The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.
About this appendix: Appendix E regulates the installation, relocation, maintenance and repair of manufactured housing, including mobile homes. It addresses permits, fees, inspections, utility service, location on a lot and foundation systems. This appendix is not intended to regulate the design and construction of those portions of manufactured housing or mobile homes that are above the foundation system except where manufactured housing or mobile homes are moved or altered. Federal standards regulate those portions of manufactured housing and mobile homes that are above the foundation system.
- Construction, alteration and repair of any foundation system that is necessary to provide for the installation of a manufactured home unit.
- Construction, installation, addition, alteration, repair or maintenance of the building service equipment that is necessary for connecting manufactured homes to water, fuel, or power supplies and sewage systems.
- Alterations, additions or repairs to existing manufactured homes. The construction, alteration, moving, demolition, repair and use of accessory buildings and structures, and their building service equipment, shall comply with the requirements of the codes adopted by this jurisdiction.
These provisions shall not be applicable to the design and construction of manufactured homes and shall not be deemed to authorize either modifications or additions to manufactured homes where otherwise prohibited.
- Be certified under the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. Section 5401, et seq.).
- Be designed and constructed to comply with the applicable provisions of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. Section 5401, et seq.).
- Be designed and constructed in compliance with the code adopted by this jurisdiction.
Exception: A structural separation need not be provided where structural calculations are provided to justify the omission of such separation.
Alterations or repairs may be made to any manufactured home or to its building service equipment without requiring the existing manufactured home or its building service equipment to comply with all the requirements of these provisions, provided that the alteration or repair conforms to that required for new construction, and provided further that hazard to life, health or safety will not be created by such additions, alterations or repairs.
Alterations or repairs to an existing manufactured home, which are nonstructural and do not adversely affect any structural member or any part of the building or structure having required fire protection, shall be made with materials equivalent to those of which the manufactured home structure is constructed, subject to approval by the building official.
Exception: The installation or replacement of glass shall be required for new installations.
Minor additions, alterations and repairs to existing building service equipment installations may be made in accordance with the codes in effect at the time the original installation was made, subject to the approval of the building official, and provided that such additions, alterations and repairs will not cause the existing building service equipment to become unsafe, insanitary or overloaded.
Manufactured homes that are in existence at the time of the adoption of these provisions shall have their existing use or occupancy continued if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the adoption of these provisions, provided that such continued use is not dangerous to life, health and safety.
The use or occupancy of any existing manufactured home shall not be changed unless evidence satisfactory to the building official is provided to show compliance with all applicable provisions of the codes adopted by this jurisdiction. Upon any change in use or occupancy, the manufactured home shall cease to be classified as such within the intent of these provisions.
For the purpose of these provisions, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives shall be construed as defined or specified herein.
BUILDING SERVICE EQUIPMENT. Refers to the plumbing, mechanical and electrical equipment, including piping, wiring, fixtures and other accessories that provide sanitation, lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, fire protection and facilities essential for the habitable occupancy of a manufactured home or accessory building or structure for its designated use and occupancy.
MANUFACTURED HOME. A structure transportable in one or more sections that, in the traveling mode, is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length or, where erected on site, is 320 or more square feet (30 m2), and is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include any structure that meets all of the requirements of this paragraph, except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and complies with the standards established under this title.
For mobile homes built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compliance with the Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, ANSI 119.1, in effect at the time of manufacture, is required. For the purpose of these provisions, a mobile home shall be considered to be a manufactured home.
MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION. Construction that is required for the installation of a manufactured home, including the construction of the foundation system, required structural connections thereto and the installation of on-site water, gas, electrical and sewer systems and connections thereto that are necessary for the normal operation of the manufactured home.
PRIVATELY OWNED (NONRENTAL) LOT. A parcel of real estate outside of a manufactured home rental community (park) where the land and the manufactured home to be installed thereon are held in common ownership.
A permit shall be obtained to alter, remodel, repair or add accessory buildings or structures to a manufactured home subsequent to its initial installation. Permit issuance and fees therefor shall be in conformance to the codes applicable to the type of work involved.
To obtain a manufactured home installation permit, the applicant shall first file an application, in writing, on a form furnished by the building official for that purpose. At the option of the building official, every such application shall:
- Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which application is made.
- Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street address or similar description that will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed building or work.
- Indicate the use or occupancy for which the proposed work is intended.
- Be accompanied by plans, diagrams, computations and specifications, and other data as required in Section AE302.2.
- Be accompanied by a soil investigation where required by Section AE502.2.
- State the valuation of any new building or structure; or any addition, remodeling or alteration to an existing building.
- Be signed by the permittee, or permittee's authorized agent, who may be required to submit evidence to indicate such authority.
- Give other data and information where required by the building official.
Plans, engineering calculations, diagrams and other data as required by the building official shall be submitted in not less than two sets with each application for a permit. The building official has the authority to require plans, computations and specifications to be prepared and designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such.
Where unusual site conditions do not exist, the building official has the authority to accept approved standard foundation plans and details in conjunction with the manufacturer's approved installation instructions without requiring the submittal of engineering calculations.
The application, plans and specifications, and other data filed by an applicant for permit shall be reviewed by the building official. Such plans may be reviewed by other departments of this jurisdiction to verify compliance with any applicable laws under their jurisdiction. If the building official finds that the work described in an application for a permit, and the plans, specifications and other data filed therewith, conform to the requirements of these provisions, and other data filed therewith conform to the requirements of these provisions and other pertinent codes, laws and ordinances, and that the fees specified in Section AE304 have been paid, the building official shall issue a permit therefor to the applicant.
Upon issuing a permit where plans are required, the building official shall endorse in writing or stamp the plans and specifications APPROVED. Such approved plans and specifications shall not be changed, modified or altered without authorization from the building official, and all work shall be done in accordance with the approved plans.
The issuance of a permit or approval of plans and specifications shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of these provisions or other pertinent codes of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. A permit presuming to give authority to violate or cancel these provisions shall not be valid.
The issuance of a permit based on plans, specifications and other data shall not prevent the building official from thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said plans, specifications and other data, or from preventing building operations being carried on thereunder when in violation of these provisions or of any other ordinances of this jurisdiction.
Every permit issued by the building official under these provisions shall expire by limitation and become null and void if the work authorized by such permit is not commenced within 180 days from the date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned at any time after the work is commenced for a period of 180 days. Before such work can be recommenced, a new permit shall be first obtained, and the fee therefor shall be one-half the amount required for a new permit for such work, provided that changes have not been made or will not be made in the original plans and specifications for such work, and provided further that such suspension or abandonment has not exceeded 1 year. In order to renew action on a permit after expiration, the permittee shall pay a new full permit fee.
Any permittee holding an unexpired permit may apply for an extension of the time within which work shall commence under that permit where the permittee is unable to commence work within the time required by this section for good and satisfactory reasons. The building official has the authority to extend the time for action by the permittee for a period not exceeding 180 days upon written request by the permittee showing that circumstances beyond the control of the permittee have prevented action from being taken. A permit shall not be extended more than once.
Where permit fees are to be based on the value or valuation of the work to be performed, the determination of value or valuation under these provisions shall be made by the building official. The value to be used shall be the total value of all work required for the manufactured home installation plus the total value of all work required for the construction of accessory buildings and structures for which the permit is issued, as well as all finish work, painting, roofing, electrical, plumbing, heating, air conditioning, elevators, fire-extinguishing systems and any other permanent equipment that is a part of the accessory building or structure. The value of the manufactured home itself shall not be included.
The building official has the authority to authorize the refunding of not more than 80 percent of the plan review fee paid where an application for a permit for which a plan review fee has been paid is withdrawn or canceled before any plan reviewing is done.
The building official shall not authorize the refunding of any fee paid, except upon written application by the original permittee not later than 180 days after the date of the fee payment.
All construction or work for which a manufactured home installation permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official, and certain types of construction shall have continuous inspection by special inspectors as specified in Section AE306. The building official has the authority to require a survey of the lot to verify that the structure is located in accordance with the approved plans.
It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to be accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the building official nor this jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.
It shall be the duty of the person doing the work authorized by a manufactured home installation permit to notify the building official that such work is ready for inspection. The building official has the authority to require that every request for inspection be filed not less than one working day before such inspection is desired. Such request shall be in writing or by telephone at the option of the building official.
It shall be the duty of the person requesting any inspections required, either by these provisions or other applicable codes, to provide access to and means for proper inspection of such work.
Reinforcing steel or structural framework of any part of any manufactured home foundation system shall not be covered or concealed without first obtaining the approval of the building official. The building official, upon notification from the permit holder or the permit holder's agent, shall make the following inspections and shall either approve that portion of the construction as completed or shall notify the permit holder or the permit holder's agent wherein the same fails to comply with these provisions or other applicable codes:
- Foundation inspection: To be made after excavations for footings are completed and any required reinforcing steel is in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation shall be on the job, except where concrete from a central mixing plant (commonly termed "transit mixed") is to be used, the concrete materials need not be on the job. Where the foundation is to be constructed of approved treated wood, requirements for additional framing inspections shall be subject to the evaluation of the building official.
- Concrete slab or under-floor inspection: To be made after all in-slab or under-floor building service equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary equipment items are in place but before any concrete is poured or the manufactured home is installed.
- Anchorage inspection: To be made after the manufactured home has been installed and permanently anchored.
A manufactured home shall be installed on a foundation system designed and constructed to sustain within the stress limitations specified in this code and all loads specified in this code.
Exception: Where specifically authorized by the building official, foundation and anchorage systems that are constructed in accordance with the methods specified in Section AE600 of these provisions, or in the HUD, Permanent Foundations for Manufactured Housing, 1984 Edition, Draft, shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this appendix.
The classification of the soil at each manufactured home site shall be determined where required by the building official. The building official has the authority to require that the determination be made by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to conduct soil investigations.
The classification shall be based on observation and any necessary tests of the materials disclosed by borings or excavations made in appropriate locations. Additional studies may be necessary to evaluate soil strength, the effect of moisture variation on soil-bearing capacity, compressibility and expansiveness.
Where required by the building official, the soil classification design-bearing capacity and lateral pressure shall be shown on the plans.
Footings and foundations, unless otherwise specifically provided, shall be constructed of materials specified by this code for the intended use and in all cases shall extend below the frost line. Footings of concrete and masonry shall be of solid material. Foundations supporting untreated wood shall extend not less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the adjacent finish grade. Footings shall have a minimum depth below finished grade of 12 inches (305 mm) unless a greater depth is recommended by a foundation investigation.
A minimum clearance of 12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained beneath the lowest member of the floor support framing system. Clearances from the bottom of wood floor joists or perimeter joists shall be as specified in this code.
Under-floor spaces shall be ventilated with openings as specified in this code. If combustion air for one or more heat-producing appliance is taken from within the under-floor spaces, ventilation shall be adequate for proper appliance operation.
Under-floor access openings shall be provided. Such openings shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in any dimension and not less than 3 square feet (0.279 m2) in area, and shall be located so that any water supply and sewer drain connections located under the manufactured home are accessible.
Skirting and permanent perimeter enclosures shall be installed only where specifically required by other laws or ordinances. Skirting shall be of material suitable for exterior exposure and contact with the ground. Permanent perimeter enclosures shall be constructed of materials as required by this code for regular foundation construction.
Skirting shall be installed in accordance with the skirting manufacturer's installation instructions. Skirting shall be adequately secured to ensure stability, minimize vibration and susceptibility to wind damage, and compensate for possible frost heave.
Accessory buildings shall not be structurally supported by or attached to a manufactured home unless engineering calculations are submitted to substantiate any proposed structural connection.
Exception: The building official has the authority to waive the submission of engineering calculations if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that engineering calculations are not necessary to show conformance to these provisions.
Piers shall be designed and constructed to distribute loads evenly. Multiple-section homes may have concentrated roof loads that will require special consideration. Load-bearing piers shall be constructed utilizing one of the following methods listed. Such piers shall be considered to resist only vertical forces acting in a downward direction. They shall not be considered as providing any resistance to horizontal loads induced by wind or earthquake forces.
- A prefabricated load-bearing device that is listed and labeled for the intended use.
- Mortar shall comply with ASTM C270, Type M, S or N; this may consist of one part Portland cement, one-half part hydrated lime and four parts sand by volume. Lime shall not be used with plastic or waterproof cement.
- A cast-in-place concrete pier with concrete having specified compressive strength at 28 days of 2,500 pounds per square inch (17 225 kPa).
Alternative materials and methods of construction used for piers shall be designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such.
Caps and leveling spacers may be used for leveling of the manufactured home. Spacing of piers shall be as specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions, if available, or by an approved designer.
Piers constructed as indicated in Section AE602 shall have heights as follows:
- Except for corner piers, piers 36 inches (914 mm) or less in height shall be constructed of masonry units, placed with cores or cells vertically. Piers shall be installed with their long dimension at right angles to the main frame member they support and shall have a minimum cross-sectional area of 128 square inches (82 560 mm2). Piers shall be capped with minimum 4-inch (102 mm) solid masonry units or equivalent.
- Piers between 36 and 80 inches (914 and 2032 mm) in height and all corner piers greater than 24 inches (610 mm) in height shall be not less than 16 inches by 16 inches (406 mm by 406 mm) consisting of interlocking masonry units and shall be fully capped with minimum 4-inch (102 mm) solid masonry units or equivalent.
- Piers greater than 80 inches (2032 mm) in height shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Item 2, provided that the piers shall be filled solid with grout and reinforced with four continuous No. 5 bars. One bar shall be placed in each corner cell of hollow masonry unit piers or in each corner of the grouted space of piers constructed of solid masonry units.
- Cast-in-place concrete piers meeting the same size and height limitations of Items 1, 2 and 3 may be substituted for piers constructed of masonry units.
Ground anchors shall be designed and installed to transfer the anchoring loads to the ground. The load-carrying portion of the ground anchors shall be installed to the full depth called for by the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall extend below the established frost line into undisturbed soil.
Manufactured ground anchors shall be listed and installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the anchor manufacturer's instructions, and shall include the means of attachment of ties meeting the requirements of Section AE605. Ground anchor manufacturer's installation instructions shall include the amount of preload required and load capacity in various types of soil. These instructions shall include tensioning adjustments where needed to prevent damage to the manufactured home, particularly damage that can be caused by frost heave. Each ground anchor shall be marked with the manufacturer's identification and listed model identification number, which shall be visible after installation. Instructions shall accompany each listed ground anchor specifying the types of soil for which the anchor is suitable under the requirements of this section.
Each approved ground anchor, when installed, shall be capable of resisting an allowable working load not less than 3,150 pounds (14 kN) in the direction of the tie plus a 50-percent overload [4,725 pounds (21 kN) total] without failure. Failure shall be considered to have occurred when the anchor moves more than 2 inches (51 mm) at a load of 4,725 pounds (21 kN) in the direction of the tie installation. Those ground anchors that are designed to be installed so that loads on the anchor are other than direct withdrawal shall be designed and installed to resist an applied design load of 3,150 pounds (14 kN) at 40 to 50 degrees from vertical or within the angle limitations specified by the home manufacturer without displacing the tie end of the anchor more than 4 inches (102 mm) horizontally. Anchors designed for the connection of multiple ties shall be capable of resisting the combined working load and overload consistent with the intent expressed herein.
Where it is proposed to use ground anchors and the building official has reason to believe that the soil characteristics at a given site are such as to render the use of ground anchors advisable, or where there is doubt regarding the ability of the ground anchors to obtain their listed capacity, the building official has the authority to require that a representative field installation be made at the site in question and tested to demonstrate ground-anchor capacity. The building official shall approve the test procedures.
Anchoring equipment, where installed as a permanent installation, shall be capable of resisting all loads as specified within these provisions. Where the stabilizing system is designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice, such alternative designs shall include anchoring equipment capable of withstanding a load equal to 1.5 times the calculated load. Anchoring equipment shall be listed and labeled as being capable of meeting the requirements of these provisions. Anchors as specified in this code shall be attached to the main frame of the manufactured home by an approved 3/16-inch-thick (4.76 mm) slotted steel plate anchoring device. Other anchoring devices or methods meeting the requirements of these provisions shall be subject to the evaluation and approval of the building official.
Anchoring systems shall be so installed as to be permanent. Anchoring equipment shall be so designed to prevent self-disconnection with no hook ends used.
Steel strapping, cable, chain or other approved materials shall be used for ties. Ties shall be fastened to ground anchors and drawn tight with turnbuckles or other adjustable tensioning devices or devices supplied with the ground anchor. Tie materials shall be capable of resisting an allowable working load of 3,150 pounds (14 kN) with not more than 2-percent elongation and shall withstand a 50-percent overload [4,750 pounds (21 kN)]. Ties shall comply with the weathering requirements of Section AE604.3. Ties shall connect the ground anchor and the main structural frame. Ties shall not connect to steel outrigger beams that fasten to and intersect the main structural frame unless specifically stated in the manufacturer's installation instructions. Connection of cable ties to main frame members shall be 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) closed-eye bolts affixed to the frame member in an approved manner. Cable ends shall be secured with not fewer than two U-bolt cable clamps with the "U" portion of the clamp installed on the short (dead) end of the cable to ensure strength equal to that required by this section.
Wood floor support systems shall be fixed to perimeter foundation walls in accordance with provisions of this code. The minimum number of ties required per side shall be sufficient to resist the wind load stated in this code. Ties shall be as evenly spaced as practicable along the length of the manufactured home with the distance from each end of the home and the tie nearest that end not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). Where continuous straps are provided as vertical ties, such ties shall be positioned at rafters and studs. Where a vertical tie and diagonal tie are located at the same place, such ties connected to a single anchor that is capable of carrying both loads. Multiple-section manufactured homes require diagonal ties only. Diagonal ties shall be installed on the exterior main frame and slope to the exterior at an angle of 40 to 50 degrees from the vertical or within the angle limitations specified by the home manufacturer. Vertical ties that are not continuous over the top of the manufactured home shall be attached to the main frame.
|ASTM C270—14A||Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry||AE602|
|NFPA 501—17||Standard on Manufactured Housing||AE201|