Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.
Words stated in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural the singular.
Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the building or mechanical codes listed in Chapter 19, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
Air gap. The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank or plumbing fixture and the flood-level rim of the receptacle.

Apprentice. A person registered as an Apprentice Plumber by the City of Philadelphia.

Approved. In accordance with the regulations of the Department.

Area drain. A drain installed to collect surface or rainwater from an open area. (Also referred to as yard drain.)

Backflow. The flow of water or other liquids into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water from any source or sources other than its intended source, including back-siphonage and flow through a cross connection.

Backflow connection. Any arrangement whereby backflow can occur.

Backflow preventer. A device or means to prevent backflow.

Bona fide address. A genuine and legitimate street address where the Master Plumber conducts his or her business and where he or she can be readily contacted by the Department via telephone, mail or messenger on all regular working days of the Department.

Branch. Any part of a plumbing system other than a main.

Branch vent. A vent connecting one or more vents with a vent stack or stack vent.

Circuit vent. A branch vent that serves two or more traps and extends from in front of the last fixture connection of a horizontal branch to the vent stack.

Combination fixture. A fixture which is an integral combination of a sink and a laundry tray in one fixture.

Combined house drain. A house drain which receives both storm water and sewage.

Combined sewer. A sewer which receives both storm water and sewage. Continuous vent, back vent, fixture vent, or trap vent. A vent that is a straight line continuation of the drain to which it is connected.

Continuous waste. A waste from two or more fixtures connected to a single trap.

Cross connection. Any physical connection or arrangement of pipes between two otherwise separate water supply systems, one of which contains potable water and the other unsafe water or water of unknown or questionable safety, whereby water may flow from one system to the other, the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems, or whereby the potable water may be otherwise contaminated by the questionable water.

Dead end. A branch leading from a soil, waste, vent, or house drain and which is terminated at a developed distance of 2 feet or more by means of a cap, plug or other closed fitting.

Department. The Department of Licenses and Inspections.

Developed length. The length of a line of pipes measured along the center line of the pipes and fittings.

Diameter. Unless otherwise specifically stated, the nominal diameter as designated commercially.

Double offset. Two offsets installed in series in the same line.

Drain. Any pipe which carries waste water, storm water, or water-borne waste in a building drainage system.

Drainage system. All the piping within public or private premises which conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid wastes to a point of disposal. Drainage systems include the house drain, but exclude public sewer systems, private or public sewage-treatment disposal plants, and laterals installed under City ordinance or by an authorized agent of the City.

Dry vent. Any vent that does not carry water or water-borne wastes.

Effective opening. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water-supply discharge, measured or expressed either in terms of the diameter of a circle or equivalent cross-sectional area.

Fixture branch. In a water-supply system, the water-supply pipe between the fixture-supply pipe and the water.

Fixture drain. The drain from the crown trap of a fixture to the junction of that drain with any other vented drain pipe.

Fixture-supply pipe. A water-supply pipe connecting the fixture to the fixture branch at the wall or floor line.

Fixture unit. A design factor so chosen that the load-producing values of the different plumbing fixtures can be approximately expressed as multiples of that factor.

Flood level. In reference to a plumbing fixture, the level at which water begins to overflow the top or rim of the fixture; in reference to roofs, the level at which water begins to discharge to the storm drain.

Flood-level rim. The top edge of the receptacle from which water overflows.

Flushometers. A flush valve directly connected to the water supply system.

Flush valve. An automatic, delayed-action, self-closing valve for flushing water closets and similar fixtures.

Fresh air inlet. A connection to the drainage system to permit the circulation of air through the system.

Frost-proof closet. A closet without an integral trap which has its trap and the control valve for its water supply installed below the frost line.

  1. The rise, fall or slope of a pipe in reference to the horizontal plane. For drainage piping, grade is normally expressed as the rise or fall in inches or fraction thereof per foot of length of pipe.
  2. The lowest adjacent ground level, either front, such as pavement; or rear, such as driveway; or area drain level.

Grease or Oil Interceptor. A receptacle designed to intercept and retain grease, oil or fatty substances contained in kitchen or other wastes, including but not limited to a "grease trap".

Horizontal branch. A branch drain extending laterally from a soil or waste stack, leader, house drain or house storm drain - with or without vertical sections or branches - which receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains or rainwater inlets and conducts it to the respective soil or waste stack, to the house drain, or to the house storm drain.

Horizontal pipe. Any pipe or fitting that is installed in a horizontal position or with a slope less than 3 inches per foot of length.

House drain. That part of the lowest horizontal piping of a building drainage system, including the horizontal branch from the base of a stack connected to the main house drain, which receives the discharge from soil, waste, or other drainage pipes in the building and conveys it to the existing lateral, main sewer, cesspool or septic tank.

House storm drain. A drain used for conveying rainwater, ground water, subsurface water, condensate, cooling water, or other similar discharge to the existing lateral, main sewer, or loose well.

House sub-drain. That portion of a drainage system which cannot drain by gravity into the house drain.

House trap. A running trap installed in the house drain to prevent circulation of gases between the drainage system of the building and the sewer.

Indirect waste pipe. A waste pipe that does not connect directly to the drainage system but which conveys liquid waste by discharging above flood level into a plumbing fixture or receptacle that is directly connected to the drainage system.

Industrial waste. The water-borne wastes of industry or industrial processes.

Interceptor. A receptacle designed and constructed to separate or intercept and prevent the passage of oil, flammable or combustible liquid, grease, sand, or other material into the drainage system to which such receptacle is directly or indirectly connected, including but not limited to a "separator".

Journeyman plumber. A person who has obtained a Journeyman Plumber license from the City of Philadelphia.

Lateral. The piping from the main sewer to the curb line.

Leader. The exterior downspout from the roof to the rainwater conductor.

Loop vent. A circuit vent which loops back and connects with a stack vent.

Main. The principal artery of any system of piping to which branches are connected.

Main sewer. Any sewer owned or maintained by the City.

Master plumber. A person who has obtained a Master Plumber license from the City of Philadelphia.

Minor repairs. The repair of an existing plumbing fixture, including the replacement of faucets or valves or parts thereof with like material or material serving the same purpose; the clearance of stoppages; the stopping of leaks without replacement of water, drainage or vent piping; the relieving of frozen pipes; other minor replacements or repairs, not including changes in the piping to the fixtures or in drainage, vent or water-supply system, other than the aforementioned items, and not including the replacement of any plumbing fixture. Replacement or repair of hot water heaters and hydronic boilers is not considered minor repairs under this section.

Offset. A combination of elbows or bends in a line of piping which brings one section of the pipe out of line with another section.

Plumber. A person registered and licensed to install plumbing.

Plumbing Advisory Board. A Board consisting of individuals appointed by the Mayor who advise the Commissioner of the Department on matters relating to this code and the plumbing industry.

Plumbing fixture. A receptacle which receives water, liquid, or water-borne waste and discharges it into a drainage system to which such receptacle is directly or indirectly connected.

Plumbing system. The water-supply system, fixtures, fixture traps, drainage system, vent system, storm water drainage system, vent devices, appurtenances and connections.

Potable water. Water from a public or individual water supply system or source which has been approved for human consumption, the preparation of food, and ablutionary purposes with respect to humans and food or food service equipment or utensils, as certified by the Pennsylvania Department of Health or by the Philadelphia Department of Health.

Private sewer. Any sewer privately owned and maintained and not directly controlled by the City.

Rainwater conductor. That portion of pipe which is outside of a building connecting a "Leader" or which is inside of a building conducting storm water from the roof to the main drain or storm sewer. (See "Leader".)

Relief vent. A branch vent connected to a horizontal branch between the first fixture drain and the soil or waste stack to prevent back pressure on the trap seals.

Return offset. A double offset installed so as to return the pipe to its original alignment.

Rim: The unobstructed open edge of a fixture.

Riser: A water-supply pipe which extends vertically one full story or more to convey water to branches or fixtures.

Sand interceptor. An interceptor primarily intended to intercept sand or earth, including but not limited to a "sand trap".

Sanitary sewer. A sewer which carries sewage or industrial waste and excludes storm, surface and ground water.

Sewage: Any liquid waste from buildings or premises which contains animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution, or liquids containing minerals in solution from laboratories or industrial establishments.

Single soil or waste stack system. A soil or waste stack that has individual fixture drains, individual blind closet bends, individual closet bends with two separate fixture drains connected to the closet bend, and a uniformly-sized horizontal soil or waste branch with two or more fixtures and which is vented by either a branch vent or a loop vent connected to the soil or waste stack at any branch interval.

Size of pipe or tubing. The nominal size that pipe or tubing is commercially designated.

Slant. An outlet connection, at the main sewer for receiving storm or sanitary waste from the lateral.

Soil pipe. Any pipe, except an individual fixture drain 8 feet or less in length, which conveys the discharge of water closets or plumbing fixtures having similar functions, with or without the discharge from other fixtures.

Stack. A general term for the vertical main of a system of soil, waste, or vent piping.

Stack vent. The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal branch connected to the stack.

Storm drain. A drain used for conveying rainwater, subsurface water, condensate, cooling water, or similar discharges and which is connected to a storm sewer or other approved place of disposal.

Storm sewer. A sewer which receives discharge from storm drains or surface, subsurface, or storm water from the ground, streets, roofs, or other areas, including street wash, but not including sewage or untreated liquid industrial waste.

Subsoil drain. A drain installed for collecting subsurface or seeping water and conveying it to a place of disposal.

Sump. A tank or pit which receives the discharge from drains or other wastes, and from which the discharge is pumped, ejected or otherwise mechanically propelled into a drainage system.

Trap. A fitting or device so designed and constructed as to provide a liquid seal which will prevent the back passage of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it.

Trap seal. The vertical distance between the crown weir and the dip of the trap.

Vent stack. A vertical pipe installed primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air to or from any part of the drainage system, including but not limited to a "main vent".

Vent system. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and backpressure.

Waste pipe. Any pipe, except an individual fixture drain 12 feet or less in length, which receives the discharge of any fixture, except water closets or similar fixtures, and conveys it to the house drain, soil, or waste stack.

Water distribution pipe. The pipe from the curb stop to the building or premises.

Water main. A water supply pipe for public or community use.

Water outlet. The water discharge opening as used in connection with the water-distribution system.

Water-service pipe. The pipe from the water main to the curb stop.

Water-supply pipes. The pipes in a building which convey water from the water distribution pipe to the plumbing fixtures or other outlets.

Water-supply system. The water-service pipe, the water distribution pipe, the water-supply pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves, tanks, water heaters, water filtering or treatment equipment, and all appurtenances forming part of the system for supplying water to plumbing fixtures or other water outlets on the premises.

Wet vent. A waste pipe that serves also as a vent.

Yoke vent. A pipe connection directly below a flat offset and paralleling the horizontal line and soil stack and connecting into the stack vent or vent stack above the highest fixture.
The following abbreviations apply where used in this code:

ANSI: American National Standards Institute.
ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials.
AWS: American Welding Society.
AWWA: American Water Works Association.
CABO: Council of American Building Officials.
CSA: Canadian Standards Association.
CISPI: Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute.
FS: Federal Specifications.
NSF: National Sanitation Foundation.
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
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