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Every building, structure, or premises in or on which plumbing fixtures are installed shall be equipped with an approved water supply system.
The water supply system for each building or structure shall be entirely separate and independent of every water supply system serving any other building or structure, except as provided in Sections P801.2.1 through P-801.2.3.
Non-residential buildings and other structures on the same deeded property and maintained under common ownership shall be permitted to connect to a common water supply.
Residential structures on a single lot shall be permitted to share a single-source water supply, provided that each individual residential structure shall have its own master water supply shut-off for cold water and, if hot water is obtained from a central source, each dwelling unit shall have its own individual cutoff for domestic hot water supply. All residences on separate lots shall have separate water services.
Where one building stands in the rear of another building on an interior lot and a separate water supply cannot be provided for the rear building through an alley, yard, or other open public space, the water supply of the front building shall be permitted to serve the rear building, provided the water supply of the front buildings is of adequate size and in suitable condition to serve both front and rear buildings. Such dual use requires approval by the Department.
All water for human consumption, for the preparation of food, or for washing humans, foods, food service equipment or utensils shall conform to Section 6-402(7) of the Health Code and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
Non-potable water used for flushing water closets, urinals, or other purposes which do not conflict with Section P-802.1 shall provide for adequate protection to prevent human consumption. All piping therefor shall be adequately and durably identified by distinctive paint and prominent signs, so that it can be readily distinguished from piping carrying potable water. All water lines shall be inspected and approved by the Department. Signage indicating the non-potability of the water supply shall be placed at all points of public access to the water system, such as the tank openings and water closets.
Plumbing fixtures shall be provided with an adequate supply of water.
No cross connection shall be permitted between a potable water supply system and any other piping system.
No cross connection shall be permitted between the City water supply system and any other potable water system.
A cross connection is considered broken if a minimum air gap of two water supply pipe diameters is provided between the potable water and any other piping system; or between the City water and any other potable water system.
On existing water supply systems where it is impractical to provide the required minimum air gap, a swing-joint swivel device or a 4-way, 4-port valve of a design such that the distribution piping is fed by either water supply individually, but not simultaneously, shall be considered by the Department and the Department of Public Health for approval.
The City or other potable water supply line shall be protected from backflow by means of a backflow preventer installation of a type and location approved by the Department and the Department of Public Health.
Cross connection control devices shall be installed, tested and maintained by persons certified in accordance with the requirements of the City of Philadelphia.
A plumbing permit shall be required for the installation of cross connection control devices.
When underground water service piping or water distribution piping and sewer or drain piping are laid in the same trench, the water service pipe or the water distribution pipe shall be laid on a bench or solidly tamped backfill at a level at least 12 inches above the top of the drainage pipe and at least 12 inches horizontally from the center line of the drainage pipe, and shall conform to Sections P-809 and P-904.4.
Every potable water distribution and supply pipe shall be protected against backflow from any plumbing fixture or other piece of equipment or appliance capable of affecting the quality of the potable water by having the outlet end from which water flows spaced at a minimum distance of twice the diameter of the water supply pipe above the flood level rim of the receptacle into which the potable water flows.
Where it is not practicable to provide this minimum air gap, the connection to the fixture equipment or appliances shall be equipped with a backflow preventer assembly of a type and location approved by the Department and the Department of Public Health and shall be installed between the control valve and the water outlet.
The Department and the Department of Public Health are authorized to require that a vacuum breaker or other backflow preventer of an approved type be installed at any fixed potable water outlet to which a hose is connected and used in contact with liquids or other substances which if added to the water supply would render it non-potable.
Backflow preventers approved by the Water Department shall be installed in all commercial, industrial and office buildings and in buildings containing more than four dwelling units. Installation, servicing, testing and repair of these backflow preventers on water lines not dedicated to fire suppression shall be under the supervision of a Master Plumber who is certified and trained in backflow prevention and cross connection control.
Backflow preventers approved by the Water Department shall be installed on all new fire suppression systems. Installation, servicing, testing, repair and certification of these backflow preventers shall be under the supervision of a licensed Fire Protection Systems Contractor who is certified and trained in backflow prevention and cross connection control.

Exceptions:
  1. Where systems are installed as a portion of the water distribution system in accordance with the requirements of the code and are not provided with a Fire Department connection, isolation of the water supply system shall not be required.
  2. Isolation of the water distribution system is not required for deluge, preaction or dry pipe systems.
Where systems under continuous pressure contain chemical additives or antifreeze, or where systems are connected to a nonpotable water supply, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. Where chemical additives or antifreeze are added to only a portion of an automatic fire sprinkler or standpipe system, the reduced pressure principle backflow preventer shall be permitted to be located so as to isolate that portion of the system. Where systems are not under continuous pressure, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or a pipe applied atmospheric vacuum breaker conforming to ASSE 1001 or CAN/CSA B64.1.1.
Lawn sprinkler systems shall be equipped with protective devices as required in this section. From a point outside the foundation wall throughout the lawn sprinkler system, the method of installation and the material used shall not be subject to this code.
All water pumps, tanks, filters, softeners, and similar appliances and devices shall be protected against contamination. Where outdoor hydrants are installed at surface grade, such installations shall be on concrete or other impervious platforms with a top surface not less than 6 inches above the adjoining grade and extending not less than 3 feet in all directions from the hydrants. The drains from frost-proof hydrants shall spill on grade, discharge to independent seepage pit, or discharge to indirect waste in accordance with Section P-1201.2.
A water supply system shall be supplemented from a gravity house tank, pressure tank, or booster pump system when the water pressure from the public water main or other potable water line is insufficient to supply the fixtures of the water supply system which are likely to be in simultaneous operation at the residual pressures specified in Section P-811.1.
All potable water supply tanks shall be properly covered or sealed to prevent the entrance of foreign or contaminating material into the water supply. Soil or waste lines shall not pass directly over non-pressure water supply tanks or over manholes in pressure tanks.
A potable water supply tank from which water for human consumption is drawn shall not be lined, painted, or repaired with any material which may affect either the taste or potability of water supplied from such tank when the tank is returned to service. Tanks shall be disconnected from the water distribution system whenever necessary to prevent a foreign fluid or substance from entering such system during any such operation or from any other source.
After a potable water supply tank has been installed, cleaned, painted or repaired, it shall be disinfected by filling it with a solution containing 100 ppm of available chlorine and allowing it to stand for two hours before the tank is flushed and returned to use.
All water pipes, water tanks, and water-supplied appliances and devices subject to freezing temperatures shall be effectively protected against freezing.
Overflow outlets for gravity tanks shall not be less than 4 inches below the tank supply and shall discharge at least 6 inches above a roof or within 6 inches of a floor drain or they shall discharge over and above the flood level rim of an open water supplied sink or other approved receptacle having a trap with a diameter equal to that of the overflow pipe.
Overflow pipes shall be properly screened against the entrance of insects or vermin.
Overflow outlets shall terminate in a horizontal position above a roof or in a turned-down position above a sink or receptacle.
Overflows shall be sized as specified in Table P-808.

TABLE P-808
WATER SUPPLY TANK DRAINS AND OVERFLOWS
Tank Capacity (Gallons) Minimum Size Drain Pipe (Inches) Minimum Size Overflows
Up to 750 1-1/4 One size larger than supply pipe
75 to 1500 1-1/2
1501 to 3000 2
3001 to 5000 2-1/2
5001 to 7500 3 One size larger than supply pipe
(Minimum size 4")
Over 7500 4
All water supply tanks shall be provided with valved drain lines located at or near their lowest point and discharged as an indirect waste or as required for overflow pipes in Table P-808. Each tank shall be provided with pipes of diameters specified in Table P-808. Each drain shall be equipped with a gate valve or ball valve of the same diameter as the pipe.
Subject to the requirements hereinafter set forth, material for water piping above ground shall be of brass, type "M" copper or heavier, cast iron, galvanized steel, galvanized yoloy, galvanized malleable iron split couplings (victaulic), stainless steel (409 type "H" copper-coated), polybutylene cold water pipe, or plastic water pipe with appropriate approved fittings conforming to the applicable specifications listed in Section P-305.
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) piping shall be permitted for domestic hot and cold water service in buildings that house no more than three dwelling units and alternative housing designs such as single room occupancies with a maximum of 10 beds. All connections to domestic hot water heating equipment shall have a developed length of 4 feet of copper pipe.
Distilled water and deionized water piping shall be stainless steel or tempered borosilicate glass.
Water distribution piping and water piping underground shall be of brass, type "L" copper or heavier, cast iron, or plastic cold water pipe. Temp-tite pressure pipe (epoxy-lined transites core pipe) may be used underground only. All underground water pipe installation shall conform with Sections P-805 and P-902.3.
The use of any plastic water supply piping shall negate the use of the water service as an electrical grounding electrode.
All materials for aboveground and belowground use shall be suitable for 150 lbs. working pressure.
When used underground in corrosive soil, all metallic pipe and fittings shall be tar enamel coated or protected in an equivalent approved manner against external corrosion.
From a point outside the foundation wall throughout a lawn sprinkler system, the method of installation and the material used shall be at the discretion of the designer.
All water service piping from the City water main to the curb line shall conform to the regulations as set forth by the Water Department.
Polybutylene flexible pipe shall be permitted in alteration work to supply water closets and hot and cold water to a lavatory, provided the building contains not more than four dwelling units and is not over three stories in height. The basement is not considered a story height.
No piping material shall be used to convey potable water where reaction between such material and the water may cause the potable water supply to become toxic or otherwise unsuitable for human consumption.
Piping or fittings that have been used for other than potable water supply shall not be used in a potable water supply system.
The water service pipe from the street main and the water distribution pipe shall be of sufficient size to furnish an adequate flow of water to meet the requirements of the building at peak demands, and in no case less than 3/4-inch nominal diameter.
A main shut-off or curb stop on the water service pipe shall be provided near the curb, and an accessible shut-off valve shall be provided near the curb, and an accessible shut-off valve shall be provided inside near the point where the water distribution pipe enters the building or other structure. Supply lines taken from pressure or gravity tanks shall be valved at or near their source.
Separate valves, readily accessible, shall be placed at the foot of each riser line, on all branches to exterior hose bibbs, on hot water storage tanks, and on supplies to fixtures. All valves shall be the same size as the pipe in which they are installed and shall be installed on all risers and all branch lines to fixtures. Where shut-off valves are concealed in construction, an access panel shall be provided. If the construction is fireresistance rated, the access panel shall be a labeled door of the required fire-resistance rating. Installation of access panels in stairway enclosures is prohibited.
The formation of traps or sags shall be avoided where possible. When this is unavoidable, such sags, traps, or inverts shall have provisions for draining.
Water piping to drinking fountains or other water piping conveying water intended for human consumption shall not be connected to standpipes, sprinkler risers, or other piping in which stagnant water may collect.
Except when special equipment requires higher pressure, the minimum residual water pressure maintained reasonably constant at a water outlet shall be 20 pounds at direct flush valves (flushometer) on blowout action fixtures, 10 pounds at direct flush valves (flushometer) on syphonic action fixtures, and 8 pounds at other water-supplied plumbing fixtures.
The residual pressure shall be measured at the pressure side of the water outlet with the outlet fully open.
Where the water main is subject to fluctuation in pressure, the water supply system shall be designed for the minimum pressure available.
Minimum sizes of fixture supply pipes shall be as listed in Table P811.2.

TABLE P-811.2
MINIMUM SIZE OF WATER FIXTURE SUPPLY PIPES
Fixture Pipe Fixture Supply (inches)
Bathtubs 1/2
Combination Sink and Tray 1/2
Dishwashing Machine, Domestic 1/2
Drinking Fountain 3/8
Flushing Rim Sink 3/4
Hose Bibb 1/2
Hot Water Tanks, Domestic 1/2
Kitchen Sink, Hotel or Public 3/4
Laundry Trays 1/2
Lavatories 3/8
Service Sink 1/2
Shower, Multi-Stall 3/4
Shower Stalls 1/2
Urinal, Pedestal, Direct Flush Valve (Flushometer) 1
Urinal, Stall, Blow-out or Wash-out; Direct Flush Valve (Flushometer) 3/4
Urinal Tank 3/8
Wash Fountain, Duo 1/2
Wash Fountain, all other 3/4
Washing Machine, Domestic 1/2
Water Closet Direct Flush Valve (Flushometer) 1
Water Closet Tank 3/8
The size of the water fixture supply pipe shall be the full nominal diameter as prescribed in Table P-811.2 and shall be installed undiminished in pipe size to the floor or wall directly adjacent to the fixture it is intended to serve. Flexible water pipe connectors used in connecting the water supply pipe to fixture faucets and which provide a rigid joint when made up shall not be considered a reduction in pipe size.
The maximum number of water closet flush valves allowed to be supplied from a single source shall conform to the schedule of pipe sizes and water pressures listed in Table P811.3.

TABLE P-811.3
MINIMUM WATER SUPPLY SIZES TO FLUSHOMETERSa
First Floor Above Groundb
Pneumatic Tank or
Underground Main
Pressure Using Iron Pipe
Ferrule Size
1" 1-1/2" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8"
30 psi 1 (200') 2 12 50 180 450
40 psi 1 (25') 1 (400') 4 24 80 220 450
50 psi 1 (50') 1 7 40 110 220 450
60 psi 1 (75') 2 7 40 110 220 450
70 psi 1 (100') 3 7 40 110 220 450
First Floor Above Groundb
Pneumatic Tank or
Underground Main
Pressure Using Copper
Tubing
Ferrule Size
1" 1-1/2" 2" 3" 4" 6" 8"
30 psi 1 (250') 3 15 55 200 450
40 psi 1 (30') 1 (500') 6 30 110 220 450
50 psi 1 (65') 2 9 40 110 220 450
60 psi 1 (100') 3 9 40 110 220 450
70 psi 1 (135') 4 9 40 110 220 450


Note a: Numbers shown in parentheses designate maximum allowed distance of fixtures from pneumatic tank or underground main.

Note b: See Section P-811.3.2
If the distance from the fixture to the pneumatic tank or underground main is in excess of 500 feet, deduct 10 psi from the tank or main pressure.
For each floor above the first floor, deduct 10 psi from the tank or main pressure.
Two urinals shall be counted as one water closet.
On existing installations, the water supply connected to flushometers shall be permitted without increasing the size of the ferrule, provided a tank is installed on the water line and is sized in accordance with Table P-811.4. The tank shall be equipped with a valve on the water inlet, an air inlet valve at its top, and a drain valve.

TABLE P-811.4 — MINIMUM SIZE OF TANK (GALLONS)
Street Pressure a Number of Water Closets
1 2 3 4 7
30 psi 150 170 190 210 300
40 psi 60 70 80 90 120
50 psi 40 50 60 0 90
50 psi 35 40 50 60 70


Note a: Deduct 1/2 psi from street pressure for each foot that fixtures are located above the bottom of the tank. Two urinals equal one water closet.
An approved pressure relief valve shall be installed on all equipment used for heating or storing hot water and which forms part of a water supply system. The rate of discharge of such valve shall limit the pressure rise in the water supply system to 10% above the pressure at which the valve is set to open. Pressure relief valves shall be of the spring-loaded type with a pull rod and lever handle, or shall be of an equivalent approved type which will permit the manual operation and testing of the valve. Pressure relief valves shall be installed in the cold water supply to the heater or storage tank and adjacent to such heater or storage tank. In addition, an approved backflow preventer shall be installed on all equipment which is connected to the potable water supply when such equipment is used for any purpose other than supplying potable water to approved fixtures or as required by the Department.
An approved temperature relief valve shall be installed on all equipment used for heating or storing hot water and which forms part of a water supply system. When the temperature of the water within the vessel to which such relief valve is connected reaches 210oF, the valve shall automatically discharge sufficient hot water to prevent any further rise in the temperature. Each temperature relief valve shall be rated in terms of the maximum permissible hourly BTU input which the valve can safely relieve, and such rating shall be plainly stamped, etched, or cast on the valve or on a permanent nameplate securely attached to the valve. Temperature relief valves shall be installed in the hot water connection to the heater or storage tank in such a manner that the stem of the temperature-sensing element will project at least one inch into the tank.
Copper tanks shall be provided with vacuum relief valves. Vacuum relief valves shall be placed at or as close as possible to the tanks, which they are intended to protect.
A combination pressure and temperature relief valve of an approved type shall be accepted in lieu of separate valves, provided it meets the requirements for separate valves. The combined relief valve shall be located as a temperature relief valve and shall be installed in the hot water connection to the heater or storage tank in such a manner that the stem of the temperature-sensing element will project at least one inch into the tank.
No pressure relief valve or temperature relief valve shall be installed after the effective date of this code, unless it is a type which has been approved by the Department and is installed in conformity with the conditions of approval. Relief valves which meet the requirements of this code shall be approved by the Department without additional tests, provided that they have been tested and labeled by an approved agency and conform to ANSI Z21.22-86.
No stop-cock, valve, or check valve shall be installed between a hot water storage tank and a required pressure relief valve. No shut-off valve or stop-cock shall be installed in circulator lines between water heaters and hot water storage tanks, except in a summer and winter hook-up.
Check valves shall not be installed anywhere in the cold water supply pipe leading to an existing water heating system unless:
  1. Suitable pressure relief valves and temperature relief valves are also installed; and
  2. Where copper tanks are used, a suitable vacuum relief valve is installed at or adjacent to the copper tank.
When the relief outlets of relief valves are connected by piping to discharge into the drainage system, such pipe shall be connected as an indirect waste. Piping from the relief outlets shall be equal to or greater than the cross-sectional area of the discharge outlet on the relief valve and shall discharge within six inches of the floor.
Drip pans under hot water heaters located in apartments shall be piped to an indirect waste line. In high-rise apartments, this condensate shall be carried down to the lowest level and discharged to an indirect catch basin or fixture having a minimum size equal to the indirect waste riser accepting one or more drip pans, but in no case less than 1-1/4 inch.
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