and medicinal agents in the forms prescribed by the United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary.

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