ADOPTS WITHOUT AMENDMENTS:

UPC 2021

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
This appendix provides guidelines on the impact of water temperature in minimizing both scalding and Legionella growth potential associated with occupiable commercial, institutional, multi-unit residential, and industrial building plumbing systems.
This Appendix shall not include single-family residential buildings. This appendix shall not be considered a risk management guidance document for scalding or Legionella.
Note: Published documents which address Legionella risk management include ASHRAE 188, ASHRAE Guideline 12, or as required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
There are additional factors associated with the potential for scalding and Legionella growth other than temperature.
For scalding potential, other factors include, but are not limited to, user age, health, body part, length of contact time, and water source.
For Legionella growth potential other factors include, but are not limited to, water source and plumbing system: size, design, circulation rate, water age, disinfectant residual, piping material and component complexity.
Water at a temperature less than 77°F (25°C).
Water at a temperature not less than 77°F (25°C) and less than 85°F (29°C).
Water at a temperature not less than 85°F (29°C) and less than 110°F (43°C).
Water at a temperature not less than 110°F (43°C) and less than 120°F (49°C).
Water at a temperature not less than 120°F (49°C) and less than 130°F (54°C).
Water at a temperature not less than 130°F (54°C) and less than 140°F (60°C).
Water at a temperature not less than 140°F (60°C) and less than 160°F (71°C).
Water at a temperature not less than 160°F (71°C).
The likelihood that Legionella bacteria will reproduce.
The likelihood of burning the skin.
Construction documents shall be required for new construction, renovation, refurbishment, replacement, or repurposing of an occupiable building water system and shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to require documentation to address Legionella growth potential, where water temperatures in a water distribution system are within ranges shown in Table N 104.1 that pose a Legionella growth potential.
TABLE N 104.1
CORRELATION BETWEEN TEMPERATURE RANGES, LEGIONELLA, AND SCALD POTENTIAL
WATER DESCRIPTION TEMPERATURE (°F) SCALD POTENTIAL1 LEGIONELLA GROWTH POTENTIAL2
Cold <77 None Minimal
Tepid Cold ≥77 and <85 None Low
Tepid ≥85 and <110 None
Hyperthermia is possible after long exposure in a bathtub or whirlpool tub.
High
Warm ≥110 and <120 Minimal
At 111 °F, greater than 220 minutes for second-degree burn.
Moderate
Tempered Hot ≥120 and <130 Low
At 120°F, greater than 5 minutes for second-degree burn, and 10 minutes to third-degree burn;
At 124°F, two minutes for second-degree burn, and 4 minutes, 10 seconds for third-degree burn.
Low
Hot ≥130 and <140 Moderate to High
At 130°F, 18 seconds for second-degree burn, and 30 seconds for third-degree burn.
None
Very Hot ≥140 and <160 High
At 140°F, three seconds for second-degree burn, and 5 seconds for third-degree burn;
At 150°F, instant for second-degree burn, and less than two seconds for third-degree burn;
At 158°F, instant for second-degree burn, and less than a second for third-degree burn.
None
Disinfecting Hot ≥160 Immediate None
For SI units: °C = (°F-32)/1.8
Notes:
1 The infant, elderly, and infirmed have a higher potential for scalding at temperatures lower than listed.
2 Temperature ranges reported are experimentally determined in a laboratory setting in the absence of a realistic microbial community. Legionella can survive for longer periods of time at temperatures higher and lower than the growth temperature ranges indicated due to changes in their metabolic state and/or protection from thermal disinfection within biofilm or amoeba host organisms.
Where the water distribution system's water temperature(s) range poses a scald potential in accordance with Table N 104.1, protection shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 4.
Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, documentation for disinfection of all building water systems shall be provided by the registered design professional in the construction documents.
Methods for new construction and any repaired system disinfection shall include, but not be limited to, the chlorination methods and procedures for flushing and disinfection in accordance with Section 609.10.
Other or alternative water treatment methods for disinfection shall include, but not be limited to, one of the following methods:
  1. Copper-silver ionization methods and procedures, including the following documentation.
    1. Copper and silver ionization concentrations shall be included in the documentation.
    2. Methods and documentation for monitoring ion levels.
    3. Electrode cleaning cycles and methods shall be reported.
  2. Ultraviolet light methods shall include the following documentation:
    1. Locations of ultraviolet light units.
    2. Cleaning cycles and methods of the quartz sleeves and housing shall be documented.
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