Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The discharge from all plumbing fixtures and other sanitary drains on the premises shall be drained through properly installed piping to the public sewage system, or as prescribed in Sections P-1401 or P1203.2.3.
No piping connected to the plumbing system shall be installed in any transformer vault.

Exceptions:
  1. A floor drain which discharges to an independent seepage pit and to a location approved by the Department or;
  2. A floor drain which discharges to an indirect waste pipe located on the exterior of the transformer vault, and the indirect drainage piping is in accordance with Chapter 12.
In special cases, such as baptismal fonts, the Department is authorized to approve waste water which discharges to the earth.
Every building, structure or other premises in or on which liquid or water-borne wastes accumulate shall be equipped with an approved drainage system to convey all liquid or water-borne wastes to a public sewer, provided that, where a public sewer is not available, other approved provisions shall be made for disposing of such waste in conformance with applicable laws, ordinances, rules and regulations. Where a public sewer is not available, residences which connect to an approved private sewer through a house trap shall be approved.
The drainage system for each building or structure shall be entirely separate and independent of every building drainage system serving any other building or structure, except as provided in Sections P-901.4.1 and P-901.4.2.
Non-residential buildings and other structures on the same deeded property and maintained under the same ownership shall be permitted to connect to the same house drain.
Where one building stands in the rear of another building on an interior lot and a separate house drain cannot be provided for the rear building through an alley, yard, or other open public space, the house drain of the front building shall be permitted to serve the rear building, provided the house drain of the front building is of adequate size and in suitable condition to serve both front and rear buildings. Such dual use requires approval by the Department.
Existing house drains shall not be used to serve new buildings until they have been examined by, and tested under the direction of the Department, and approved for such use.
Except in one-family dwellings, the drainage from all plumbing fixtures located at the basement or cellar level shall be connected to the horizontal piping of the house drain or to a properly vented horizontal branch pipe. This shall apply to the lowest level of a building, containing a slab or grade. Such fixtures are permitted to connect to a vertical soil and waste stack, provided no fixtures are connected to the vertical soil or waste stack above the basement or cellar level.
Soil and waste piping for drainage systems within a building, other than underground drains, shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 902.1.

TABLE P-902.1
ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE
MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; CSA B181.1
Brass pipe ASTM B 43
Cast-iron pipe ASTM A 74: ASTM A 888: CISPI 301
Coextruded composite ABS DWV schedule 40 IPS
pipe (solid)
ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite ABS DWV schedule 40 IPS
pipe (cellular core)
ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV schedule 40 IPS
pipe (solid)
ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV schedule 40 IPS
pipe (cellular core)
ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC IPS-DR, PS 140,
PS200 DWV
ASTM F 1488
Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302
Glass pipe ASTM C 1053
Polyolefin pipe ASTM F 1412; CAN/CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe (Type DWV) ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.2
Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and
316L
ASME A112.3. 1
Underground building sanitary drainage within a building and beyond the building wall shall conform to one of the materials and standards listed in Table P-902.2. Drainage systems for corrosive industrial wastes shall be of acid-resisting cast iron or other material that is resistant to corrosion and degradation for the concentrations of chemicals involved.

TABLE P-902.2
UNDERGROUND SANITARY DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE
MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe ASTM D2661; ASTM F628: CSA B181.1
Cast iron pipe ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301
Coextruded composite ABS DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite ABS DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV schedule 40 IPS (solid) ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV schedule 40 IPS (cellular core) ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC IPS-DR, PS140, PS200 DWV ASTM F 1488
Concrete pipe a ASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; CSA A 257.1; CSA A 257.2
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L, M, or DWV) ASTM B 75: ASTM B 88: ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
Ductile iron AWWA C 151
Polyolefin pipe ASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe (Type DWV) ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; CSA B181.2
Stainless steel drainage systems, Type 316L ASME A112.3.1
Vitrified clay pipe a ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700

Note a: Not permitted underground within buildings nor within 10 feet of the building foundation
House drains shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Sections P-902.3.1 through P-902.3.3.
For house drains installed beyond the building wall in a trench separate from water service or water distribution pipe, the drain pipe shall be of cast iron hard temper copper tube of a weight not less than type "L", vitrified clay pipe, concrete, or plastic. If the drain consists of plastic materials, the underground water service or water distribution pipe and the house drain shall be not less than 10 feet apart horizontally and shall be separated by undisturbed or compacted earth, or shall be in accordance with Section P-805 when approved by the Department.
For house drains installed beyond the building wall in a trench with water service or water distribution pipe, the drain pipe shall be of cast iron or hard temper copper tube of a weight not less than type "L". The water pipe shall be laid on a bench or on a solidly tamped back-fill at a level at least 12 inches above the top of the drainage pipe and at least 12 inches horizontally from the center of the drainage pipe.
When a house drain is installed in filled or unstable ground, it shall be of cast iron or hard temper copper tube of a weight not less than type "L". Pipe shall be supported on concrete piers, seven feet apart, or a constant bed of concrete or clevis hangers attached to reinforcing rods in the concrete floor above the piping.
Approved drainage type fittings shall be used on all drainage piping. Pipe and fittings shall conform to the applicable standards in Section P-305.
The use of ABS plastic pipe and PVC plastic pipe authorized by Sections P-902.1 and P-902.2 shall be limited to use only in connection with buildings containing dwelling units that house from one to four families and that do not exceed three stories in height. For the purpose of this section, basements are not considered a story height.
A chemical waste system shall be completely separated from the sanitary drainage system. The chemical waste shall be treated in accordance with Section P-1205.2 before discharging to the sanitary drainage system. Separate drainage systems for chemical wastes and vent pipes shall be of an approved material that is resistant to corrosion and degradation for the concentrations of chemicals involved.
Horizontal drainage piping of 3-inch diameter and less shall be installed with a fall of not less than 1/4 inch per foot.
Horizontal drainage piping of more than 3 inches and up to and including 6 inches in diameter shall be installed with a fall not less than 1/8 inch per foot. Horizontal drainage piping larger than 6-inch diameter shall be installed with a fall of not less than 1/16 inch per foot.
Where conditions do not permit house drains or sewer to be laid with a fall as great as that specified, the Department shall approve a lesser slope, provided the computed flow velocity is not less than 2 feet per second.
Traps on underground drainage piping installed outdoors or where subject to frost action shall have a minimum cover of 3 feet.
Underground drainage piping installed parallel to a foundation wall shall be at least 3 feet from the building foundation wall when the depth does not exceed 4 feet. One foot of additional distance from the foundation wall shall be required for each additional 1-foot depth below 4 feet.
Changes in direction in drainage piping shall be made by the appropriate use of 45- degree wyes; long or short-sweep bends; sixth, eighth, or sixteenth bends; or by combinations of equivalent fittings. Single and double sanitary tees shall be used in drainage lines only where the flow is from the horizontal to the vertical. Tees and crosses shall be permitted in the vent and water distribution systems.
No single or double-tee branch shall be used as a drainage fitting. No bands, saddles, or quarter bends shall be used in the drainage system. Repair plates shall be permitted in existing drainage and vent systems. No drain, drainage, or vent piping shall be drilled or tapped on new work. With approval by the Department, drilling or tapping with the use of a repair plate shall be permitted on an existing stack, provided that there are no fixtures above. A quarter bend shall be permitted on sanitary drainage piping but only when installed in lieu of an ideal bend having no side outlets for receiving small fixture drains. A quarter bend shall be permitted when installed as a replacement fitting on rainwater only, with the approval of the Department. Any fitting or connection that offers abnormal obstruction to flow through a drain is prohibited.
A cast iron double hub fitting and sission joint using lead and oakum is acceptable for the repair of a main drain line which is broken inside the building, with approval of the Department.
A cast iron hubless coupling which consists of a cast iron housing, stainless steel nuts and bolts and a neoprene gasket shall be permitted beneath a building with special conditions when approved by the Department.
The relative load weights of fixtures shall be determined in accordance with Table P904.1. For the purpose of this section:
  1. Private installations shall mean those installations which are not generally available to members of the public; and
  2. Public installations shall mean those installations available to the public.
TABLE P-904.1
FIXTURE UNIT VALUES
Fixtures Private Installations Public Installations
Bathroom group consisting of 1 lavatory, 1 water closet, 1 bathtub or shower stall 6
Bathtub with 1-1/2 inch trap a 2 3
Bathtub with 2-inch trap a 3 4
Cup Sink 2
Diswashers, domestic, automatic 4
Drinking Fountain 1/2
Floor Drain 3 3
Kitchen Sink with 1-1/2 inch trap b 3 3
Kitchen Sink with 2-inch trap b 4
Laundry tray with 1-1/2 inch trap (1 or 2 compartment) 3 3
Laundry tray with 2-inch trap 4
Lavatory with 1-1/4 inch or 1-1/2 inch trap 1 2
Lavatory, Barber, Beauty, Parlor, or Surgeons 3
Service Sink (slop sink), Mop Receptor 3
Service Sink, flushing rim with flush valve 6
Shower Stall with 1-1/2 inch or 2 inch trap 2 3
Shower Stall with required 3-inch trap 6
Urinal, stall and washout 4
Urinal, pedestal, siphon-jet, and blow-out 6
Urinal Trough; for each 5 feet 2
Wash Fountain, Duo 2
Wash Fountain, any other size 5
Washing Machine, domestic, automatic 4
Water Closet 4 8
Fountain Cuspidor (Dental Chair) 1
Sink, Soda Fountain or Bar 2

Note a: With or without shower head over bathtub.

Note b: With or without garbage grinder unit, or dishwasher, in sink with 1-1/2 or 2-inch trap.
Fixture unit values for fixtures that are not listed in Table P-904.1 and cannot be determined by similarity to a fixture listed therein shall be determined by Table P-904.2.

TABLE P-904.2 — OTHER FIXTURE VALUES
Required Fixture Drain or Trap Size Fixture Unit Value
Private Installations Public Installations
1-1/4 inch 1 2
1-1/2 inch 2 3
2-inch 3 4
3-inch 4 6
4-inch 4 8
For a continuos or semi-continuous flow in a sanitary drainage system, such as from a bilge pump, ejector, air conditioning equipment, commercial laundry, dishwashing equipment, or similar device, each gallon per minute flow shall be deemed to be two fixture-units.
The maximum number of fixture-units connected to a given size of house drain, horizontal branch, or vertical soil or waste stack, shall be determined by Table P-904.4.

TABLE P-904.4 — MINIMUM PIPE SIZES ACCORDING TO FIXTURE LOAD
(Maximum Fixture-Units that may be connected)
House Drain or Horizontal Branch Vertical Soil or Waste Stack
Pipe size (Inches) 1/16" Fall 1/8" Fall 1/4" Fall 1/2" Fall
1 1/4 2 2
1 1/2 4 6 6
2 10 18 20
2 1/2 27 36 36
3 48a 65a 75b
4 50 100 200 225
5 130 225 420 480
6 330 480 875 1,015
8 500 850 1,100 2,000 2,320
10 1,050 1,650 2,320 3,800 4,500
12 1,800 3,000 4,500 6,500 8,100
15 3,600 6,000 8,100 10,000 13,600

Note a: Limit 2 water closets.

Note b: Limit 6 water closets.
The size of a soil or waste stack is determined by the fixture-units on the stack plus the fixture-units on the horizontal branch from the base of the soil or waste stack connected to the house drain.
The size of the horizontal branch from the base of the soil or waste stack connected to the house drain is determined by the fixture-units and gradient fall.
The size of the house drain is determined by its gradient fall and total number of fixture-units.
If the building is 75 feet in height and not more than 160 feet in height above the grade level at the curb, the vertical soil or waste stacks connected to the house drain or to any of its branches shall be one size larger than given in Table P-904.4, and this shall also apply when the soil or waste stacks are connected to a horizontal branch pipe that discharges into a soil or waste stack. If the building is more than 160 feet in height, the vertical soil or waste stacks connected to the house drain or to any of its branches shall be two sizes larger than given in Table P-904.4, and this shall also apply when the vertical soil or waste stacks are connected to the horizontal branch pipe that discharges into a soil or waste stack. The size of the main soil stack shall be sized according to the largest branch entering the stack, except if the amount of fixture units requires a larger size. The developed length of the soil or waste stacks shall be determined by measuring the distance between the center line of the horizontal branch pipe and the roof. If a relief vent is installed on all horizontal branches below the top floor and between the soil or waste stacks and the first fixture on the horizontal branch, the soil or waste stack sizes shall be in accordance with Table P-904.4, regardless of the height of the building. The size of the branch line and its stack shall be determined by the developed length of the stack. (See Figure P-1101.0)
No soil or waste stack shall be smaller than the largest branch draining into it regardless of the height of the building. Soil stacks receiving the discharge of water closets shall not be less than 3 inches in diameter, as provided in Table P-904.4. Three-inch Soil stacks shall be limited to two water closets. No horizontal soil pipe or waste pipe draining pedestal urinals or water closets shall be less than 3 inches in diameter. When using 3-inch ideal bends (closet bends) to receive the discharge of water closets, this fitting shall be a blind bend containing no drainage connections for other fixtures. No waste pipe shall be less than 1-1/4 inches in diameter except that waste pipe drip lines from soda fountains, coffee urns and refrigerator cases shall be minimum 1-inch nominal diameter and not over 12 feet in length when trapped and discharged into an open fixture. Fixture branch pipes shall conform to Section P-506.
The minimum size of the main house drain receiving the discharge of water closets shall be 4 inches inside nominal diameter.
When provision is made for the future installation of fixtures, drainage pipes shall be of sizes which will accommodate future fixtures, and the construction to provide for such fixture installation shall be terminated with a plugged fitting at the stack, so as not to form a dead end, and shall be vented as prescribed in Chapter 11.
Minimum requirements for commercial installations shall be in accordance with Table P-904.7.

TABLE P-904.7
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL INSTALLATIONS
Fixture Trap & Waste (Inches) Indirect Waste
Backflow Preventer Grease Trap
3-Compartment Bar Sink 1-1/4 Yes
3-Compartment Pot Sink 2 Yes
Beer Dispenser Trough 1 Yes
Chinese Wok 2 Yes Yes Yes
Coffee Urn 1 Yes Yes
Dental Chair 1-1/4 Yes
Dishwasher 2 Yes
Floor Drain 3
Food Display Case 1 Yes
Foot Preparation Sink 2 Yes
Ice Cream Dipper Well 1 Yes
Ice Machine 1-1/4 Yes Yes
Ice Storage Bin 1-1/4 Yes
Lavatory, Public Toilet 1-1/4 Self-closing faucet, except handicapped
Medical Sink/ Lavatory Elongated lever handles or foot control on faucet
Mop Receptor 3 Yes
Pre-rinse for Dishwasher 2 Yes Yes
Service Sink 3 Yes
Shampoo Sink 1-1/4 Yes
Soda Carbonation Station
Supplied With Water
Yes Yes
Soda Dispenser Trough 1 Yes
Vacuum Pump (Dental
Office)
Yes
Walk-in Freezer 1-1/4 Yes No floor drain inside box
Walk-in Refrigerator 1-1/4 Yes
Water Closet, Public Elongated bowl, open front seat


Figure P-904.7



Figure P-904.7a
All building drains carrying sewage or other sanitary waste which cannot discharge to the house drain by gravity shall discharge into a tight receiving tank, so located as to receive the wastes by gravity. The wastes shall be lifted and discharged into the house drain by duplex pumps for the sewage handled. Such receiving tanks shall be discharged automatically.

Exception: In one- and two-family dwellings, fixture wastes located on a level below grade are permitted to be pumped into the house drain.
The drainage piping discharging into the tight tank receiving sewage or other sanitary waste shall be vented as provided in Chapter 11.
When sewage is lifted into the house drain by air pressure, the air delivered from the compressed air tank shall be not less than the cubic foot capacity of the receiving tank, and the minimum pressure of the air delivered shall be one pound for each foot of height the sewage is to be lifted. The receiving tank shall be tested for 50 psi.
Pumps, ejector, air compressors and air tanks shall be located so as to be readily accessible.
The discharge of the pump or ejector shall be connected directly to the house drain through a suitable wye fitting in front of the vent and shall be equipped with a suitable check valve and gate valve; the discharge pipe shall be vented when over 12 feet from a vented line, as provided in Chapter 11. A fresh air inlet shall be installed as prescribed in Section P-1106.0.

Figure P-905.5

With approval of the Department, small fixture wastes which cannot discharge to the house drain by gravity shall be pumped to the house drain in front of the vent without the use of a sump or receiving tank. The discharge line shall be equipped with a check valve and gate valve installed on the pipe discharging into a wye fitting on the house drain.
Steam exhaust from pressing machines, steam boiler blowoffs, or steam condensate drips shall not discharge directly to the atmosphere nor be connected directly to the house drainage system.
Cooling methods shall be provided which automatically cool the exhaust to 140° F or less, if the waste is discharged to the house drainage system. If potable water is used with a direct connection to the cooling apparatus, a safe waste connection shall be used.
If a condensate or blowoff tank is used, the tank shall be sized to a capacity of 1/3 the total water capacity of the vessel or vessels discharging into the tank.
The tank shall be vented through the roof with galvanized wrought iron, galvanized yoloy, or copper vent pipe not less than two inches in size.
The overflow shall discharge into the house drain in accordance with P-906.1.1. The overflow pipe shall be submerged inside the tank
An approved relief or surge tank shall be installed in connection with all equipment, such as hydraulic elevators or lifts operated by water pressure. Such relief or surge tanks shall be arranged and connected so that the pressure of discharge therefrom shall at no time exceed 5 psi in the building drainage system.
The discharge connection from relief or surge tanks shall be connected and arranged so as to provide a trapped water seal not less than 12 inches in depth within the relief or surge tank. Where there is danger of backflow or back pressure, effective measures shall be taken to prevent backflow in accordance with the requirements of this code.
This section shall govern the replacement of existing house drain (including house storm drain) piping by pipe-bursting methods.
The replacement of house drain piping by pipe-bursting methods shall be limited to gravity drainage piping of sizes 6 inches (152 mm) and smaller. The replacement piping shall be of the same nominal size as the existing piping.
The existing piping sections to be replaced shall be inspected internally by a recorded video camera survey. The survey shall include notations of the position of cleanouts and the depth of connections to the existing piping.
The replacement piping shall be manufactured with a standard dimension ratio (SDR) of 17 and in compliance with ASTM F 714.
Pipe fittings to be connected to the replacement piping shall be of extra-high molecular weight PE3408 material and shall be manufactured with an SDR of 17 and in compliance with ASTM D 2683.
Where the existing house drain did not have cleanouts meeting the requirements of this code, cleanout fittings shall be installed as required by this code.
The completed replacement piping section shall be inspected internally by a recorded video camera survey. The video survey shall be reviewed and approved by the code official prior to pressure testing of the replacement piping system.
The replacement piping system as well as the connections to the replacement piping shall be tested in accordance with Section P-1506.
Joints between different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1461. Connectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1440, ASTM F 477, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
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